The Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society (Vol. VI) by Various






This is the sixth volume of the Journal of the Society. It continues the series so auspiciously begun years ago and which has been added to annually. These six volumes represent a great amount of work and contain a vast deal of historical material relative to the Irish element in the composition of the American people. As we progress with our researches, even we ourselves are quite astonished at the facts brought to light, facts showing in a far greater degree than anticipated, how tremendously important was the part taken by the Irish element in American colonial life and in the early and subsequent career of the republic itself. The present volume sets forth much matter of interest and value in this regard, and is in every way a worthy companion for the volumes of the Journal that have preceded it.

Boston, Mass., December 31, 1906.

Rear Admiral John McGowan, U. S. N. (retired),
Washington, D. C.
Hon. Franklin M. Danaher,
Albany, N. Y.
Secretary General,
Thomas Hamilton Murray,
36 Newbury Street, Boston, Mass.
Michael F. Dooley,
Of the Union Trust Co., Providence, R. I.
Librarian and Archivist,
Thomas B. Lawler,
Of Ginn & Company, publishers, Boston and New York.
The foregoing and
Hon. John D. Crimmins, New York City.
Hon. William McAdoo, New York City.
Hon. Thomas J. Gargan, Boston, Mass.
Patrick F. Magrath, Binghamton, N. Y.
Rev. John J. McCoy, LL. D., Worcester, Mass.
Thomas Addis Emmet, M. D., LL. D., New York City.
Edward J. McGuire, New York City.
John F. O’Connell, Providence, R. I.
James L. O’Neill, Elizabeth, N. J.
Stephen Farrelly, New York City.
Cyrus Townsend Brady, LL. D., Toledo, Ohio.
Hon. Thomas J. Lynch, Augusta, Me.
John J. Lenehan, New York City.
6Hon. Thomas Z. Lee, Providence, R. I.
Hon. Patrick Garvan, Hartford, Conn.
Maj. John Crane, New York City.
Col. John McManus, Providence, R. I.
Hon. William Gorman, Philadelphia, Pa.
Col. C. C. Sanders, Gainesville, Ga.
John F. Doyle, New York City.
Maine—James Cunningham, Portland.
New Hampshire—Hon. James F. Brennan, Peterborough.
Vermont—John D. Hanrahan, M. D., Rutland.
Massachusetts—Hon. Joseph H. O’Neil, Boston.
Rhode Island—Thomas A. O’Gorman, Providence.
Connecticut—Dennis H. Tierney, Waterbury.
New York—Joseph I. C. Clarke, New York City.
New Jersey—John F. Kehoe, Newark.
Pennsylvania—Hugh McCaffrey, Philadelphia.
Delaware—John J. Cassidy, Wilmington.
Virginia—James W. McCarrick, Norfolk.
West Virginia—John F. Healy, Thomas, Tucker County.
South Carolina—Henry A. Molony, Charleston.
Georgia—Capt. John Flannery, Savannah.
Ohio—John Lavelle, Cleveland.
Illinois—Hon. P. T. Barry, Chicago.
Indiana—Very Rev. Andrew Morrissey, C. S. C., Notre Dame.
Iowa—Rt. Rev. Philip J. Garrigan, D. D., Sioux City.
Montana—Rt. Rev. M. C. Lenihan, D. D., Great Falls.
Minnesota—Hon. C. D. O’Brien, St. Paul.
Missouri—Julius L. Foy, St. Louis.
Kentucky—John J. Slattery, Louisville.
Kansas—Patrick H. Coney, Topeka.
Utah—Joseph Geoghegan, Salt Lake City.
Texas—Gen. A. G. Malloy, El Paso.
California—James Connolly, Coronado.
District of Columbia—Hon. Edward A. Moseley, Washington.
Arizona—Col. O’Brien Moore, Tucson.
Indian Territory—Joseph F. Swords, Sulphur.
Canada—Hon. Felix Carbray, Quebec.
Ireland—Dr. Michael F. Cox, Dublin.
The annual meeting and dinner of the Society took place at the Hotel Manhattan, 42d Street and Madison Avenue, New York City, on Thursday evening, January 18, 1906. Preceding the meeting a reception was held, during which the members and guests from various cities and states exchanged greetings and congratulated each other upon the continued success of the organization.

The annual meeting was called to order by Hon. John D. Crimmins of New York City, president-general of the Society.

Thomas Hamilton Murray of Boston, Mass., secretary-general of the organization, recorded the minutes of the meeting.

Mr. Crimmins delivered an address of welcome and felicitated the Society upon its usefulness and good work in the cause of historical truth.

It was voted that, in order to save time, the reading of the records of the preceding meeting be omitted.

The annual reports of the secretary-general and the treasurer-general were then presented, and were accepted and adopted.

Appropriate action was taken on members of the Society who had died during the year.

Mr. Edward J. McGuire of New York City, paid an eloquent tribute to the late Francis C. Travers of the Society. Mr. Travers was one of the leading New York members of the organization and always took an active interest in advancing its interests and welfare.

The list of officers nominated by the executive council to serve the Society for the ensuing year, was presented and was unanimously elected, the secretary-general being authorized to cast one ballot for the same. (The ticket is set forth on pages 5 and 6 of this volume.)

Upon the result of the election being announced, Hon. Franklin M. Danaher of Albany, N. Y., the newly-chosen vice-president-general, 8took the chair, in the absence of Admiral McGowan, the new president-general.

Judge Danaher thanked the members for the honor bestowed upon him, and delivered a brief address along the Society’s line of work.

During the meeting attention was called to the movement to erect a monument in Washington, D. C., to Commodore John Barry, and the active interest of the members of the Society was urged in behalf of the project.

After thanks had been extended the retiring officers for their services to the Society, several new members were elected and the meeting adjourned.

The Annual Dinner.
Upon the adjournment of the business meeting, the members and guests proceeded to the banquet hall of the Manhattan for the annual dinner. Judge Danaher presided and seated on his right and left, among others, were: the retiring president-general, Hon. John D. Crimmins; Hon. Joseph T. Lawless of Norfolk, Va.; Michael F. Dooley, of the Union Trust Company, Providence, R. I.; Hon. John Hannan, mayor of Ogdensburg, N. Y.; Hon. John F. Finerty, Chicago, Ill., and other prominent gentlemen.

After grace had been said, the company began a practical discussion of the elaborate menu prepared for the occasion. Among those present were the following:

