Course of Study of the Oakland High School by Oakland . Board of Education

COURSE OF STUDY
OF THE
OAKLAND HIGH SCHOOL

Oakland, California
July, 1912

3

INDEX

PAGE
Algebra, Elementary 34
Algebraic Theory 35
Botany 37
Chemistry 39
Choral, Advanced 49
Choral, Elementary 49
Civics 32
Composition 22
Composition, Oral 28
Course of Study in Outline 4, 5, 6
Designing 51
Drama 20
Drawing 51
Drawing, Freehand 51
Drawing, Freehand Advanced 51
Drawing, Geometric 51
Drawing, Industrial Arts 51
Drawing, Mechanical 51
Economics 33
English 7
English Literature 7
French 47
Geometry, Plane 34
Geometry, Solid 35
German 44
Greek 41
Gymnasium 52
Harmony 49
History 31
History, Ancient 31
History, English 32
History, General 31
History, Medieval and Modern 32
History, United States 32
Hygiene and Physical Education 52
Latin 42
Literature, English 7
Mathematics 34
Music 49
Music, Composition 49
Music, History of 49
Physical Education and Hygiene 52
Physical Geography 37
Physics, Brief Course 39
Physics, Full Course 39
Physiology and Hygiene 38
Public Speaking 19
Science 37
Trigonometry 35
Zoology 38
4

Outline of Course of Study

COURSE I. COURSE II.
Preparatory to the University of California in the Colleges of Letters, Social Sciences, Natural Sciences, Commerce, Agriculture, and the five-year courses in the Colleges of Mechanics, Mining, Civil Engineering and Chemistry, and the course of Architecture. Preparatory to the University of California in the four-year courses in the Colleges of Mechanics, Mining, Civil Engineering, and Chemistry.
FIRST YEAR English English
Algebra Algebra
Foreign Lang. Ancient or Modern (see Note 1) Foreign Language
Elective Freehand Drawing
SECOND YEAR English English
Geometry Geometry
Foreign Lang. Ancient or Modern (see Note 1) Foreign Language
Elective Geometrical Drawing
THIRD YEAR Foreign Lang. Ancient or Modern (see Note 1) English or Foreign Language
Elective Chemistry
Elective Mathematics
Science Elective
(Any 3rd or 4th year Science if preferred, Science may be taken in the 4th instead of the 3rd year.)
Foreign Lang. Ancient or Modern (see Note 1)
FOURTH YEAR U. S. History and Civics English or Foreign Language
Elective U. S. History and Civics
Elective Physics
(Science must be taken in this year, if not already taken in the third year.) Mathematics
5 COURSE III. ELECTIVES
General Course, not preparatory to the University. At least three years’ work in each of three of the following groups of subjects is required for graduation from the general course: English, History, Mathematics, Foreign Languages, Science, Music and Drawing. Starred subjects are not included in the General List of Preparatory subjects for admission to the University of California.
FIRST YEAR English *Choral I
Elective (See Note 3) Algebra
Elective General History
Elective Ancient History
Freehand Drawing
German I
French I
Latin I
General Science
SECOND YEAR English Choral II
Elective Botany
Elective Plane Geometry
Elective Med. and Mod. History
Geometrical Drawing or *Designing
German II
French II
Latin II
Greek I August
THIRD YEAR English (see Note 2) Elements of Harmony
Elective *Economics
Elective *Dramatics
Elective Chemistry
English History
*Applied Designing
*Advanced Freehand Drawing
Solid Geometry ½
Trigonometry ½
English III
German I or III
French I
Latin I or III
Greek I or II August
*History of Art
Zoology
*Argumentation
Advanced Algebra ½
*Public Speaking
FOURTH YEAR U. S. History and Government History of Music
Elective *Economics
Elective Physiology and Hygiene
Elective Physics
Advanced Algebra ½
*Argumentation
English IV
German II or IV
French II or IV
Latin II or IV
Greek II or III August
*Astronomy ½
Solid Geometry ½
Trigonometry ½

6In addition to the subjects on preceding pages, a certain amount of Physical Culture will be required of all students. Hygiene is prescribed for all girls in the second year.

Pupils preparing to enter one of the California State Normal Schools are advised to register for Course I or Course II.

Note 1. The University of California will accept either Ancient or Modern Languages or both for admission. But since the University requires Latin for graduation from the Colleges of Letters and Social Sciences, and does not offer instruction in the first two years of high school Latin, students preparing to enter these Colleges must take at least two years of Latin. Latin is not required for admission to or graduation from other colleges.

Note 2. In the General Course, Third Year English will be required of all students who do not take at least two years of Foreign Language.

Note 3. One year of Science is required for graduation from the General Course. It may be taken in any year of the course.

Note 4. In electing Sciences and Music, students may choose electives from the preceding or succeeding year as well as from electives for the year in which the student is registered. General Science, if taken, must precede any other science. One year science will be required for graduation from any four-year course.

Note 5. A student will not be allowed to take more than the equivalent of four recitations per day unless by special agreement between the principal and the student’s parents.

Note 6. Except as provided in Note 7, sixteen credits, each requiring at least two forty-five-minute periods per day for recitations and preparation for one year will be required for graduation.

Note 7. One of the sixteen credits required under Note 6 will be granted for work in literary, athletic or other student activities (including debating, and choral and orchestral music) in student societies operating under the supervision of the principal or some faculty member designated by him. This credit shall be granted under rules established by the principal.

Note 8. No class shall be organized or maintained in the first or second year of any high school unless at the beginning of the year there shall be enrolled in the class not less than twenty-five students, provided that in the second year a course, which is a continuance of a first year course, may be maintained if not less than twenty students are enrolled therein.

Note 9. No class shall be organized or maintained in the third or fourth year of any high school unless at the beginning of the year there shall be enrolled in the class not less than fifteen students, provided that no class shall be suspended unless the same subject is being given in some other high school in this city.

Note 10. When any course is given in more than one high school, there shall be uniformity in text-books, and in the content of the course of study pursued.

7

COURSE OF STUDY

ENGLISH.

LITERATURE COURSE.

Aims

1. To arouse an interest in the best that has been written by making students enjoy their English work.

2. By means of this interest in the best, to help develop right ideals of thought and action.

3. To train in intelligent, appreciative reading; viz., to be able to get the writer’s thought and to acquire some standards of judgment as to what constitutes true literature.

Divisions.

1. Literature studied in class.

2. Collateral reading done in connection with the literature studied and under the general direction of the teacher.

3. Reading selected at will from a general list, composed not necessarily of masterpieces, but of wholesome books interesting to young people, the purpose being to encourage reading and to furnish suggestions as to what is worth while.

NINTH YEAR.

First Term.

Literature Studied.

  • The Iliad, Books 1, 6, 22 and 24. Bryant’s Translation.
  • The Odyssey. Complete. Palmer’s Translation.
  • Antigone.

Collateral Reading. Selections from the following:

  • The Iliad (At least four more books.) Homer.
  • Wonder Book. Hawthorne.
  • Tanglewood Tales. Hawthorne.
  • Greek Heroes. Kingsley.
  • Earthly Paradise. Morris.
  • The Æneid. Virgil.
  • Masque of Pandora. Longfellow.
  • Iphigenia in Aulis. Euripides.
  • Iphigenia in Tauris. Euripides.
  • Alcestis. Euripides.
  • 8Ulysses. Stephen Phillips.
  • Balaustion’s Adventure. Browning.
  • Pheidippides. Browning.
  • Rhoecus. Lowell.
  • Out of the Northland. Child.
  • Old Testament Stories.
  • The Song of Roland.
  • The Niebelungenlied.
  • Beowulf. Child.

Method.

1. Introduction to Greek life and thought, especially of religion. (Talks by the teacher and reports by students on topics assigned.)

2. Reading of the most important stories of the gods and older heroes. (Teach in connection with 1 and 2, the use of reference books.)

3. Reading of literature assigned, (1) for interest in story; (2) in characters; (3) in customs of the times; (4) in heroic ideals; (5) for fine lines. Try to recreate the Homeric life and to bring out the elements of permanence.

4. Enough attention to allusions and meanings of words to insure intelligent reading, but no more.

5. Study the “Antigone” broadly for story and characters, and to arouse an interest in the difference between the Greek and modern play, but avoid technicalities here. Develop the ability to find fine lines.

6. Occasional reports, oral and written, on allied subjects; such as, Greek temples, sacrifices, the priesthood, famous festivals, or on collateral reading.

NINTH YEAR.

Second Term.

Literature Studied.

1. Horatius, Macaulay’s Lays. Old English Ballads. Sohrab and Rustum, Matthew Arnold, or Lady of the Lake, Scott.

2. Prose Literature for Secondary Schools. Ashmun.

3. One of the following novels:

  • Treasure Island. Stevenson.
  • Kidnapped. Stevenson.
  • Ivanhoe. Scott.
  • Quentin Durward. Scott
  • The Talisman. Scott.