Hon. John D. Crimmins.
Rev. Henry A. Brann, D. D.
Hon. Joseph F. Daly.
Henry Wright.
Stephen J. Richardson.
F. J. Richardson.
James J. Phelan.
Thomas F. Smith.
James Kearney.
T. P. Kelly.
Edward J. McGuire.
Dr. Bryan DeF. Sheedy.
Francis D. Ward.
W. H. Mahony.
John Quinn.
Cyril Crimmins.
William F. Daly.
John J. Lenehan.
Edmond J. Curry.
John O’Sullivan.
Willis B. Dowd.
P. J. O’Leary.
James T. Ryan.
Warren E. Mosher.
9D. H. McBride.
John F. Doyle.
Alfred L. Doyle.
Edward H. Daly.
E. Clinton Smith.
Richard P. Morrissey.
David Healy.
J. E. Smith, M. D.
Maurice O’Meara.
R. J. O’Donnell.
Edward M. Tierney.
F. H. Stoltzenberg, Jr.
John E. Milholland.
Dr. C. E. Byrne.
W. F. Clare.
John J. Daly.
William J. Broderick.
P. J. Hughes.
John Flanigan.
Charles V. Halley, Sr.
Charles V. Halley, Jr.
John J. Fox.
James O’Flaherty.
A. J. Meister.
Maj. E. T. McCrystal.
Matthew J. Flynn.
Robert Watchorn.
John H. Regan.
John H. Rogan.
Peter McDonnell, Jr.
John J. Ryan.
Patrick Kiernan.
T. Vincent Butler.
John Jay Joyce.
Henry L. Joyce.
James F. Roach.
J. O’Carroll.
J. R. Adams.
John J. Haigney.
H. Van Atta.
Theron Van Atta.
Frank V. A. Loucks.
John J. Sullivan.
Andrew J. Curtin.
James P. Farrell.
Daniel Moynahan.
James W. O’Brien.
George A. Fleury.
Joseph Hopkins.
George W. Sweeney.
Daniel J. Curtin.
Sylvester J. O’Sullivan.
J. D. Rohan.
Hon. Joseph T. Lawless, Norfolk, Va.
Hon. Franklin M. Danaher, Albany, N. Y.
Hon. John F. Finerty, Chicago, Ill.
Hon. John Hannan, Ogdensburg, N. Y.
Hon. J. J. O’Connor, Elmira, N. Y.
Hon. Thomas Z. Lee, Providence, R. I.
P. F. Magrath, Binghamton, N. Y.
James O’Sullivan, Lowell, Mass.
Rev. James O’Doherty, Haverhill, Mass.
Rev. John D. Coyle, New Haven, Conn.
10Hugh N. Murphy, Newark, N. J.
Patrick Cassidy, M. D., Norwich, Conn.
Henry V. McLaughlin, M. D., Brookline, Mass.
J. F. O’Reilly, Montclair, N. J.
John F. Hayes, M. D., Waterbury, Conn.
Thomas Hamilton Murray, Boston, Mass.
Patrick Carter, Providence, R. I.
George J. Twohy, Norfolk, Va.
R. J. Donahue, Ogdensburg, N. Y.
Michael F. Dooley, Providence, R. I.
James L. O’Neill, Elizabeth, N. J.
Joseph M. Byrne, Newark, N. J.
Don C. Seitz, Cos Cob, Conn.
Bernard J. Joyce, Boston, Mass.
Dennis H. Tierney, Waterbury, Conn.
John T. F. MacDonnell, Holyoke, Mass.
Thomas A. O’Gorman, Providence, R. I.
M. P. O’Connor, Binghamton, N. Y.
P. H. Garrity, Waterbury, Conn.
Richard Tillard, Newark, N. J.
Francis I. McCanna, Providence, R. I.
H. S. Tierney, Torrington, Conn.
James J. Higgins, Elizabeth, N. J.
Thomas J. Spellacy, Hartford, Conn.
John F. O’Connell, Providence, R. I.
John Haddow, Newark, N. J.
Michael J. Morkan, Hartford, Conn.
William J. Kelly, Portsmouth, N. H.
John J. McNally, Norfolk, Va.
The after-dinner exercises were of unusual interest, Judge Danaher presiding, as he had over the dinner, and the various events on the program being most enjoyable.

The leading paper of the evening was by Hon. Joseph T. Lawless of Norfolk, Va., whose subject was “Gen. Daniel Morgan of the Revolution.” It was a very able production and was highly appreciated.

Willis B. Dowd of New York City, read a paper on the “Early Irish Settlers of North Carolina,” showing much research on his 11part, and being a valuable contribution to the historical papers of the Society.

There were also addresses by Hon. John F. Finerty of Chicago, Ill., and by other gentlemen.

The evening’s exercises likewise included solo and chorus singing, with orchestral accompaniment, the selections including “The Star Spangled Banner” and “Killarney.”

The following address was issued early in the year by President-General McGowan:

To the Members of the American-Irish Historical Society:

Gentlemen: Permit me to express my gratitude for the honor you have done me in electing me to be your president-general for the ensuing year. I accept the office, and will discharge its duties and responsibilities to the utmost of my ability.

To be the official head of a society such as ours is a position any man, no matter how exalted his place in life, should be proud to hold. My distinguished predecessors in the office—Meade, Moseley, Gargan, Crimmins, McAdoo—have ably presided over the Society’s affairs in the past and have reflected honor upon the organization, as honor has been reflected upon them in virtue of their being chosen to that high station.

The American-Irish Historical Society is now in its tenth year of existence. It has accomplished a vast amount of good, and the practical work it has so abundantly performed is of permanent value and utility. No organization was more needed and none has a broader or more glorious field in which to work.

The Irish chapter in American history is one of the most important and interesting in our career as a nation. It was a strong and important chapter in America for even a century before we became a nation, and has gone on increasing in importance and potency, in value and interest, as generation has succeeded generation, until today it stands unsurpassed in the respects mentioned.

As John Boyle O’Reilly once wrote,

We slight no true devotion, steal no fame
From other shrines to gild the Pilgrims’ name.
So I may say, we rob no race to gild the Irish name when we undertake to unearth the records of the past, showing what the Irish element has accomplished in the early colonial periods and in later 13periods when the republic was forming and had become a fact. We merely wish to claim, assert and set forth the credit which to us belongs, for the part that men and women of Irish blood took in bringing about the reign of liberty and freedom we now enjoy.

Toward people of all other race elements in the make-up of the American people—English, French, Dutch, German, etc., by whatever name they may be known or from whatever land they or their ancestors may have come—we entertain good will and desire them to have such meed of credit and of praise as to them belongs. We do not wish to praise ourselves by “masquerading in borrowed plumes,” nor have we any desire to detract one iota from the credit that is honestly that of others.

But the credit that is ours we demand and shall insist upon possessing. Our mission is “To make better known the Irish chapter in American history.” That brief statement of our principles conveys in a very few words our exact reason for existence as a society.

We are an American historical organization devoted to a work that shall place the Irish element in this great republic in its proper and merited position before the American people of which we constitute no small part, and which shall, at the same time, reflect glory upon the Irish fatherland. Our Society rests upon a generous basis. Its founders builded wisely and for the perpetuation of the heroic deeds of the past. I trust these founders will long be honored by every member of the organization.

Reviewing the work thus far accomplished by the Society, I am prompted to say a few words: With very limited financial means, we have, nevertheless, produced five handsome volumes of the Journal of the organization, two other volumes of great merit and a number of extremely interesting pamphlets. Copies of these publications have been placed in the leading libraries of the country, where they have been cordially welcomed. Our publications are in the libraries of such institutions as Harvard, Yale, Columbia, Dartmouth, Cornell, Georgetown, Princeton, and other great universities, where they are having an excellent influence.

Here in Washington our publications are in the library of Congress, in that of the George Washington University, in the Catholic University and in the newly-established Trinity College for young women. The United States Military Academy at West Point also has our works on its shelves, as has the Naval Academy at Annapolis. 14From many leading historical societies come reports of our publications being received by them.

Many of the great public libraries—North, South, East and West are in receipt of the works issued by our Society, and the same are in constant demand for consultation and reference. Among these public libraries are those of New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Troy, Rochester, Oswego, Buffalo, Detroit, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Denver, San Francisco and other cities.

This is practical work. I know of no other society that in so short a time has done so much of real, lasting value as has ours. Indeed, when we consider all the circumstances, we have done astonishingly well. Many societies hoary with age, in the possession of plethoric treasuries, and constantly receiving large bequests, have done no better, if as well, from a practical viewpoint.

Our Society is fortunate in having an indefatigable secretary, who from the start has worked in season and out of season to advance the interests of the organization. A competent secretary is a priceless possession for any society, and we have been especially fortunate in this respect.

The Hon. John D. Crimmins of New York City, my immediate predecessor in the office of president-general, has always been ready with purse, services and hospitality to forward the interests of the Society, and under his administration the organization has made splendid progress. Owing to his initiative, a movement has just been started to raise a permanent fund of $10,000 for the organization. This is good news, indeed, and I have no doubt the amount will be speedily raised. With a substantial fund such as this back of it, the Society will be enabled to be of even greater service in the future than it has in the past.

The salient work of the organization must be its publications. The more we have of these the better for the cause we have at heart. While a dinner, now and then, is desirable, the organization must never deteriorate into a mere dining club. Too many societies, started with the most comprehensive program, have done this and lost sight of their original purposes. Our Society differs from others in that it is established for historical purposes, to make original research into the records and documents of the past and to place the result of its researches in permanent, tangible form. Careful and frequent publications will enable us to do this.

15A great deal depends upon the continued issuance of the annual volume of the Journal of our Society. That work has thus far been, and will continue to be, of the greatest possible utility. It gives the Society a recognized standing in the community that would be difficult to obtain by any other means. Its advent, year by year, therefore, is of prime importance.

Speaking incidentally, I may say that I would like to see special attention given during the year to a study of the material bearing upon the reputed voyages to these shores of the Irish missionary, Brendan. These voyages, attributed to a period many centuries preceding Christopher Columbus, appear to be fully as well authenticated as those of the Northmen to Vinland. Indeed, the Norse sagas mention remote Irish comers to these shores and duly credit a land here once known as Great Ireland. De Roo, in his recent work, the History of America Before Columbus, goes into this subject in a very entertaining manner. As a rule, our school text-books on history, while accepting implicitly the narratives relative to the Northmen and Vinland, find no room in their pages to even allude to Brendan and his voyages, although, as I have intimated, the latter seem to rest upon as secure an historical basis as the former. Mr. Justin Winsor and other distinguished writers, however, make special mention of the subject and treat the latter with respect.

The history of the early Irish in Virginia is also deserving of our special attention. Irish names are found in the Old Dominion prior to the arrival of the Pilgrims at Plymouth Rock, while in the Plymouth colony itself, Governor Bradford tells us, numbers of Irish arrived a few years after the coming of the Mayflower. The war against the Indian king, Philip, 1675–’76, found Irish enlisted on the side of the colonists, showing that at that period sons of old Hibernia were numerous and active here. These and other early periods and movements furnish our Society ample material for consideration.

As American history progresses, the material increases in volume and is greatly multiplied as the Revolution eventuates. But these facts are well known to you and require no lengthy narrative of detail on my part. I merely briefly refer to them in order, by way of review, to indicate the abundance of material awaiting development at our hands.

I am delighted with the project now under way by the Society to 16erect a bronze tablet in the Rhode Island state capitol to the memory of Maj.-Gen. John Sullivan. The idea is a most felicitous one and deserves the heartiest commendation. Sullivan was one of the great soldiers of the Revolution. The placing of the forthcoming tablet will be a merited tribute to his patriotism and military skill while in command of the Rhode Island department and during the entire period of the war.

There are many other great Americans of Irish blood who deserve like honors, and doubtless the Society will, from time to time, erect tablets to their memory or commemorate them in some other worthy manner. The suggestion that the occasion of the dedication of the Sullivan tablet be made a field day by the Society is a happy one, and will, I trust, be fully carried out.

As our Society grows in numbers and prosperity, the question of permanent headquarters will demand consideration. Books and pamphlets will accumulate by gift or purchase and a place will be needed where these can be displayed for consultation by the members and others engaged in historical research. Where these headquarters shall be located is a subject for future action. A number of cities are deserving of consideration. In many respects, Washington, the national capital, would be the ideal place, while, New York, Boston, Philadelphia and other cities, also present special advantages. But this whole matter can be fully considered at some future time.

The Society recalls with pleasure its visit to Washington a few years ago, when it was cordially received at the White House by our distinguished fellow-member, President Roosevelt. I hope that during my term as head of the organization the Society will again have occasion to visit the national capital and once more partake of Washington hospitality.

Again expressing my gratitude for the honor you have conferred upon me and hoping that I shall have, while president-general, the generous assistance of every member of the Society, I remain

Yours fraternally,
John McGowan,
Washington, D. C., February 25, 1906.
A brilliant event under the patronage of the Society took place in New York City on April 26, 1906. The occasion was a reception to Admiral John McGowan, U. S. N., the newly-elected president-general. The exercises took place in the residence of the Hon. John D. Crimmins, and will long be remembered by the large assemblage participating. Admiral McGowan resides in Washington, D. C., and the reception was held in order to give him and the members of the Society an opportunity to exchange mutual greetings.

The reception was participated in by judges, prominent clergymen, distinguished members of the medical, law, journalistic and other professions, as well as by leading bankers and gentlemen prominent in mercantile life.

Admiral McGowan received in the magnificent drawing-room of Mr. Crimmins’ home, the introductions being made by Mr. Crimmins, who was assisted by Thomas Hamilton Murray of Boston, the national secretary of the Society.

The following is a copy of the notice sent to each member:

Reception to Rear-Admiral John McGowan, U. S. N., President-General.
Dear Sir: It gives me great pleasure to notify you that a reception to Rear-Admiral John McGowan, U. S. N., President-General of our Society, will take place in New York City on Thursday evening, April 26, 1906, at 8 o’clock.

Owing to the kindness of our fellow member, the Hon. John D. Crimmins, the reception will be held at the home of the latter, 40 East 68th Street, and it is hoped that every member of the Society who possibly can will be present on this occasion.

Few events under the auspices of the organization will possess as much interest as this, and all who participate in the forthcoming reception to our President-General will find it a red-letter event in the history of the Society. Each member is at liberty to invite a friend to accompany him to the exercises.

18Kindly inform the Secretary, upon receipt of this notice, whether you will attend the reception, as it is desirable to know, approximately, how many will be present.

Thomas Hamilton Murray,
36 Newbury Street, Boston, Mass.,
April 5, 1906.
Among those present from New York City, were: Hon. James Fitzgerald, a justice of the New York Supreme Court; Hon. Edward F. O’Dwyer, chief justice of the New York City court; Hon. Samuel Adams, Robert E. Danvers, M. E. Bannin, Richard Deeves, John J. Rooney, William F. Clare, M. J. Drummond, Cyril Crimmins, J. Henry Haggerty, Nathaniel Doyle, Col. James Quinlan, formerly of Meagher’s Irish Brigade; Sylvester J. O’Sullivan, James O’Flaherty, Robert T. Dyas, Edward J. McGuire, John W. Donovan, Dr. Hugh M. Cox, Henry Wright, Rev. Dr. Henry A. Brann, John A. Brann, John Jay Joyce, Willis B. Dowd, Rt. Rev. Mgr. Charles McCready, William J. Broderick, J. J. Hickey, W. E. Callahan, Charles V. Halley, J. H. Rohan, John J. Ryan, Thomas S. Lonergan, John O’Sullivan, Owen J. Brady, James J. Phelan, and other people of note.