9Collateral Reading.

(Selected)

  • Lady of the Lake. Scott.
  • Lay of the Last Minstrel. Scott.
  • Marmion. Scott.
  • Lays of Ancient Rome. Macaulay.
  • The Boys’ King Arthur. Lanier.
  • Tales of a Grandfather. Scott.
  • Kenilworth. Scott.
  • Woodstock. Scott.
  • Rob Roy. Scott.
  • David Copperfield. Dickens.
  • Old Curiosity Shop. Dickens.

Method.

First Group.

1. Read for interest in story and character. Never lose sight of this.

2. Work to develop the pictorial imagination. The method of the drama will help; i. e., set the scene, describe accurately the actors, dress them appropriately, imagine facial expression, tone of voice, gesture and action.

3. Stimulate discussion on characters and motives actuating them.

4. Occasional close work on fine descriptive passages. Image them accurately. Bring out by this effort the obvious differences between poetic and prose diction, but no special study of this here.

5. Connect with the preceding term’s work when possible, by comparison of the heroic ideals with those of the Greeks.

Second Group.

Follow the general trend of the suggestions given in the text. The aim is to arouse an interest in prose devoid of strong story element.

Third Group.

Follow the general directions for the study of the first group. Give simple training in the development of a plot, but keep this subordinate to interest in the story and characters.

10TENTH YEAR.

Second Term.

Special Aim of the Term.

To teach to read poetry with enjoyment, and to show that poetical expression is an addition to beautiful thought.

Literature Studied.

First Half Term.

  • The Vision of Sir Launfal. Lowell.
  • The Forsaken Merman. Arnold, or
  • King Robert of Sicily. Longfellow.
  • The Ancient Mariner. Coleridge.

Second Half Term.

  • The Merchant of Venice. Shakespeare.
  • Sesame and Lilies (King’s Treasuries). Ruskin.

Collateral Reading.

Any narrative and descriptive verse rich in ethical and poetical beauty; such as,

  • Enoch Arden. Tennyson.
  • Snow Bound. Whittier.
  • The Eve of St. Agnes. Keats.
  • The Golden Legend. Longfellow.
  • Tales of a Wayside Inn. Longfellow.
  • Drifting. Buchanan Read.
  • The Closing Scene. Buchanan Read.
  • Nature Lyrics. Lowell.
  • Twelfth Night. Shakespeare.
  • Midsummer Night’s Dream. Shakespeare.
  • The Tempest. Shakespeare.
  • As You Like It. Shakespeare.
  • The Alhambra. Irving.
  • Travels with a Donkey. Stevenson.
  • An Inland Voyage. Stevenson.
  • South Sea Idyls. Stoddard.
  • Lorna Doone. Blackmore.

Method.

1. Simple presentation of the differences between poetry and prose;

(1)11
in purpose,
(2)
in thought (subject),
(3)
in choice and use of words,
(4)
in sound.

2. Short drill on selected figures, principally of imagination. Choose only those rich in meaning and within the range of the experience of the class. Work to bring out the gain from the figure.

3. Present the music side of poetry—rhythm, meter, rhyme (including alliteration), and give a drill on various selections to train the ear.

4. “Vision of Sir Launfal.” Study for beauty of thought, ethical content and its application to modern life, and beauty of pictures and figures. Give much attention to the visualizing power. Try to show that the poetic language and form are a gain.

5. Study of other narratives on same general plan. If time permit, study a few lyrics rich in content and poetic beauty, such as Tennyson’s “Lotus Eaters,” or Shelley’s “Skylark;” (1) for thought; (2) for beauty of word usage; (3) for melody.

6. “Merchant of Venice.” Study (1) for what happens—the sequence of events and their relation to each other; (2) for a knowledge of the characters and the motives actuating them; (3) for fine lines; (4) for strongest and most beautiful scenes; (5) for beauty of language, noting scenes richest in poetic expression and its appropriateness; (6) for structure; i.e., the major and minor stories and their relation to each other. Throughout the whole emphasize the fact that the play is a picture of human life; make the characters and the scenes real.

7. “Sesame and Lilies.” Study to stimulate thought and to arouse a further interest in fine literature. Train in the way to read prose; i. e., the finding of the main thought (topic sentence), and tracing its growth in the paragraph; also the necessity for knowing the real significance of the words used.

TENTH YEAR.

Second Term.

Literature Studied.

First Half Term.

  • Continuation of the study of the drama Julius Caesar.

Second Half Term.

Training in careful, intelligent reading of prose, expository and argumentative.

  • 12Public Duty of Educated Men. Curtis.
  • International Arbitration. Schurz.
  • Salt. Van Dyke.
    • (From Shurter’s Masterpiece of Modern Oratory).
  • First Bunker Hill Oration. Webster.

Collateral Reading.

  • Richard II. and III. Shakespeare.
  • Henry V. Shakespeare.
  • Coriolanus. Shakespeare.
  • Henry IV. Shakespeare.
  • The Jew of Malta. Marlowe.
  • Richelieu. Bulwer-Lytton.
  • The Plymouth Oration. Webster.
  • The Second Bunker Hill Oration. Webster.
  • The Eulogy on Adams and Jefferson. Webster.
  • (Other speeches from Shurter’s Masterpieces).

Method.

1. “Julius Caesar.” Same general treatment as with “Merchant of Venice,” with more emphasis on study of plot—the conflicting interests, the threads of action, character groups, character contrast, the division in the plot, the important moments—but never emphasize technique at the expense of study of the play as a picture of life. Much memorizing of fine lines.

2. Prose. (1) Find main thought of each paragraph (topic sentence) and trace its growth, noting the method of development when clear; (2) group related paragraphs and note relation of different groups to each other; (3) note introductory, transitional, summarizing and concluding paragraphs; (4) show further the necessity for a clear, definite content for each word and a knowledge of references. Owing to the difficulty of this work, it is well at first for teachers to study with the class, in order to arouse interest in the thought and prevent discouragement. Power to work independently will soon grow.

ELEVENTH YEAR.

First Term.

Literature Studied.

1. Continuation of work of the tenth year with poetry.

  • The Idylls of the King. Tennyson.
    • The Coming of Arthur.
    • 13Gareth and Lynette.
    • The Holy Grail.
    • The Passing of Arthur.

2. Study of a novel.

  • Silas Marner. George Eliot, or
  • The Tale of Two Cities. Dickens.

3. Study of the Essay.

  • Autobiography and Lay Sermons. Huxley, or
  • Warren Hastings. Macaulay.

Collateral Reading.

  • The Idylls of the King (Enid, Elaine, and Guinievere).
  • The Princess. Tennyson.
  • The Lady of Shalott. Tennyson.
  • Sir Galahad. Tennyson.
  • Merlin and the Gleam. Tennyson.
  • The Light of Asia. Edwin Arnold.
  • Balder Dead. Matthew Arnold.
  • Lord Clive. Macaulay.
  • Life of Johnson. Macaulay.
  • The Americanism of Washington. Van Dyke.
  • Latter Day Saints and Sinners. Ross.
  • The Life of Lincoln. Schurz.
  • Fisherman’s Luck. Van Dyke.
  • Adventures in Friendship. Grayson.
  • Adventures in Contentment. Grayson.
  • Out of the East. Lafcadio Hearn.
  • My Summer in a Garden. Warner.
  • Reveries of a Bachelor. Mitchell.
  • Dream Children. Mitchell.

Method.

1. Idylls of the King. Study for (1) nobility of thought and ideals of life; (2) beauty of pictures; (3) imagery and word usage; (4) blank verse and noticeable sound effects. Make special effort as in the first half of the tenth year, to develop the imagination and an appreciation of the gain from beautiful expression.

2. The novel. (1) Train in open-eyed reading; the story and the characters should be known thoroughly. (2) Aim to enlarge the experience by acquaintance with new motives and actions. (3) Seek for the underlying ideas in the story and for the working out of great laws. (4) Study of structure as in the drama.

143. The Essay. Continue paragraph work of the tenth year, second half, with new emphasis on kinds of paragraph development. Distinguish between narrative, descriptive, and expository paragraphs, and the methods of development in each. Begin the study of prose style; i.e., rhetorical sentences and their value: studiously long and short sentences, periodic sentences, antithesis and climax; also study vocabulary, especially, in Macaulay, the use of concrete terms and their value. Select striking paragraphs for close work on style, and study to discover method.

ELEVENTH YEAR.

Second Term.

Literature Studied.

American Literature.

1. Poetry. Class work on selected poems of Bryant, Poe, Longfellow, Emerson, Whittier, Holmes, Lowell, Walt Whitman.

2. The Novel.

  • House of Seven Gables. Hawthorne, or
  • Marble Faun. Hawthorne, or
  • Rise of Silas Lapham. Howells.