Present from other places were: Rt. Rev. Mgr. William Byrne, D. D., V. G., Boston, Mass.; Rt. Rev. Arthur J. Teeling, D. D., Lynn, Mass.; Rev. Gerald P. Coghlan, Philadelphia, Pa.; Hon. P.T. Barry, Chicago, Ill.; Hon. Patrick Garvan, Hartford, Conn.; James L. O’Neill, Elizabeth, N. J.; Hon. Thomas Z. Lee, Providence, R. I.; Thomas A. O’Gorman, Providence; John F. O’Connell, Providence; Dr. J. F. Hayes, Waterbury, Conn.; P. F. Magrath, Binghamton, N. Y.; James J. Higgins, Elizabeth, N. J.; City Clerk Kenah, Elizabeth; Hon. P. J. Ryan, Elizabeth; John Moriarty, Waterbury, Conn.; Prof. J. E. Madigan, Waterbury; Philip A. Curran, Waterbury; William M. Sweeny, Astoria, L. I., N. Y., a son of the late Gen. Thomas W. Sweeny; Dr. A. J. Anderson, Astoria, L. I., N. Y.; Fire Commissioner Cox, Elizabeth, N. J.; Dr. John D. Hanrahan, Rutland, Vt.; William P. Connery, Lynn, Mass., and a number of others.

Letters expressing interest in the occasion, and regretting inability to be present, were received from Hon. Joseph T. Lawless, Norfolk, Va.; Hon. Thomas H. Carter, Washington, D. C.; Hon. 19Andrew C. Smith, M. D., Portland, Ore.; Hon. Patrick Egan, New York City; Hon. Edward A. Moseley, Washington, D. C.; Hon. M. T. Moloney, Ottawa, Ill.; Hon. Franklin M. Danaher, Albany, N. Y.; Rt. Rev. Thomas J. Conaty, D. D., Los Angeles, Cal.; Rt. Rev. Mgr. D. J. O’Connell, S. T. D., Washington, D. C.; Brig-Gen. Michael Cooney, U. S. A. (retired), Washington, D. C.; Rev. John J. McCoy, LL. D., Worcester, Mass.; John J. Lenehan, New York City; William Doogue, Boston, Mass.; James A. Fogarty, New Haven, Conn.; Michael J. Ward, Brookline, Mass.; William Lyman, New York City; James Connolly, Coronado, Cal.; M. P. O’Connor, Binghamton, N. Y.; R. J. Donahue, Ogdensburg, N. Y.; James G. Hickey, Boston, Mass.; Patrick H. Garrity, Waterbury, Conn.; P. C. Walsh, Jr., Newark, N. J.; Rev. M. J. Cooke, Fall River, Mass.; F. L. Dunne, Boston, Mass.; J. J. O’Connor, Elmira, N. Y.; J. T. Gibbons, New Orleans, La.; Maurice O’Meara, New York City; Rev. J. C. Harrington, Lynn, Mass.; D. H. Tierney, Waterbury, Conn.; Rev. D. W. Fitzgerald, Penacook (Concord), N. H.; Dr. J. E. Sullivan, Providence, R. I.; W. H. Mahony, New York City; Gustav W. Lembeck, Jersey City, N. J.; Myles Tierney, New York City; Roger G. Sullivan, Manchester, N. H.; Richard W. Meade, New York City; John L. Carroll, Newark, N. J.; W. J. O’Hagan, Charleston, S. C.; James McMahon, New York City; John C. Griffin, Skowhegan, Me.; Stephen Farrelly, New York City; M. J. Morkan, Hartford, Conn.; Osborne Howes, Boston, Mass.; James W. Kenney, Boston, Mass.; P. J. Byrnes, New York City; Frank S. O’Neil, Binghamton, N. Y.; D. H. McBride, New York City; Rev. J. P. McCaughan, Warren, Mass.; Hon. George J. Gillespie, New York City; J. A. O’Keefe, Lynn, Mass.; Laurence Clancy, Oswego, N. Y., and Patrick J. Lawlor, Waterbury, Conn.

The company inspected Mr. Crimmins’ splendid library and his costly collections of rare old manuscripts and original letters. Among the latter were notes written by Washington, Adams, Calhoun, Jackson, Jefferson, Carroll, and other historic personages.

Among the Washington letters was one in which the father of his country mentions his contemplated purchase of an Irish wolfdog, on the recommendation of Lafayette. In a letter by Andrew Jackson occurs this sentence: “For you know my parents were Irish.” This very effectually disposes of those who have classed Jackson as “Scotch-Irish.”

20Attention was called to Cyrus Townsend Brady’s new work, The True Andrew Jackson, which is dedicated to Mr. Crimmins and the American-Irish Historical Society, Doctor Brady being a member of the latter. Much interest was also displayed in a new volume by Mr. Crimmins himself, entitled Irish-American Historical Miscellany, which has recently been brought out. It is a volume of some five hundred pages and is replete with interesting data.

After the exercises in the drawing-room, lunch was served, and was followed by addresses, readings and musical selections. The whole occasion was one of unusual interest.

1. From Mr. Crimmins’ recent book, Irish-American Historical Miscellany. (New York, 1905.)

The horrors of the Jersey prison ship have often been told. The Jersey and other hulks, used by the British, were anchored near the Wallabout, Brooklyn, N. Y. Many thousands of prisoners perished on these ships by cruelty and disease. The conduct of their captors was inhumane and dastardly. It is not surprising, therefore, that the mortality was so great.

William Burke, a prisoner aboard the Jersey, at one time, has left a record in which he states that he was confined on the ship fourteen months, and that he saw, among other cruelties, many American prisoners put to death by the bayonet. This cruel treatment was never relaxed by the English or Scots, but sometimes the more humane Hessians evinced pity for the unfortunate sufferers. Burke says:

“During that period, among other cruelties which were committed, I have known many of the American prisoners put to death by the bayonet: in particular, I well recollect, that it was the custom on board the ship for but one prisoner at a time to be admitted on deck at night, besides the guards or sentinels. One night, while the prisoners were many of them assembled at the grate at the hatchway, for the purpose of obtaining fresh air, and waiting their turn to go on deck, one of the sentinels thrust his bayonet down among them, and in the morning twenty-five of them were found wounded, and stuck in the head, and dead of the wounds they had thus received. I further recollect that this was the case several mornings, when sometimes five, sometimes six, and sometimes eight or ten, were found dead by the same means.”

It is estimated that over eleven thousand prisoners perished, from all causes, aboard these ships during the Revolution. The dead 22would be carried ashore and carelessly buried in the sand, their bodies, in many cases, to be uncovered by returning tides. For many years after, the bones of these martyrs were visible along the shore.

About 1801, John Jackson sold to the United States, through Francis Childs, a middleman, forty acres of the Wallabout for $40,000. About this time large numbers of Irish refugees arrived and located in New York and Brooklyn. They bought some land of Jackson at, or near, the Wallabout, the settlement being named “Vinegar Hill.”

During the summer of 1805, a Mr. Aycrigg, shocked at the exposed remains of the prison-ship victims, made a contract with an Irishman residing at Wallabout, to “collect all the human bones as far as may be without digging,” and deliver the same to him. This was done, and these bones were a portion of those interred in the vault patriotically erected by Tammany.