3. The Short Story. Hawthorne and Poe.

4. The Essay. One of the following:

  • Fortune of the Republic. Emerson.
  • The American Scholar. Emerson.
  • Compensation. Emerson.
  • Democracy. Lowell.

Collateral Reading.

  • Franklin. Autobiography.
  • Sketch Book. Irving.
  • The Alhambra. Irving.
  • Knickerbocker History of New York. Irving.
  • Last of the Mohicans, or any other novel. Cooper.
  • Lesser poets of the Creative Period:
    • Aldrich.
    • Bayard Taylor.
    • Buchanan Read.
    • Alice and Phoebe Cary.
    • Holland.
  • 15Later Poets:
    • Lanier.
    • Bret Harte.
    • Edward Rowland Sill.
    • Helen Hunt.
    • Eugene Fields.
    • James Whitcomb Riley.
    • Richard Watson Gilder.
    • Edwin Markham.
  • The Man Without a Country. Edward Everett Hale.
  • The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table. Holmes.
  • Walden. Thoreau.

Method.

The course is to be taught historically, by means of lectures, class study of the most important authors, and much collateral reading. The purpose is to arouse an interest and pride in America’s literary product, therefore the work is taught more broadly than in preceding terms. Preface the course with a brief consideration of what is meant by the term literature, and with a review of simple poetics as a basis for the future study of poetry.

1. Poetry. Select for study poems not usually read in the grammar school, unless the well known have a content of growing interest; examples: Longfellow’s Keramos, Amalfi, Morituri Salutamis; Lowell’s Commemoration Ode; Emerson’s Each and All.

2. The novel. Same plan as in preceding term.

3. The short story. Develop (1) the characteristics of a successful short story; (2) the differences between this and a novel; (3) the various types of short story; (4) some definite standards of judgment for future use.

4. The essay. Read mainly to stimulate thought on life.

5. Make the collateral reading an important part of this course. Have outside reading done on each author studied and on others for whom there is not time for class work. Help toward intelligent, appreciative reading by assigning special topics on the literature read, and give occasional recitation periods to oral reports.

6. Have occasional oral readings from authors not studied in class, especially the best of the later poets. This may be done frequently in five-minute exercises at the beginning of the recitations.

7. Put early into the hands of the students a classified list of the best American authors. Stimulate in every possible way the desire to read.

16TWELFTH YEAR.

General Purpose for the Year.

(1) To unify the work of the preceding terms. (2) To give a rapid survey of the whole field of English Literature. (3) To study selected masterpieces characteristic of the various periods. (4) To learn the characteristics of the chief literary types. (5) To read as broadly as possible in each period. Collateral reading here runs parallel with class work.

First term.

Literature Studied.

  • History of English Literature to 18th Century.
  • Prologue to the Canterbury Tales. Chaucer.
  • Review of the Old English Ballads.
  • Macbeth. Shakespeare.
  • L’Allegro and Il Penseroso. Milton.
  • Comus. Milton, or
  • Paradise Lost, Books 1 and 2. Milton.
  • Lycidas. Milton.
  • Sonnet on His Blindness. Milton.
  • Alexander’s Feast. Dryden.

Collateral Reading.

  • The epic—Beowulf (at least two-thirds).
  • The tale—One of Chaucer’s, preferably the Knight’s Tale.
  • The drama—King Lear. Shakespeare, or
    • Hamlet. Shakespeare, or
    • Othello. Shakespeare, or
    • The Jew of Malta. Marlowe, or
    • Doctor Faustus. Marlowe.
  • The song—Palgrave’s Golden Treasury. Books 1 and 2.
  • The essay—Essays selected. Bacon.
  • The allegory—Pilgrim’s Progress (Part I). Bunyan.
  • The elegy—Elegy in a Country Churchyard. Gray.
    • Adonais. Shelley.
    • Thrysis. Matthew Arnold.
    • In Memoriam. Tennyson.
    • Thanatopsis. Bryant.

Method.

In general study broadly to stimulate a desire for further acquaintance 17with literature, but whenever made possible by the work in hand, review and sum up principles emphasized throughout preceding terms.

Chaucer. Read (1) for a picture of the times; (2) to discover his broad humanity; (3) for his humor and satire; (4) for his literary method. Do not attempt to teach pronunciation or grammar, but insist on smooth, intelligent translation.

The Ballads. Read to find the characteristics of ballad literature. Compare with the literary ballad; such as, The Ancient Mariner, Scott’s Rosabelle, or Rossetti’s White Ship.

Macbeth. Read principally for great ethical lessons. Emphasize character development. Have only so much close study as is necessary for the understanding of the action and characters. Teach as dramatically as possible; imagine stage setting, tone of voice, facial and bodily expression, action—in order to enter into the play. Select passages noticeable for beauty or power of expression and test appropriateness.

Paradise Lost. Study as dramatically as possible. Do no line-by-line study. Get the story, the character of Satan with its mixture of good and evil, the fine pictures and imagery. Mark fine thoughts, also examples of loftiness and sublimity, of color and splendor, and of varying melody.

Comus. Study as an example of the masque, keeping the dramatic element prominent. Set the scenes, imagine stage accessories suggested by the lines; such as, costumes, lights, tableaux, music. Show differences between this and the fully developed drama. Do the same kind of work as in “Paradise Lost” with fine thoughts and beautiful expressions. Show the lyric element here and its appropriateness.

Lycidas. Preface with the reading of examples of the classic pastoral elegy, in order to familiarize students with the pastoral style and so remove some of the difficulties. (See Baldwin’s “Famous Elegies” for translations of Theocritus, Bion, and Moschus). This poem has real difficulties for young students, therefore the teacher must give wise assistance in mastering it, or it will fail to make an appeal. Note the beautiful variation of melody. Show the effect of alliterative and assonantal rhyme and the grouping and alternation of consonant and vowel sounds, with resulting changes in music. At the close of the study of the poem, make a comparative study of it and Gray’s Elegy to show the difference between the personal and the general elegy.

18Alexander’s Feast. Study (1) as an imitation of the heroic ode; (2) as an example of effective wedding of sound and sense.

Second Term.

Literature Studied.

  • History of English Literature from 18th century to present.
  • Sir Roger de Coverley Papers. Addison & Steel.
  • The Deserted Village. Goldsmith.
  • The Vicar of Wakefield. Goldsmith.
  • Elegy in a Country Churchyard. Gray.
  • Lyrics. Burns, Wordsworth, Shelley, Keats, and Byron.
  • Essays of Elia. Lamb.
  • Joan of Arc. De Quincey, or
  • Essay on Burns. Carlyle.
  • Selected Poems. Tennyson, Arnold, Browning.

Collateral Reading.

  • She Stoops to Conquer. Goldsmith.
  • The Rape of the Lock. Pope.
  • Essay on Man (Selections). Pope.
  • Essay on Johnson. Macaulay, or
  • Essay on Addison. Macaulay.
  • The Newcomes. Thackeray.
  • Henry Esmond. Thackeray.
  • One novel. Dickens.
  • One novel other than “Silas Marner.” Geo. Eliot.
  • Essay on Burns. Carlyle, or
  • Heroes and Hero Worship (Selections). Carlyle, or
  • Essay on Wordsworth. Matthew Arnold.

Method.

In general, treat the literature studied broadly, to leave in the mind by the end of the term a liking for it and a desire for more. Do only enough minute study to insure intelligent, appreciative reading and to prevent carelessness.

Sir Roger de Coverley Papers. Preface with topical work on the character of the 18th century. (See “Social Life in the Reign of Queen Anne” by Ashton). Read to the class the “Rape of the Lock” as a picture of the times. Study the De Coverley Papers (1) as a picture of the times; (2) for the character of Sir Roger and reasons for its life; (3) for method of character delineation; (4) for method of teaching; (5) for examples of humor and satire; (6) for observations of human nature. Select some expository paper for close 19study of structure: introduction and conclusion, paragraph development, coherence.

Gray, Goldsmith, Burns. Study to discover characteristic features of the “Romantic Revival,” and survivals of 18th century style. Try to show by Burns’ lyrics and by a return to 16th century lyrics the essential characteristics of the song.

The Vicar of Wakefield. Rapid study of humorous situations, lovableness of the characters, kindliness and gentleness of the author, elements of permanence. Comparison with some later novel.

Shelley, Keats, Byron. Closer attention to the beauties of poetic expression and its relation to the thought: pictures, figures, color and sound words, meter, rhyme effects.

Review by the end of the term the main periods of English Literature, their distinguishing characteristics, and the great names of each, also the main literary types.

PUBLIC SPEAKING.

Prerequisite.

Two years of English. May be substituted for either term of the 11th year or taken in addition to the regular course.

Texts.

  • Extempore Speaking. Shurter.
  • Manual of Argumentation. Laycock and Spofford.
  • Manual of Parliamentary Law. Gregg.

Method.

First Half Term.

1. Training in simple parliamentary law.

2. Practice in reading and reciting speeches of others.

3. Original speeches, prepared and extempore, such as, speeches of introduction, nomination, presentation, acceptance, eulogy, farewell, toasts.

4. Reading of oratorical masterpieces, especially modern ones, and class discussion as to strength and weakness, elements of success and failure.

5. An original oration.

Method.

Second Half Term.

1.
Study of the theory of argument.

20
2.
Conciliation with the Colonies. Burke.
Speech on Reform Bill. Macaulay.
Reply to Hayne. Webster.
Study Burke for structure, logical arrangement, force of reasoning, different kinds of arguments. Study Macaulay and Webster as different types of oratory.
3.
Making of briefs.
4.
Practice in argument and debate.

STUDY OF THE DRAMA.

Time.

One-half year.

Credit.

One-half unit.

Prerequisite.

Two years of English.

May be substituted for either of 11th year English courses, or taken with either term of the regular 11th or 12th year work.

Aim.

1. To awaken in the student a taste for that which is essentially good in the drama, both as to content and form.

2. To acquaint the student with so much of the history and technique of the drama as is necessary for intelligent study.

Contents of Course.

Plays studied.

1.
Antigone. Sophocles, or
Alcestis. Euripides.
2.
Everyman.
3.
Hamlet. Shakespeare.
Twelfth Night. Shakespeare, or some other Shakespearean tragedy or comedy.
4.
She Stoops to Conquer. Goldsmith, or
The School for Scandal. Sheridan.
5.
The Doll’s House. Ibsen.
6.
Trelawney of the Wells. Pinero, or
Sweet Lavender. Pinero, or
The Cabinet Minister. Pinero.
7.
The Land of the Heart’s Desire. Yeats.

21
8.
The Only Way. (Dramatization of Dickens’ Tale of Two Cities), or
Oliver Twist.

Collateral Reading.

Selected plays from the following:

  • Agamemnon. Æschylus.
  • Alcestis. Euripides.
  • The Frogs. Aristophanes.
  • The Captives. Plautus.

Early English Plays:

  • Sacrifice of Isaac.
  • Noah’s Flood.
  • Secunda Pastorum.
  • The Jew of Malta. Marlowe.
  • Knights of the Burning Pestle. Beaumont & Fletcher.
  • Alexander and Campaspe. Lyly.
  • Shoemaker’s Holiday. Dekker.
  • As You Like It. Shakespeare.
  • Midsummer Night’s Dream. Shakespeare.
  • The Tempest. Shakespeare.
  • Henry V. Shakespeare.
  • School for Scandal. Sheridan.
  • The Rivals. Sheridan.
  • The Good Natured Man. Goldsmith.
  • Lady of Lyons. Lytton.
  • Becket. Tennyson.
  • Blot in the Scutcheon. Browning.
  • Caste. Robertson, or
  • School. Robertson (for type of new realistic school).
  • London Assurance. Boucicault (for reversion to 18th century comedy of manners).
  • His House in Order. Pinero.
  • The Magistrate. Pinero.
  • Judah. Jones.
  • Doll’s House. Ibsen.
  • Pillars of Society. Ibsen.
  • An Enemy to the People. Ibsen.
  • Ulysses. Stephen Phillips.
  • The Blue Bird. Maeterlinck.
  • The Piper. Peabody.
  • The Servant in the House. Kennedy.
  • Strife. Galsworthy.
  • Riders to the Sea. Synge.

22Outline of Class Work.

1. Origin and development of drama among the Greeks; study of a play from the period of their highest literary achievement.

2. Brief consideration of the forerunners of the modern English drama; (1) miracle plays, (2) moralities, (3) early English farces, (4) pre-Shakespearean drama. Examples of types (2) and (4) studied.

3. Shakespearean Drama: study of one each of the comedy and tragedy (those not studied in the regular English courses).

4. Brief review of the history of the drama from the beginning of the 17th to the end of the 18th century. Study of one of the best types of 18th century comedy.

5. Important phases of 19th century drama considered. Study of a transition type.

6. The contemporary drama; its broad range as to both matter and manner opening great possibilities—of achievement for the dramatist, of education for the audience.

Method.

In accordance with the aims as stated, the technical side of the work will, for the most part, be presented by the teacher in the form of concise notes, in order to leave as much time as possible for direct, appreciative study of plays.

The collateral reading is to be used as illustrative material and for comparison.

Scenes will be studied and presented by students in the classroom, with occasional public (school) presentations. Students realize dramatic values by this means.

Toward the end of the term, students will be encouraged to attempt the construction of original plays or dramatization of parts of novels and stories.

WRITTEN COMPOSITION.

The work in composition is so planned as to draw help from the literature course, but is not based upon it. One period a week in all classes except Public Speaking and Dramatics is devoted to the work.

General Suggestions.

1. Work from the whole to the parts; that is, begin with the whole composition, and work to the paragraph and sentence.

2. While emphasizing in different terms some one particular kind of composition, do not limit the work wholly to that form.

233. Make the course cumulative; that is, refer to and emphasize, wherever possible, principles learned in former terms.

4. In all work, oral and written, whether formal compositions, examinations or recitations, develop a feeling for organization and arrangement of thoughts.

5. Encourage expression of the student’s interest, but try to guide and broaden it. Seek to develop the power to observe accurately; also to awaken the imagination.

6. Try constantly to enlarge the student’s vocabulary.

7. Insist on correct form, neatness and promptitude. Part of the work of High School English is to form correct habits.

8. Make all criticisms constructive. Have as much personal conference as possible.

NINTH YEAR.

First Term.

Special Work.

1. Composition, chiefly narrative, but no special emphasis on narrative as a form of discourse.

2. Punctuation.

3. Letter-writing.

4. Review of grammar.

Material.

Reproductions of parts of literature read, reports on outside reading, imaginative treatment of subjects suggested by the literature lesson, personal experiences. The following will suggest possible subjects: New nature myths, new hero stories, additional adventures for Ulysses, stories illustrating his various traits of character, new endings to old stories, possible settings for Homeric stories, dialogues between Homeric characters, descriptions of scenes from the Iliad from the point of view of an eye-witness, etc.

Method.

1. Teach from the beginning correct form and habits of neatness and care. While emphasizing these, have most of the work reproductive, in order not to kill spontaneity.

2. Emphasize letter-writing toward the end of the term when the interest has been aroused in other forms of writing. Select for practice only such letters as young people would be apt to write.

3. Begin systematic training in punctuation early, and continue 24with the composition work throughout the term. Teach the use of the comma, quotation marks, especially in dialogue, and the terminal marks. Teach by the logical rather than by the formal method; that is, lead to the examination of the thought in sentences and to punctuation in accordance with it.

4. In review of grammar, use Hitchcock’s “Enlarged Practice Book.” Select chapters treating of the general structure of a sentence, the nature, kinds, and uses of phrases and clauses; also the exercise on common errors of speech. Adapt this work to the special needs of each class. One day a week will be taken for drill if necessary, or it may be omitted, if classes are well prepared.

Second Term.

Begin the study of separate forms of discourse. Teach what rhetoric is, and the reasons for studying it.

Special Work.

1. Narration, with its involved problem of structure.

2. Continued drill on punctuation.

3. Continued drill in grammar if needed.

Method.

1. Begin with narration. Teach during the term the essentials of a successful narrative.

a.
Action (something happening).
b.
Point (an idea, a climax).
c.
Unity (it must hang together).
d.
Style (it must be interesting and entertaining).

Emphasize this kind of work while teaching narrative poetry and prose (the novel), but do not draw subjects from the literature lesson. From this term on, composition work should be original. (See Sampson & Holland’s Composition and Rhetoric for excellent suggestions on teaching narration).

2. While studying Ashmun’s “Prose Literature for Secondary Schools,” follow the general line of composition work there suggested.

3. Punctuation. Teach the use of the semicolon, colon, dash, and exclamation point, and continue drill of preceding term.

4. Simple teaching of paragraph structure; that is, the grouping of similar thoughts together by their relation to a central idea or topic.

5. Toward the end of the term a brief review of letter-writing.

25TENTH YEAR.

First Term.

Special Work.

1. Description, with involved problem of diction.

2. Review of letter-writing.

Method.

1. Begin with comparative work in two kinds of description: scientific and literary; that for information and that for enjoyment. Develop this by the primary essentials of descriptive writing:

a.
Point of view.
b.
Selection of details.
c.
Order and grouping.
d.
Objective and subjective character.
e.
Appropriate diction.

2. Notice of differences will involve a study of diction: synonyms, especially adjectives; figures of speech (simile, metaphor, and personification); words of color, sound, motion, shape, concrete terms.

3. Use as illustrative material examples from scientific writing, text-books, books of travel, novels, verse. Whenever possible, make the literature lessons serve as models, but do not draw from them for subjects. Have all composition original.

4. Later in the term return to narration, and combine with it description of scenery and character.

5. Throw occasional compositions into the form of the friendly letter, using some of the best modern letter writers, such as Stevenson, as models.