Among the patriots imprisoned aboard the Jersey were a great many Irish. In 1888, the Society of Old Brooklynites published a pamphlet dealing with the Jersey, and giving the names of several thousand persons who had been confined therein, many of whom perished. A copy of this pamphlet is in the possession of the New York Historical Society. From that authoritative source we have compiled the following list of patriots, bearing Irish names, who were confined on the Jersey:

Barry, Samuel
Black, James
Black, John
Black, Philip
Black, Timothy
Blake, James
Boyle, John
Brady, John
Broderick, William
Brown, Michael
Brown, Patrick
Bryan, Edward
Bryan, John
Bryan, Mathew
Bryan, William
Buckley, Cornelius
Buckley, Daniel
Buckley, Francis
Buckley, John
Burk, Thomas
Burke, James
Burke, William
Burn, William
Burns, Edward
Burns, John
Butler, Daniel
Butler, Francis
Butler, James
Butler, John
Byrnes, Hugh
Cain, David
Cain, Thomas
23Callaghan, Daniel
Campbell, Philip
Cannady, James
Cannady, William
Carney, Anthony
Carney, Hugh
Carr, William
Carolin, Joseph
Carrall, Robert
Carroll, James
Carroll, John
Carroll, Michael
Casey, Edward
Casey, Richard
Casey, William
Christie, James
Cochran, James
Cogan, Thomas
Coleman, David
Collins, James
Collins, John
Collins, Joseph
Collohan, Daniel
Connell, John
Connelly, John
Conner, George
Conner, James
Conner, John
Conner, Robert
Conner, William
Connolly, Patrick
Connolly, Samuel
Connor, John
Conway, John
Conway, Thomas
Corrigan, Bernard
Corrigan, John
Cox, Joseph
Cox, William
Crane, Philip
Cullen, William
Cunningham, Bartholomew
Cunningham, Cornelius
Cunningham, James
Cunningham, Joseph
Cunningham, William
Curry, Anthony
Curry, William
Dailey, Patrick
Daily, James
Daily, William
Darcey, W.
Daunivan, William
Delany, Edward
Doherty, John
Doherty, Thomas
Donalin, Nicholas
Donogan, John
Dorgan, Patrick
Dorgan, Timothy
Dowling, Henry
Downey, John
Downing, Peter
Doyle, Peter
Doyle, William
Dring, Thomas
Duffy, Thomas
Dunn, Peter
Durphey, Patrick
Dwyer, John
Dwyer, Timothy
Dyer, Patrick
Fallen, Thomas
Filler, Patrick
Finagan, Bartholomew
Finn, Dennis
Finn, John
Fitzgerald, Edward
24Fitzgerald, Patrick
Flinn, John
Ford, Bartholomew
Ford, Daniel
Ford, Martin
Ford, Philip
Fox, William
Fury, John
Gallager, Andrew
Gallaspie, John
Goff, Patrick
Grogan, John
Griffin, Joseph
Griffin, Peter
Haggarty, James
Hallahan, James
Halley, John
Hanagan, James
Hanagan, Stephen
Hand, Joseph
Hanegan, John
Hanes, Patrick
Hart, Cornelius
Hart, John
Hayes, John
Hayes, Thomas
Hays, Patrick
Hensey, Patrick
Higgins, George
Higgins, William
Hogan, Roger
Hogan, Stephen
Hughes, John
Hughes, Joseph
Hughes, Peter
Hughes, Thomas
Jordan, John
Jordan, Peter
Joyce, John
Kane, Barney
Kane, Edward
Kane, John
Kane, Patrick
Kane, Thomas
Kelley, John
Kelley, Michael
Kelley, Oliver
Kelley, Patrick
Kelley, William
Kelly, Hugh
Kelly, James
Kelly, John
Kelly, John K.
Kennedy, James
Kennedy, William
Kenney, John
Lafferty, Dennis
Lally, Sampson
Lane, William
Larkin, Thomas
Leary, Cornelius
Lee, Peter
Loggard, Patrick
Loney, Peter
Lowery, John
Lynch, Timothy
Lyon, Peter
Lyons, Daniel
Lyons, Michael
Macguire, Anthony
Malone, John
Marley, James
Martin, Daniel
Martin, James
Martin, John
Martin, Michael
Martin, Joseph
Martin, Philip
25Martin, Thomas
Maxfield, Patrick
Maxwell, James
Maxwell, William
McCampsey, Mathew
McCanery, John
McCann, Edward
McCarty, Andrew
McCarty, Cornelius
McCarty, William
McCash, John M.
McClain, Francis
McClanegan, James
McClavey, Daniel
McClemens, Patrick
McCloskey, Patrick
McCloud, Murphy
McCloud, Peter
McClure, James
McClure, William
McConnell, James
McCormac, Hugh
McCormick, James
McCormick, John
McCowen, William
McCoy, George
McCoy, Peter
McCoy, Samuel
McCrea, Roderick
McCrady, John
McCulla, Patrick
McCullough, William
McCullum, Patrick
McDaniel, James
McDaniel, John
McDavid, John
McDermott, William
McDonald, John
McDonald, William
McDonough, Patrick
McEvin, John
McFall, James
McFarland, Daniel
McGandy, William
McGee, John
McGerr, James
McGill, Arthur
McGill, James
McGinness, Henry
McGinnis, James
McGoggin, John
McGowen, James
McHenry, Barnaby
McKay, Patrick
McKenney, James
McKeon, Thomas
McLain, Edward
McLaughlin, Philip
McLaughlin, Peter
McLayne, Daniel
McMichal, James
McNamee, Francis
McNeal, John
McNeil, James
McNeil, William
McQueen, William
McQuillian, Charles
McWaters, Samuel
Melone, William
Mungen, Michael
Mitchell, Anthony
Mitchell, James
Mitchell, John
Molloy, James
Morgan, Thomas
Montgomery, James
Montgomery, John
Moore, James
26Moore, Joseph
Moore, Patrick
Moore, Thomas
Mooney, Hugh
Morris, Andrew
Morris, James
Morris, John
Muckelroy, Philip
Mullen, Jacob
Mullin, Robert
Mullin, William
Mulloy, Edward
Mulloy, Francis
Mulloy, Silvanus
Murphy, Daniel
Murphy, John
Murphy, Patrick
Murphy, Thomas
Murray, Bryan
Murray, Charles
Murray, Daniel
Murray, John
Murray, Thomas
Murray, William
Neville, Francis
Neville, Michael
Norton, John
Norton, Nicholas
Norton, Peter
O’Brien, Cornelius
O’Brien, Edward
O’Brien, John
O’Bryen, William
O’Hara, Patrick
O’Neil, John
Orsley, Patrick
Power, Patrick
Power, Stephen
Powers, Richard
Quinn, Samuel
Reed, John
Rafferty, Patrick
Regan, Julian
Reid, Hugh
Reynolds, Thomas
Riley, James
Riley, Philip
Riordan, Daniel
Roach, Joseph
Roach, Lawrence
Rowe, William
Rowland, Patrick
Ryan, Frank
Ryan, Jacob
Ryan, Michael
Ryan, Peter
Ryan, Thomas
Sullivan, John
Sullivan, Parks
Sweeney, John
Thompson, Patrick
Tobin, Thomas
Toy, Thomas
Tracy, Benjamin
Tracy, Nathaniel
Twoomey, Dailey
Walsh, Patrick
Ward, Francis
Waters, Thomas
Welch, James
Welch, Mathew
Welch, Robert
Welsh, David
Welsh, John
Wen, Patrick
Whelan, Michael
Wilson, Patrick
27Many other Irish names could be added, but sufficient have been given to establish the fact that a large number of the sons of Erin were among those who suffered the rigors of the Jersey prison ship.

Capt. Thomas Dring, who was a prisoner aboard the Jersey, tells us in his Recollections many startling facts about that terrible ship. He says: “Silence was a stranger to our dark abode. There were continual noises during the night. The groans of the sick and dying; the curses poured out by the weary and exhausted upon our inhuman keepers; the restlessness caused by the suffocating heat and the confined and poisonous air, mingled with the wild and incoherent ravings of delirium, were the sounds which, every night, were raised around us in all directions.”