TENTH YEAR.

Second Term.

Special Work.

1. Exposition, with involved problem of clearness and order.

2. Word-work, with the purpose of enlarging the vocabulary and developing accuracy in the use of words.

3. Review of letter-writing.

Method.

1. Connect with the preceding term’s work by showing that exposition is description which explains; which shows the general and 26the common rather than the particular and the individual; which omits the personal.

2. Develop the following special points:

Arrangement of material.

A.
Gathering of ideas, either one’s own or those from standard authorities. If the latter, give directions on note-taking.
B.
Selection of material, according to scale of treatment.
C.
Making of outline.

a.
Key sentence or announcement of subject.
b.
Grouping into leading and subordinate points.
c.
Conclusion, with summary where advisable.

Development of material (Paragraph making).

Do no formal work with the paragraph except to teach the importance of the topic sentence as a means toward unity and therefore toward clearness. Insist on a clear topic sentence for each paragraph. Permit any means of development that naturally suggests itself. Encourage the attempt not only to begin paragraphs well, but to end them well.

3. Word-work. Give regular exercises once a week for the first half term on work tending to develop an interest in words and accuracy in their use; such as, exercises in defining, in synonyms (select only such as are apt to be misused), on words with interesting history. In defining insist on correct form and clear distinctions. Vary this work and select with care, so that it will be vital. It is valueless if formal and perfunctory.

4. Review briefly business letters, and such social forms (invitations, acceptances, regrets), as high school students will be apt to need.

ELEVENTH YEAR.

First Term.

The work of the Eleventh year is cumulative, continuing practice in narration, description, and exposition, with new emphasis on style.

Method.

1. While studying the “Idylls of the King” and “Silas Marner,” review narration and description. Insist on the observance of principles learned in earlier terms, but try to arouse an interest in style as a means of increasing effectiveness. Emphasize the difference 27between poetic and prose style, and the limitations of each. Note the use of figurative language in modern prose style. Try to develop the power of suggestiveness. Study the descriptions of place and character in “Silas Marner” from this point of view, and try to interest the class in attempts at imitation.

2. While studying the essay, review exposition. Insist on attention to points learned in the Tenth Year. Carry on paragraph development, with more emphasis on various kinds of paragraphs; as, transitional, summarizing, introductory, and concluding.

3. Give some attention to prose style, especially if Macaulay is being studied. Show the value of various rhetorical forms; such as the balanced sentence, loose and periodic sentences, studiously short sentences, climax, rhetorical questions, also the value of concrete terms. Try to interest students in imitating various styles. Frequent short papers, in each of which some definite point is being worked for, will bring better results both in interest and achievement than less frequent long ones.

Second Term.

Special Work.

Continued review of narration, description, and exposition, with emphasis on style.

Method.

1. Make the review of the first two forms lead up to the writing of a brief short story. Teach this at the same time the short story and novel are being studied. Begin with writing of various settings, introductions, descriptions of person and character, incidents introduced for various purposes, bits of dialogue, and lead up to the complete story.

2. While reviewing exposition, draw subjects from questions of present interest, either local or general, and occasionally from literature work. Reports on collateral reading may be used to teach the writing of a simple, interesting book review, that would lead others to read. Choose subjects here that will not lead to copying other peoples’ ideas. Reject empty, glittering generalities.

3. Have at least one longer piece of exposition this term than has been previously written, preferably on subject of public interest. Correct topical outline personally before the paper is written, showing how it may be improved.

28TWELFTH YEAR.

First Term.

Special Work.

Argumentation with involved problem of force and tact.

Method.

1. Study the general nature of argument, the use of exposition in argument, the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning, the difference between assertion and proof, attack and refutation. Be practical and not technical in this work. Choose subjects calculated to stimulate thought on topics of the day; draw as largely as possible from school life in order to demonstrate the value of the work.

2. Emphasize the value of structure here as well as in pure exposition.

3. Practice in writing of speeches, in whole or in parts; openings, refutations, conclusions, appeals to the feelings.

4. Show the value of appropriate style.

5. Vary the special work of the term by occasional papers on topics suggested by the literature work, provided they are of live interest and such as to provoke discussion.

Second Term.

Special Work.

1. Review of the different forms of writing taught throughout the course, to test power and to unify impressions.

2. Four longer papers than heretofore, one of each kind of discourse.

3. Briefer exercises are needed.

ORAL COMPOSITION.

Definite practice in oral composition extends throughout the entire course. At least once every five weeks each student talks to the class on some subject previously prepared. Increase these exercises whenever time will permit.

General Directions.

1. Have students stand before the class, free from desks or other external support.

2. Subject matter should be prepared, but not memorized. Students may use a small card with headings, but no other notes.

293. The length of the talk may vary from two to three minutes in the Ninth Year, to five of six in succeeding terms, as ideas and ease increase.

4. Material should be drawn from subjects outside the literature lessons. Let the student’s interest determine the subject. Talks may be reproductions of newspaper or magazine articles, of parts of books, or accounts of personal experience, but the wording must be the student’s own.

5. Teachers should emphasize constantly the same principles or order and arrangement of ideas as in written work. The aim is not mere talk, but effective speech.

6. Emphasize interest of the audience as a test of success. Try to arouse an ambition to win this. Teach the gain to a speaker from erect, free posture of the body, ease of manner, command of the audience with the eye, clear enunciation, pleasant voice.

7. Criticism must be sympathetic and kindly, even when corrective. Above all try to arouse ambition to succeed and the will to persevere.

NINTH YEAR.

Anecdotes, stories read, reports on topics connected with Greek life may all be used. The talks may be varied by readings; for instance, selections from Stephen Phillips’ “Ulysses,” read in parts; an act of “Antigone,” or some other Greek play; poems illustrative of the work being studied, or similar work bearing no relation to the literature lessons. The aim is to develop ease and self possession in standing before the class, and interest in trying to hold an audience.

TENTH YEAR.

Material.

Accounts of interesting things seen or done; descriptions of famous events, places of men; accounts of anything of current interest. Try by the search for live material to broaden the students’ interests and to make them more generally intelligent. This may be helped by having suitable subjects for talks submitted every week, even although time will not permit practice in talking that often.

ELEVENTH YEAR.

Material.

Continue the work of the preceding year, with greater emphasis on subjects of present interest. Seek to encourage intelligent reading 30of newspapers by reports on current events. More frequent practice may be obtained by sometimes combining the oral composition work of the second term with the literature work. Reports on authors and works read outside of class, literary pilgrimages to interesting places in America, occasional readings may all be utilized.

TWELFTH YEAR.

Material.

Every Monday throughout the year have reports at the beginning of the period, (1) on events of importance of the preceding week outside of the United States; (2) in the United States outside of California; (3) in California, especially local events of importance. Insist on discriminating selection and judicious condensation. Have subjects of importance expanded into special talks. Use also throughout the year reports on topics suggested by the literature work.

31

HISTORY.

The work in this department has a two fold purpose, namely, training and information. In the first place, the subject is taught with a view to developing breadth of vision, judgment, and an understanding of cause and effect in human affairs. Secondly, the aim is to enable the student better to understand the conditions and problems of the present day by knowing their historical connections. The work is conducted with the constant realization that the highest use of history is to prepare young people to discharge intelligently their many duties as citizens in a democracy.

The courses in the department are as follows:

  • General History. For 9th and 10th grade pupils.
  • Ancient History. For 9th grade pupils.
  • Mediaeval and Modern History. For 10th grade pupils.
  • English History. For 11th grade pupils.
  • United States History and Civics. For 12th grade pupils.
  • Economics. For 11th and 12th grade pupils.

General History.

This course presents, in the simplest way, an outline of the history of our civilization, from its origin to the present day. It aims to help the pupil to understand the causes, geographical, racial, etc., that have led to the rise and decline of nations, and to appreciate the services that these peoples have rendered to mankind. Much attention is given to the great characters of history. An especial effort is made to know the origin and history of existing nations, and to realize that the present is an outgrowth from the past. The course is useful also in helping the pupil to grasp the time and place of the characters and events that he meets in literature and science, and thus it supplies a background for his other studies.

Ancient History.

The courses in Ancient History and in Medieval and Modern History together cover the same ground as the course in General History, but do so more thoroughly and with much greater detail. They are recommended to those who expect to take at least three years of History in the high school. The course in Ancient History covers the 32period from the dawn of history to 800 A. D. It is designed to give the pupil some knowledge of the origin of our civilization. After a short discussion of prehistoric beginnings, a brief study is made of the ancient oriental peoples. The major part of the course is devoted to the history and civilization of Greece and Rome, with especial reference to their influence on the life of the present day.

Medieval and Modern History.