And another writer states that the lower hold, and the orlop deck, were such a terror that no man would venture down into them. Dysentery, smallpox and yellow fever broke out, and “while so many were sick with raging fever, there was a loud cry for water; but none could be had except on the upper deck, and but one was allowed to ascend at a time. The suffering then from the rage of thirst during the night, was very great. Nor was it at all times safe to attempt to go up. Provoked by the continual cry to be allowed to ascend, when there was already one on deck, the sentry would push them back with his bayonet.”

Stiles in his History of the City of Brooklyn, narrates a scene that took place on the Jersey, July 4, 1782. He says: “A very serious conflict with the guard occurred … in consequence of the prisoners attempting to celebrate the day with such observances and amusements as their condition permitted. Upon going on deck in the morning, they displayed thirteen little national flags in a row upon the booms, which were immediately torn down and trampled under the feet of the guard, which on that day happened to consist of Scotchmen. Deigning no notice of this, the prisoners proceeded to amuse themselves with patriotic songs, speeches and cheers, all the while avoiding whatever could be construed into an intentional insult of the guard; which, however, at an unusually early hour in the afternoon, drove them below at the point of the bayonet, and closed the hatches. Between decks, the prisoners now continued their singing, etc., until about nine o’clock in the evening. An order to desist not having been promptly complied with, the hatches were suddenly removed and the guards descended among them, with lanterns 28and cutlasses in their hands. Then ensued a scene of terror. The helpless prisoners, retreating from the hatchways as far as their crowded condition would permit, were followed by the guards, who mercilessly hacked, cut, and wounded everyone within their reach; and then ascending again to the upper deck, fastened down the hatches upon the poor victims of their cruel rage, leaving them to languish through the long, sultry summer night, without water to cool their parched throats, and without lights by which they might have dressed their wounds. And to add to their torment, it was not until the middle of the next forenoon that the prisoners were allowed to go on deck and slake their thirst, or to receive their rations of food, which, that day, they were obliged to eat uncooked. Ten corpses were found below on the morning which succeeded that memorable fourth of July, and many others were badly wounded.”

An especially affecting incident is told regarding one prisoner, who died on the ship: “Two young men, brothers, belonging to a rifle corps, were made prisoners and sent on board the Jersey. The elder took the fever and, in a few days, became delirious. One night (his end was fast approaching) he became calm and sensible, and lamenting his hard fate and the absence of his mother, begged for a little water. His brother, with tears, entreated the guard to give him some, but in vain. The sick youth was soon in his last struggles, when his brother offered the guard a guinea for an inch of candle, only that he might see him die. Even this was denied. ‘Now,’ said he, drying up his tears, ‘if it please God that I ever regain my liberty, I’ll be a most bitter enemy!’ He regained his liberty, rejoined the army, and when the war ended he had eight large and one hundred and twenty-seven small notches on his rifle stock.”

The Pennsylvania Packet, September 4, 1781, published a letter from the Jersey, which said: “We bury six, seven, eight, nine, ten, and eleven men in a day; we have two hundred more sick and falling sick every day.” This will illustrate the terrible mortality aboard the ship.

In his Recollections of Brooklyn and New York in 1776, Johnson says of the prisoners dying on the Jersey: “It was no uncommon thing to see five or six dead bodies brought on shore in a single morning, when a small excavation would be dug at the foot of the hill, the bodies be thrown in and a man with a shovel would cover them by shovelling sand down the hill upon them. Many were 29buried in a ravine of the hill; some on the farm. The whole shore, from Rennie’s Point to Mr. Remsen’s dooryard was a place of graves; as were also the slope of the hill near the house …; the shore from Mr. Ramsen’s barn along the mill pond, to Rapelje’s, and the sandy island between the floodgates and the mill-dam, while a few were buried on the shore on the east side of the Wallabout. Thus did Death reign here, from 1776 until the peace. The whole Wallabout was a sickly place during the war. The atmosphere seemed to be charged with foul air from the prison ships, and with the effluvia of the dead bodies washed out of their graves by the tides. We believe that more than half of the dead buried on the outer side of the mill-pond, were washed out by the waves at high tide, during northeasterly winds. The bones of the dead lay exposed along the beach, drying and bleaching in the sun, and whitening the shore, till reached by the power of a succeeding storm; as the agitated waters receded, the bones receded with them into the deep…. We have, ourselves, examined many of the skulls lying on the shore. From the teeth, they appeared to be the remains of men in the prime of life.”

“The Jersey at length,” declares Stiles, “became so crowded, and the increase of disease among the prisoners so rapid, that even the hospital ships were inadequate for their reception. In this emergency, bunks were erected on the larboard side of the upper deck of the Jersey for the accommodation of the sick between decks. The horrors of the old hulk were now increased a hundred-fold. Foul air, confinement, darkness, hunger, thirst, the slow poison of the malarious locality in which the ship was anchored, the torments of vermin, the suffocating heat alternating with cold and, above all, the almost total absence of hope, performed their deadly work unchecked. ‘The whole ship, from her keel to the taffrail, was equally affected, and contained pestilence sufficient to desolate a world—disease and death were wrought into her very timbers.’”

“There was, indeed,” Stiles remarks, “one condition upon which these hapless sufferers might have escaped the torture of this slow but certain death, and that was enlistment into the British service. This chance was daily offered them by the recruiting officers who visited the ship, but their persuasions and offers were almost invariably treated with contempt, and that, too, by men who fully expected to die where they were. In spite of their untold physical sufferings, 30which might well have shaken the resolution of the strongest; in spite of the insinuations of the British that they were neglected by their government—insinuations which seemed to be corroborated by the very facts of their condition; in defiance of threats of even harsher treatment, and regardless of promises of food and clothing—objects most tempting to men in their condition; but few, comparatively, sought relief from their woes by the betrayal of their honor. And these few went forth into liberty followed by the execrations and undisguised contempt of the suffering heroes whom they left behind. It was this calm, unfaltering, unconquerable spirit of patriotism—defying torture, starvation, loathsome disease, and the prospect of a neglected and forgotten grave—which sanctifies to every American heart the scene of their suffering in the Wallabout, and which will render the sad story of the ‘prison ships’ one of ever-increasing interest to all future generations.”

The corner-stone of a vault for the reception of so many of the bones of the martyred dead as could be collected, was laid in April, 1808, by Tammany. The event was made the occasion of a great demonstration. There was a big military and civic parade, artillery salutes and other features. Major Aycrigg was marshal of the day and an eloquent oration was delivered by Joseph D. Fay of Tammany. On May 26, 1808, the vault being completed, the bones were removed thereto, the event being signalized by another great demonstration. There were thirteen coffins filled with bones of the dead, and 104 veterans of the Revolution acted as pall-bearers. Stiles informs us that “The procession, after passing through various streets, reached the East River, where, at different places, boats had been provided for crossing to Brooklyn. Thirteen large open boats transported the thirteen tribes of the Tammany Society, each containing one tribe, one coffin, and the pall-bearers.” The scene was most inspiring. “At Brooklyn ferry the procession formed again … and arrived at the tomb of the martyrs amidst a vast and mighty assemblage. A stage had been here erected for the orator, trimmed with black crape. The coffins were placed in front, and the pall-bearers took their seats beneath the eye of the orator. There was an invocation by Rev. Ralph Williston, and the orator of the day was Dr. Benjamin DeWitt. The coffins were huge in size and each bore the name of one of the thirteen original states.”

Including Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island has a long extent of coast line. There are in the state 90,000 acres of safe anchorage, varying in depth from six feet to twenty fathoms. The state has the Atlantic Ocean as its southern boundary. Of its cities and towns some twenty border on deep, salt water. It is not surprising, therefore, that Rhode Island early attained maritime importance.