The course in Medieval and Modern History covers the period from A. D. 800 to the present, and is a continuation of the course in Ancient History. Its purpose is to trace the continued development of our modern civilization, and to understand the origin and character of the nations of today. Attention is devoted to economic and social conditions, as well as to political events. Especial emphasis is placed upon the period since Napoleon Bonaparte. A study is made of the governments of the principal European nations, and contemporary problems are discussed in the light of their history. Considerable use is made of current newspapers and periodicals.

English History.

The fundamental principles of our American government, the idea of local independence, of jury trial, of representation, are traced back to English institutions; showing at the same time that these privileges are the result of the persistent contest waged for over six hundred years, which struggle, in fact, is still going on. The conditions in Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and on the Continent of Europe are discussed in connection with the constitutional development, and the economic, political, social, and religious conditions in England. The British Empire is studied in its relation to the other nations of the world, and in the economic and political condition of its colonies and subjects.

United States History and Civics.

The study of the earliest period is planned to show that the work of discovery and exploration has been going on for over four centuries and is still in progress. Economic, political, and religious conditions in Europe are discussed, and related to conditions in America. During the colonial period the principles and the traits which characterized us now as a nation were developed. The importance of the idea of local independence maintained by the colonists against the idea of imperialism held by England is discussed, and followed by a consideration of the significant facts of the Revolution and the process 33by which the loose confederation of states became the constitutional republic, tending toward a vigorous national growth. The problems of transportation, the removal of the Indians, the disposal of the public lands, the struggle of free and of slave labor for the control of the territories, the Civil War; these subjects and others related to them are treated, bearing in mind that today the United States is no longer in isolation, but linked to other nations. The study of the Constitution of the United States, and of the actual workings of the city, state, and national governments, is designed to bring out clearly that the citizen today has new duties and new responsibilities; that the intelligent citizen should be informed concerning the tariff, the trusts, the labor unions, equal suffrage, the peace movement, and other current questions. The Constitution of the State of California, and the Charter of the City of Oakland are given special attention, and visits are made to the City Council, the Board of Supervisors, the Courts, and the State Legislature.

Economics.

Economics deals with the social activities and institutions that result from men’s efforts to procure a livelihood. It studies the means by which nations become rich, and the effects of riches upon the public welfare. The policies of modern government have so much to do with economics that an understanding of economic laws is essential to wise citizenship. The aim of this course is to teach enough of accepted economic theory to enable the student to understand the laws that govern the larger economic questions of today. Mere abstract theories, however, are avoided. A study is made of the evolution of industrial society and the application of economic laws. Emphasis is laid upon the study of consumption, i. e., the best expenditure of the personal and public incomes, and on such dominant questions as Labor, Tariff, Monopolies, Socialism, Taxation. The student is led to realize that as the industrial and economic life of today is the outgrowth of past tendencies, so the wise solution of present vexed economic questions will determine the economic character of the decades to come. Moreover, it is believed that the study of economics, while dealing with matters of great practical importance, tends also to quicken the love of justice and to encourage sanity and moderation of view concerning the value of material wealth.

34

MATHEMATICS.

NINTH YEAR.

Elementary Algebra.

Mechanical skill and accuracy of expression in the formal language of Mathematics are the things emphasized in the first year of Algebra. The course is designed to cover sufficient ground so that the student who studies Algebra for only one year will be able to handle the algebraic processes involved in problems of computation in Geometry and to manipulate formulae, in order that he may read intelligently the popular publications on mechanics. To this end special attention is paid to graphical methods of representation, to the solutions of simple equations in which the unknown may be represented by any letter, and to the solution of the quadratic equation, by the formula method as well as by factoring. Stress is laid upon accuracy of expression, and upon the knowledge of processes, that this elementary work may afford a proper foundation for all future work in Mathematics. Factoring is taught by means of type forms and rules, which the students are required to learn.

The following are the subjects considered: four fundamental operations, linear equations, type product forms, factors, fractions, fractional equations, ratio and proportion, quadratic equations, functionality, simultaneous linear equations (graphical solution), simplification of simple surds. The quadratic equation is used to develop the idea of a variable and of a function of a variable, and to teach graphical methods of solving equations. Stress is laid upon the practical application of the graph to the solution of every day problems.

TENTH YEAR.

Plane Geometry.

Usual theorems and constructions, original exercises, problems of computation.

35ELEVENTH YEAR.

Algebraic Theory.

First Term.

The object of this course is to introduce the student to the Theory of Mathematics; therefore the demonstration of principles is insisted upon. A rigorous treatment of simple laws is required.

The course is designed to meet the needs of two classes of students: those who are preparing for the Engineering Course at the University, and those who, while they are not preparing for college, wish to do advanced work in Mathematics and to acquire a broader knowledge of Algebra than that obtained in the first year. It also prepares the students for the Courses in Trigonometry and Solid Geometry that are to follow.

For the benefit of those students who are not preparing for the University and are not studying mathematics for its own sake, a special effort is made to make the content of the course as rich as possible; that is, to select topics that afford material for mathematical thinking and at the same time have vocational value.

The following are the subjects considered: factors, remainder theorem, factor theorem, fractions, fractional and negative indices, surds, and complex quantities (graphic treatment), theory of quadratic equations, graphs, simultaneous equations, proportion and variation, logarithms.

Second Term.

Either Solid Geometry or Trigonometry. These subjects are begun but once a year. All students finishing two and a half years’ work in Mathematics may take whichever course is offered in the second half of their third year. Original work and solution of practical problems required.

TWELFTH YEAR.

First Term.

Either Solid Geometry or Trigonometry.

Second Term.

This course is a continuation of the work in Algebraic Theory designed especially for engineering students and for others who wish to continue advanced work. The student who is pursuing Mathematics for its vocational value and who does not intend to go to the University need not elect it, since the first term of Algebraic 36Theory, with Solid Geometry and Trigonometry, will give him sufficient equipment. The following topics are studied: synthetic division, simultaneous quadratic equations, special methods for higher equations, determinants, mathematical induction, binomial theorem, summation of series.

37

SCIENCE.

Physical Geography. Regularly a ninth year subject. Time: 7 or 8 periods per week.

First Term.

A study of land forms based on field excursions to points easily accessible afoot or on the street cars. Soil formation and conservation. A study of the physical features of California with their economic consequences, particularly the determination of the routes of railroads, the choice and construction of harbors, quartz and placer gold mining, the development of water power and long-distance electric transmission, lumbering, irrigation, agriculture, horticulture, etc. Tarr’s New Physical Geography, pages 13–172, liberally supplemented by the use of reference books, lantern slides, relief models and topographic maps. Wright’s Manual of Physical Geography.

Second Term.

A study of the simpler elements of weather and climate based on astronomic and other observations and on certain physical and chemical experiments. A study of the great wind belts of the world and regions of excessive, moderate, or deficient rainfall, locating each regionally in the continents. The climatic regions of the United States with particular reference to temperatures, prevailing winds, and rainfall—each as modified by physiographic features and by large bodies of water. A regional study of the United States with particular reference to milling, stock feeding, dairying, slaughtering and packing, iron, coal, lumber. Centers of manufacture with a consideration of methods and lines of transportation both by land and sea, particularly of the transcontinental lines which reach the Pacific Coast. Possible changes on the Pacific Coast due to the opening of the Panama Canal. Tarr’s New Physical Geography, pages 1–12 and 173–430, supplemented by the use of reference books, individual full-mounted globes, wall maps, weather maps, and excursions to the Chabot Observatory and the United States Weather Bureau. Wright’s Manual of Physical Geography.

Botany. Regularly a tenth year subject; but may be taken in the ninth year. Time: 8 periods per week, including double laboratory periods. Laboratory and recitation periods are arranged to suit the topic under consideration.

38The text used in Bergen’s Essentials of Botany. In the main, the order of topics as there given is followed. More experiments in plant physiology are taken than are outlined in the text, and some time is devoted to the study of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon, including the chemistry of combustion. About 24 weeks are devoted to the study of seed plants, and 18 weeks to spore plants. Enough time is devoted to the study of the classification of seed plants to enable a pupil to use a key readily. An herbarium is not required; but the necessary instruction is given, and the pupil is encouraged in the preparation of one if he shows interest in this kind of work. In the study of spore plants particular attention is given to bacteria, yeasts and molds in their relation to household affairs.

Zoology. Regularly an eleventh year subject. Time: 7 or 8 periods per week, including double laboratory periods. It is expected that only one class will be organized in each year, this class to begin with the fall term.

First Term.

Invertebrate zoology, with comparative study of typical forms, e. g., amoeba, paramoecium, sponge, hydra, sea-anaemone, starfish, earthworm, shrimp, crab, etc. Special attention is given to beneficial and injurious insects.

Second Term.

Vertebrate zoology, with comparative study of human anatomy and physiology. Detailed laboratory study of the anatomy of the frog.

Text-books: Jordan, Kellogg and Heath’s Animal Studies, both terms; Conn and Budington’s Advanced Physiology, second term.

Physiology, Hygiene and Sanitation. Regularly an eleventh year subject. Time: 7 or 8 periods per week, including double laboratory periods.

The course is intended to contribute as much as possible toward healthful living. The study of structure and function is made the basis of an intelligent appreciation of the principles of hygiene. The conception of the body as a mechanism which requires new materials of definite kinds to replace worn out parts, and which also requires a constant supply of energy to enable it to do its work is made the basis of the study of food materials and the principles of dietetics. The course concludes with a study of the nature of infectious and contagious diseases and the means by which they are communicated; and domestic and public sanitation.

39Text-books: Conn and Budington’s Advanced Physiology and Brown’s Physiology for the Laboratory.

Chemistry. Regularly an eleventh year subject. Previous preparation should include at least one-half year of algebra; but the chemistry may be taken without it. Time: 7 or 8 periods per week, with double laboratory periods.

General Chemistry. The subject essentially as presented in McPherson and Henderson’s Elementary Study of Chemistry and Laboratory Exercises in Chemistry by the same authors.

Household Chemistry. This is alternative with the general course in the second half year. The work of the first half year is the same as in the general course. The course in household chemistry is intended for girls, and substitutes the chemical problems and processes of the home for those of the mine, the smelter, and the metallurgical and chemical industries in general. Large use is made of a reference library of works in the chemistry of cooking, cleaning and sanitation. Blanchard’s Household Chemistry is used as a laboratory guide.

The credit toward graduation and the college entrance credit is the same for the household chemistry as for the general course.

Physics. Brief Course. Regularly a twelfth year subject. Minimum preparation, 8 units, including first year algebra and the first term of plane geometry. Time: One period daily for one year. Credit: One unit.

This course fulfils the requirements in science for admission to the College of General Culture, the College of Commerce, and the General Course in Agriculture of the University of California, and for similar courses in other universities. It emphasizes the qualitative aspects of phenomena, omits the more difficult mathematics of the subject, takes fewer quantitative laboratory experiments and devotes less time to practical applications than the full course does. Astronomical topics are introduced here and there as they fit into the regular order of the work.

Full Course. Regularly a twelfth year subject. Minimum preparation: 10 units, including first year algebra and plane geometry. Time: 3 single periods and 2 double periods per week in the first half year; 2 single periods and 3 double periods per week in the second half year. Credit: One and one-half units.

40The full course is prescribed in the fourth year for all pupils preparing for the Colleges of Mechanics, Mining, Civil Engineering, Chemistry, and the Technical Course in Agriculture of the University of California, and for similar courses in other universities. It is elective for all other pupils who have the necessary preparation.

The full and the brief courses are given in separate classes, in either or both terms, when the number of students enrolled necessitates the organization of more than one class in the work of the term. When the classes are not thus divided, the pupils in the full course will take the work with the brief course class 5 periods per week, and will take additional work as a separate class 2 periods per week in the first term, and 3 periods per week in the second term.

Text-books: Coleman’s Text-book of Physics, and Coleman’s New Laboratory Manual of Physics.

University Admission Requirements in Science.

The University of California requires for admission at least one science given in the third or fourth year of the high school course. Physiology, Zoology, Chemistry, or Physics fulfils this requirement; Botany does not, but it receives regular admission credit as an elective subject. When Botany is offered together with any one of the other sciences, both receive admission credit, the one as an elective, the other as the prescribed third or fourth year science.

41

GREEK.

TENTH YEAR.

First Term.

  • First Greek Book. White.

Second Term.

  • First Greek Book. White.
ELEVENTH YEAR.

First Term.

  • Xenophon’s Anabasis. Bks. I and II.
  • Greek Grammar. Goodwin.
  • Beginner’s Greek Composition. Collar & Daniell.

Second Term.

  • Xenophon’s Anabasis. Bks. III and IV.
  • Greek Grammar. Goodwin.
  • Beginner’s Greek Composition. Collar & Daniell.
TWELFTH YEAR.

First Term.

  • Homer’s Iliad. Bks. I-III.
  • Goodwin’s Grammar.
  • Composition. Collar & Daniell.

Second Term.

  • Homer’s Iliad. Bks. IV-VI.
  • Goodwin’s Grammar.
  • Beginner’s Greek Composition. Collar & Daniell.
42

LATIN.

NINTH YEAR.

First Term.

  • D’Ooge’s Latin for Beginners.
  • Lessons I-XLV.
  • Gradatim for sight reading.

Second Term.

  • D’Ooge’s Latin for Beginners.
  • Lessons XLVI-LXXVIII. Book completed.
  • Gradatim for sight reading.
TENTH YEAR.

First Term.

  • Second Year Latin. Greenough, D’Ooge and Daniell.

    Part One. 75 pages of stories, fables, mythology, biography, including Life of Caesar. Composition based on the above.

  • Grammar. Allen & Greenough.

Second Term.

  • Second Year Latin. Greenough, D’Ooge and Daniell.

    Part Two. 100 pages from “Caesar’s Gallic Wars.” Bks. I-VII.

  • D’Ooge’s Composition to accompany “Second Year Latin.”
  • Grammar. Allen & Greenough.
ELEVENTH YEAR.

First Term.

  • Cicero. Any Standard Edition.

    The Conspiracy of Catiline. Four orations for translation and study.

  • D’Ooge’s Composition. Based on above orations.
  • Grammar. Allen & Greenough.

43Second Term.

  • Cicero (continued).

    Pompey’s Military Command, The Citizenship of Archias (for translation and study).

  • D’Ooge’s Composition. Based on the above oration.
  • Grammar. Allen & Greenough.
TWELFTH YEAR.

First Term.

  • Virgil. Any Standard Edition.

    Bks. 1–111. For translation and scansion. The Principles of Prosody—A study of figures of speech, grammatical and rhetorical.

  • D’Ooge’s Latin Composition, “Senior Review.”
  • Exercises 1–16.
  • Grammar. Allen & Greenough.

Second Term.

  • Virgil (continued).

    Bks. IV-VI for translation and scansion. Method of preceding term continued.

  • D’Ooge’s Latin Composition. “Senior Review.”
  • Exercises 17–34.
  • Grammar. Allen & Greenough.
44

GERMAN.

NINTH YEAR.

First Term.

  • Spanhoofd—Lehrbuch der deutschen Sprache. Lessons 1–13.
  • Spanhoofd—Erstes Lesebuch.
  • Copy Book—Deutsches Schönschreiben, No. 4.

Second Term.

  • Spanhoofd—Lehrbuch. Lessons 14–19.
  • Bacon—Im Vaterland, about fifty pages.
  • Moni der Geissub, or
  • Rosenresli.
TENTH YEAR.

First Term.

  • Spanhoofd—Lehrbuch. Lessons 20–29.
  • Bacon—Im Vaterland, pp. 50–157.
    • Two or more of the following:
  • Höher als die Kirche.
  • Germelshausen.
  • Immensee.
  • Der Geissbub von Engelberg.
  • Irrfahrten.

Second Term.

  • Spanhoofd—Lehrbuch. Lessons 30–35, subjunctive.
  • Wesselhoeft—German Composition, pp. 1–40.
    • Three or more of the following:
  • Der Schwiegersohn.
  • Anfang und Ende.
  • Der Bibliothekar.
  • Der Prozess.
  • Das Spielmannskind.
ELEVENTH YEAR.
  • Der stumme Ratsherr (in same volume with Das Spielmannskind). Riehl.
  • Auf der Sonnenseite. Bernhardt.
  • 45Bilderbuch ohne Bilder. Anderson.
  • Wilhelm Tell. Schiller.
  • Aus dem deutschen Dichterwald. Dillard.
  • L’Arrabbiata. Heyse.
  • Burg Neideck. Riehl.
  • Lichenstein. Hauff.
  • Der arme Spielmann. Grillparzer.
  • Peter Schlemihl. Chamisso.
  • Maria Stuart. Schiller.
  • Hermann und Dorothea. Goethe.
  • Elements of German. Bierwirth.
  • German Composition. Pope.
  • Träumereien. Leander.
TWELFTH YEAR.
  • Elements of German. Bierwirth.
  • German Composition. Pope.
  • Soll und Haben. Freytag.
  • Das Nest der Zaunkönige. Freytag.
  • Die Schriften des Waldschulmeisters. Rosegger.
  • Er soll dein Herr sein. Heyse.
  • Die Blinden. Heyse.
  • St. Jurgen. Storm.
  • Brigetta. Auerbach.
  • Heimatklang. Werner.
  • Der Neffe als Onkel. Schiller.
  • Die Jungfrau von Orleans. Schiller.
  • Die Journalisten. Freytag.
  • Sesenheim. Goethe.
  • Die verlorene Handschrift. Freytag.

Supplementary List. Not to be purchased by pupils.