For many years ships were sent all over the world from Providence, Warren, Bristol and Newport. Their sails whitened many seas. These Rhode Island mariners were a hardy race and worthy of the great merchants for whom they sailed.

Before the year 1700, their vessels had already become numerous. In due time they were known in Barbadoes, Jamaica, St. Kitt’s, Nevis, Montserrat and Bermuda. Their sailors cheerily sang in the ports of Madeira, Fayal, Surinam and Curaçao, and were welcomed even in India and China.

The slave trade was the object of some of these voyages, commerce of others, while the fisheries engaged the attention of the rest. In 1738, Newport alone had over one hundred vessels engaged in business throughout the world. In 1763, the same place sent out 182 vessels on foreign voyages in addition to the 352 coastwise and fishing vessels. These were manned, all told, by 2,200 seamen. In June and July, 1774, the vessels arriving at Newport from foreign voyages numbered 64, in addition to 132 coastwise and 17 whalers.

Providence was also a great port. An address to Congress, in 1790, stated that there “is a greater number of vessels belonging to this port (Providence) than to New York,” and that “it is a place of more navigation than any of its size in the Union.” Fortunes were rapidly made by merchants engaged in the foreign trade, while domestic commerce also brought in its wealth. In reaching out to 32trade with the world Rhode Island merchants, unlike some “historians” of today, did not forget Ireland.

Several Rhode Island vessels made regular voyages to and from Irish ports. Others made occasional ones, or touched at Belfast, Newry, Dublin, Londonderry, Cork or Waterford, on their way to or from British and other ports. A list of fifteen vessels engaged regularly or occasionally in the Irish trade, is here given: Ships, Hope, Mary, Neptune, Tristram, Nancy, Robert Burns, Catherine and Faithful Stewart; brigs, Little John, Betsy, Recovery, Sally, Lydia and Happy Return; schooner, Mayflower. There were probably many others, but these fifteen are sufficient to illustrate the point.

Among the captains were Rathbun, Davis, Ambrose, Taggart, Dring, Warner, Crawford, Staples, Coffin, Noyes, Allen, Smith, Cook, McCansland, Coggeshall and Howland.

Of the foregoing vessels, the Mary and Little John belonged to George Gibbs of Newport; the Hope to Samuel Fowler of Newport; the Betsy to Charles Handy and the Recovery to Chris. Ellery, both also of Newport. These five vessels are specifically mentioned in the Newport Historical Magazine as making regular voyages to Ireland. From time to time the Newport Mercury chronicles the arrival from Ireland, or departure therefor, of other ships and brigs. These were all in addition to those sailing between Ireland and Providence.

Among the articles imported from Ireland to Rhode Island at various times, were linen and woolen goods, Irish poplins, cambrics, lawns, silks, hosiery, sheetings, etc. Irish butter, beef and other food products, were also imported. The Newport Mercury, August 3, 1772, contains an advertisement in which, among other things, “Irish beef” is announced for sale. In the Providence Gazette, November 20, 1762, appears the following:

“By the Newport packet from New York, we are informed, for certain, that there are 2000 Firkins of the Best Irish Rose butter, arrived there.—A quantity of it is expected to be imported into this town, which we are confident will fall the price of that commodity.” Under date of December 25, 1762, the Gazette says: “Since our last, we hear that a vessel has arrived at Newport from Ireland, with 1300 Firkins of butter—Captain Champlain, the master of her, died soon after he came out.” In December, 1764, a vessel from Ireland mistook her bearings and went ashore on Block Island. The following 33notice of the disaster was published in the Gazette, January 12, 1765:

“On the 25th of last month, in the day time, a large double-decked brig, loaded with beef, pork, butter, and candles, bound from Ireland to Halifax run ashore on the north part of Block Island, where she soon beat to pieces; the people were all saved except the boatswain, who perished on the deck, which he would not be permitted to quit with the rest.—About 500 barrels of the cargo, with some other articles, were also saved. The master’s name we cannot learn.”

The name of the wrecked brig is believed to have been the Golden Grove. Her Irish cargo was in the nature of supplies for the British garrison at Halifax. The fact that the cargo consisted of beef, pork, butter and candles, indicate that those articles were exported from Ireland in considerable quantities at that period.

Speaking of this wreck, recalls the fact that in 1763, the year before, a Rhode Island vessel was stranded on the Irish coast. She was the Samuel and Joseph, Captain Brown, bound for Amsterdam. In November and December, 1766, the Providence Gazette contained this advertisement:

Catherine, Thomas Allen, commander; Takes in her cargo at Newport, and will be ready to sail by the 12th Day of January.—For freight or passage, apply to said Captain on board or to Mr. Benjamin Greene, in Newport.

Providence, Nov. 7, 1766.

June 15, 1772, the Newport Mercury notes the arrival at Newport of “the brig Joseph, Captain Pie, bound to New York in 49 days from Waterford in Ireland.” July 19, 1773, the same paper states that “Last Thursday arrived the brig Sally, Capt. John Murphy, in 30 days from Jamaica.” She brought several passengers. This was probably the Sally that at another time is mentioned as having reached Dublin under Captain Davis. The Providence Gazette, February 24, 1776, has this interesting note: “Arrived from Ireland, but last from Barbadoes, the sloop N. York packet, Capt. John Freers, who informs that the people in Ireland and Barbadoes are very warm in the cause of America.” The Gazette also published the following:

Captain McCausland:
Will sail from Newport in ten days.—For Passage apply to Messieurs Clark and Nightingale, in Providence, or the Captain on board.

Providence, Jan. 29, 1785.

Special attention is called to the fact that “passage” is advertised in connection with these voyages. This is good evidence that passengers sailed direct for Rhode Island from Ireland. Some of these were probably merchants or their agents engaged in the Irish trade. The fact that such accommodations were provided, likewise justifies the conclusion that immigrants also came direct from Ireland to Rhode Island, and in considerable numbers, too. These immigrants, in all probability, landed, some in Newport and others in Providence. It may be, too, that Warren, Bristol, Westerly and other places, likewise received direct Irish accessions from this source. Further on will be found additional evidence of direct immigration from Ireland.

Another advertisement in the Providence Gazette reads as follows:

Gideon Crawford, Commander.
Now lying at Mrs. Hayley’s Wharff, will sail in 10 or 12 days. For Freight or Passage apply to the Master on board or to Joseph and William Russell. She has good accommodations for Passengers.

Providence, Jan. 14, 1786.

Here again “passage” is advertised, it will be noted. Soon after a news item appeared in the Gazette, stating that “the ship Tristram, Captain Crawford, sails this day for Dublin.” It appears that the Tristram made many voyages to and from Ireland. On April 26, 1788, over two years after the trip just mentioned, the Gazette had the following budget of marine news:

The ship Tristram, Capt. Warner, of this port, is arrived at Dublin.—The ship Mary, Capt. Rathbun, and Brig Little John, Capt. Ambrose, of Newport, are also arrived at Dublin.—The Brig Recovery, Capt. Taggart, of Newport, is arrived at Newry.

35In June, 1791, Joseph and William Russell of Providence had an assortment of Irish linens “Just imported in the ship Tristram from Dublin.” The Gazette, under date of Providence, April 13, 1776, says: “Capt. Cook, from Belfast, informs that recruiting parties had been beating up there from September till January to reinforce the ministerial army in America, but they had only inlisted ten men.” This helps the reader to form a good idea as to the direction of Irish sympathies at that time.