  • Easy German Stories. Ries.
  • Neue Marchen. Mullar.
  • Gluck Auf. Muller & Wenckebach.
  • Das Murchen. Goethe.
  • Der Geissbub von Engelberg. Lohmeyer.
  • Geschichten von Rhein. Stern.
  • Geschichten von den deutschen Städten. Stern.
  • Minna von Barnhelm. Lessing.
  • Nathan der Weise. Lessing.
  • Aus dem Leben eines Taugenichts. Eichendorff.
  • Leberecht Hühnchen. Seidel.
  • 46Abenteuer der Neujahrsnacht. Zschokke.
  • Das Wirtshaus zu Kransac. Zschokke.
  • Unter Brudern. Heyse.
  • Two German Tales. Nichols.
  • Teya. Sudermann.
  • Sommermarchen. Baumbach.
  • Gravelotte. Frenssen.
  • Tales. Hauff.
  • Four German Comedies.
  • Das Amulett. Meyer.
  • Aprilwetter. Arnold.
  • Die Harzreise. Heine.
  • Das Habichtsfraulein. Baumbach.
  • Ultimo. Moser.
  • Fritz auf Ferien. Arnold.
  • Der Assistent. Schanz.
  • German Conversation. Wesselhoeft.
  • Der Taucher. Schiller.
  • Die beiden Freunde. Moltke.
  • Stille Wasser. Bernhardt.
  • Emilia Galotti. Lessing.
  • Pole Poppenspaler. Storm.
  • Kleider machen Leute. Keller.
  • Zwischen den Schlachten. Elster.
  • Aus dem Leben eines Unglücklichen. Hansjakob.
  • Die Ahnen, Part I. Freytag.
  • Ein Regentag auf dem Lande. Arnold.
  • Krambambuli. Elmer-Eschenbach.
  • Legenden. Keller.
  • Die Steinklopfer. Saar.
  • Ernstes und Heiteres. Schrakamp.
47

FRENCH.

NINTH YEAR.

First Term.

  • French Grammar. Fraser & Squair. Lessons I-XX.
  • French Reader. Aldrich & Foster.

Second Term.

  • French Grammar. Fraser & Squair. Lessons XXI-XXX.
  • French Reader. Aldrich & Foster.
TENTH YEAR.

First Term.

  • French Grammar. Fraser & Squair. Lessons XXXI-XL, and pp. 337–347.
  • Le Voyage de Monsieur Perrichon, or equivalent from list.
  • Tartarin de Tarascon.

Second Term.

  • French Grammar. Fraser & Squair.
  • Colomba.
  • Two hundred pages of sight reading from supplementary list.
  • Elementary French Composition. Lazare.
ELEVENTH YEAR.
  • Grammar. Fraser & Squair.
  • Extracts for French Composition. Mansion.
  • Une Semaine A Paris. Bacon.
  • Douze Contes Nouveaux.
  • Le Petit Chose.
  • Le Malade Imaginaire. Moliere.
  • Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme.
  • Les Miserables. Hugo.
TWELFTH YEAR.
  • Grammar. Fraser & Squair.
  • Extracts for French Composition. Mansion.
  • Une Semaine A Paris. Bacon.
  • 48Contes des Romanciers Naturalistes.
  • Le Monde ou L’on s’Ennuie. Pailleron.
  • Les Precieuses Ridicules. Moliere.
  • Souvenirs d’Enfance et de Jeunesse.

Supplementary French Books. (Not to be purchased by pupils.)

  • Le Conscrit de 1813. Erckmann-Chatrian.
  • Notre Dame De Paris. Hugo.
  • L’Abbe Daniel. Theuriet.
  • L’Abbe Constantin. Halevy.
  • L’Avare. Moliere.
  • French Short Stories. Buffum.
  • Bataille de Dames. Scribe & Legouve.
  • Le Roi des Montagnes. About.
  • La Tulipe Noire. Dumas.
  • Les Trois Mousquetaires. Dumas.
  • La Mare au Diable. Sand.
  • L’Etre de la Saint Martin. Meilhac & Halevy.
  • Labiche’s La Lettre Chargee.
  • Vent d’Ouest. d’Hervilly.
  • Les Prisonniers du Caucase. De Maistre.
  • Les Plus Jolis Contes de Fees. Lazare.
  • Morceaux Choisis. Daudet.
  • Selections from Standard French Authors. Guerlac.
  • L’Etincelle. Pailleron.
  • Eugenie Grandet. Balzac.
  • Cure de Tours. Balzac.
  • Ma Soeur Henriette. Renan.
  • Dosia. Greville.
  • Madame Therese. Erckmann-Chatrian.
  • Contes Extraits de Myrrhae. Lamaitre.
  • Siege de Paris. Sarcey.
  • Gil Blas. Le Sage.
49

MUSIC.

Course I.

Elementary Choral. Sight-singing, notation, musical dictation, voice training and part singing. Voices will be tested and classified at the beginning of each term. One credit for graduation, but no recommendation to the university.

Course II.

Advanced Choral and Musical Appreciation. Open to all students who have completed course I or its equivalent. University credit.

Musical dictation, study of standard choruses, biography of great musicians. This course will be illustrated by the Victor and player-piano and frequent recitals by available musicians and music students.

Course III.

Harmony. Students electing the course must have completed Course I or II, or be reasonably proficient in performance upon some solo instrument. University credit.

Notation. Formation of diatonic and chromatic scales in major and minor modes; consonant and dissonant intervals and their inversions; triads and their inversions in major and minor modes; a study of chord connection and voice leading over a given bass; chords of the Dominant Seventh and their inversions and resolution; harmonizing of simple melodies; treatment and progressions of Secondary Sub-dominant chords; modulation and transposition; suspensions, retardations and embellishments; chords of the Dominant Ninth and secondary chords of the Seventh from the Dominant Ninth.

Course IV.

History of Music. University credit.

An outline of the development of the art of music, including ancient music; Greek scales; church music from the time of Gregory; the Netherland School of Polyphony; opera and oratorio; the classical period; the Romantic Movement; music of the present day; biographies of the leading musicians of each period. Text—Outline of Music History—Hamilton.

50

Course V.

Composition. Open to students who have completed Course III.

Course VI.

Orchestra. One credit for graduation but not for University.

Open to students sufficiently proficient on piano, violin, viola, ’cello, bass, cornet, clarinet, flute, or drum and traps, in so far as balance of tone color will allow.

51

DRAWING.

Freehand Drawing—Given in Ninth Year.

Principles of perspective drawing from type solids, casts, still life and plant forms in pencil, charcoal, pen and ink and water colors.

Designing—Given in Tenth Year.

Its principles and application. Lettering. Study of Historic Ornament.

Geometric Drawing—Given in Tenth or Eleventh Year.

Practice with mechanical drawing instruments, in the solution of Geometric Problems, with the study of freehand and mechanical printing.

Advanced Freehand Drawing—Given in the Eleventh Year.

Advanced charcoal and water color from casts, life, fruit, flowers, and landscape, and illustrative drawing.

Applied Mechanical Drawing—Given in Twelfth Year.

Selections made to suit the students’ needs.

Industrial Arts—Given in Twelfth Year.

Work selected to suit the students’ needs.

52

PHYSICAL EDUCATION.

1. One year of gymnasium work taken twice a week is required of all high school students. No unit credit is given for this alone. Athletic work, however, is taken throughout the four years, the equivalent of two periods a week—part gymnasium and part outdoor work—for which one unit is given towards graduation. For the first semester of the tenth year, a compulsory course in Hygiene is substituted for active work in the physical education department. A yearly medical and physical examination is required.

2. After the first term, if the work is deferred for a year or more, the first term must be repeated; for the required year’s work is to be continuous.

3. Girls’ Department—Gymnasium work consists of breathing exercises, free work, dumb bells, wands, Indian clubs, chest weights, mat work, folk dancing, and marching, with special emphasis laid on graceful carriage. Out door athletics—baseball, basket ball, volley ball, tennis, and playground games.

4. The regulation costume for girls’ class work consists of:

Middy Blouse .95 to 2.50
and
Bloomers $2.50 and up
Gym. Shoes .65 to 1.50

The course in hygiene for girls covers personal hygiene, including all the normal functions of the body—care of the infant and house; care of the sick; public sanitation, such as prevention of infectious diseases, garbage and sewage disposal; care of food in the home and supervision of dairies and markets, and federal activities in control of public health.

A medical examination is made of every freshman girl during her first term and is repeated as often after that as may seem necessary. In addition the physician is ready for consultation with pupils or their parents or teachers whenever desired.

5. Boys’ Work—Gymnasium work for boys consists of dumb bells and wand drill, Indian clubs, chest weights, breathing exercises, free 53hand and floor work. Special attention is paid to proper carriage. For advanced students, horse, parallel bars, horizontal bar and mat work. Out door athletics may be taken but is not compulsory. They consist of track, football, baseball, tennis, basketball, and swimming.

6. The regulation costume for the boys’ class work consists of:

Gymn. upper .50
Running pants .50
Supporter .75
Tennis shoes .70 to $1.50
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