The quotations in the remainder of this chapter are from the Providence Gazette. A news paragraph, dated Newport, states that on “Monday last arrived here the ship Mary, Captain Ambrose, in fifty-nine days from Cork.” On February 14, 1789, under the head of Providence, we are told that “On Wednesday also arrived the brig Happy Return, Capt. Dring, from Dublin, Isle of May, and St. Eustatia.” The Happy Return has frequent mention, sometimes as arriving from Dublin and again from other ports. But there came a time when she returned no more. The incident occurred in 1790, and is thus narrated: “The brig Happy Return, Capt. Dring, of this port (Providence), bound for Dublin, is lost near that port. The crew and a part of the cargo were saved.” In April, 1790, is chronicled the arrival at Dublin of the brig Sally, Captain Davis, of Providence, “after a short passage of twenty two days.” In November of the same year, the ship Tristram, Captain Warner, is again mentioned as having cleared for Dublin from Providence. Among the arrivals in the port of Providence in May, 1791, was the “ship Tristram, Warner, Dublin.” In November, 1791, the Tristram, commanded by Captain Holowell, departed from Providence for Newry. December 14, 1792, the brig Betsy left Providence for Newry and in May of the next year, her arrival at Providence is noted “from Newry, which she left the 5th of March, having touched at the Cape de Verds.”

In April, 1796, the brig Lydia, Capt. John Cook, arrived at Providence from Cork in forty-nine days. We find it recorded December 21, 1799, that “A ship from Cork put into Newport on Sunday evening last, and sailed next morning. She brought Cork papers to the 24th of October.” Elsewhere it is stated that earlier in that year the ship Palmyra, Captain Trotter, of Providence, for Hamburg, put into “the Cove of Cork.”

The schooner Mayflower left Providence for Dublin in February, 361801. In 1809, among the departures from the port of Providence was the “Ship Neptune, Staples, Ireland.” The same year it is stated that the “ship Nancy, of Rhode Island, 14 days from Richmond for Cork, was spoke July 6, lat. 43:52.” In October, 1809, the brig Orient arrived at New York “53 days from Dublin. Left there among others, ship Nancy, Capt. Noyes, just arrived from Providence.” These Rhode Island captains became great favorites in Irish ports. They were frequently entertained and were treated in a hospitable manner generally. In 1811, Capt. Peregrine Howland of Newport, died in Belfast. He was in his thirty-ninth year at the time, and his passing away caused much sorrow. The ship Robert Burns, Captain Coffin, arrived at Newport January 3, 1820, “in 39 days from Ireland.” The ship George Washington, of Providence, is noted as having arrived at Cork March 26, 1820, “from Madeira in 15 days.” She was commanded by Captain Allen. Under a Newport date of January 6, 1820, we find the following: “Arrived on Tuesday last, in distress, ship William and Jane, Brown, from N. York, with flaxseed, bound to Londonderry,—Sailed from N. York, Dec. 24, and next day the ship sprung a leak, which continued to increase, and was compelled to throw over part of the cargo, and put into this port.”

It will thus be seen that flaxseed was exported to Ireland from this country. That is perhaps what Black & Stewart, Irish merchants of Providence, intended to do with the “2000 bushels of good and well clean’d flax seed” they advertised for in 1763.

From facts here adduced it will be seen that for a great many years, until Irish manufacturing industries were crushed by English law, commercial relations existed between Ireland and Rhode Island. Irish goods and Irish passengers were landed on the wharves in Newport and Providence, while outgoing ships took goods and passengers for the old land. Too long have these facts been forgotten or ignored. But a new era has dawned and the sun of investigation will yet bring forth even greater and more interesting developments.

John Burns, a native of the city of Dublin, where he was born in 1730, was a prominent character in Pennsylvania history. He emigrated to Philadelphia when quite young. He prospered in business in that city, where we are told “he took a prominent part in all local and national questions, and was honored by his fellow-citizens with many positions of trust.” He was the first governor of Pennsylvania elected after the adoption of the federal constitution, and “retained in a high degree the respect and confidence of his fellow-citizens till his death.”

One of the very earliest white settlers in Greene County was Thomas Hughes, who emigrated from Donegal with his wife, Bridget O’Neill, to Virginia. One of his descendants, Thomas Hughes, wrote the memoirs of his family in 1880, in which he said: “The motive that sent our first ancestor to this country from his native Irish home was of this character, i. e., a desire for religious freedom; he was a devout Catholic.” “Settling,” he continues, “in the valley of Virginia, in Loudoun County, before the year 1739, Thomas Hughes, son of Felime or Felix, and his wife, with his brother Felime or Felix, all from Inver, in Donegal, Ulster, first laid the foundations of his family in this country.”

“Thomas Hughes was a noted hunter, and in one of his expeditions into the backwoods, which lasted for several months, he spent some time in what is now Greene County, Pennsylvania, the soil and general appearance of which pleased him so well that he determined to make his future home there. This he did in 1771, and was one of the very first white settlers in that country. He located where Carmichaelstown now stands, but several years afterwards exchanged farms with a party named Carmichael, and called his new place Jefferson, after his old county in Virginia.”

38His nephew, Felix Hughes, also settled in Pennsylvania, where he erected a fort or blockhouse as protection against the Indians and wild animals. It was a building of only one story and a half, of hewn logs and rough boards, and as an instance of the primitiveness of the period when this Irish pioneer settled in this locality, this building was looked upon as “an elegant house!” His wife’s name was Cinthia Kaighn (or Kane). In 1780, he set out with others to Kentucky to look up lands, but the party was attacked by Indians while descending the Ohio and, after a narrow escape, Hughes returned to Greene County, where he spent the remainder of his days. He and his father were buried in Neill’s burying ground, near Carmichaelstown. Their descendants are still found in considerable numbers in Greene and Fayette counties, Pennsylvania.

A prominent Irish Catholic who settled early on Sherman’s Creek, was Henry Gass. He and his brother erected log cabins on Indian lands in Perry County, but were dispossessed from there in 1750, when they located at Falling Springs.

Patrick Gass, who was born in the latter place in 1771, and who is said to have been the first white man to make an overland trip to the Pacific, is presumed to have been a son of Henry Gass. The original name, of course, was Prendergast.

Among the earlier Irish inhabitants of Carlisle is found the Prendergrass family, whose name is identified with almost all the larger settlements west of Carlisle. Kline’s Carlisle Gazette of November 29, 1797, gave an account of the death of the aged Philip Prendergrass, which occurred two weeks previously, in which it described him as “an old inhabitant of this borough.” The name is found on the “list of taxables” in 1762. He took part in the expedition of Kitanning, in 1756, to repulse the Indians. It was a member of this family, Garrett Prendergrass who, in February, 1770, purchased the ground now occupied by the city of Allegheny, from the Six Nations. The old Prendergrass homestead was near Hanover, and is still occupied by the family. It was built in the last century by an Irishman names Byrnes, who married into the family.

Wing’s History of Cumberland County mentions John and Charles McManus, as settlers in Carlisle in 1762, the latter as “one of the oldest, most progressive and successful business men in the community.”

“The large and commodious dwelling he erected on East Street,” 39says Ganss, one of the historians of Carlisle, “still remains as a monument of post-colonial massiveness, spaciousness and solidity, with its marble slab conspicuously placed in the second story, bearing the date of its erection, 1797, and the name of its builder, and which gives evidence not only of enterprise and wealth, but cultured taste. Originally, he was proprietor of one of the largest distilleries in the county, and amassed a sufficient competence which permitted him to live, if not in luxury, at least in ease and comfort. After the death of Mrs. Mary McManus (born 1703, died 1809), the name becomes less prominent, although that of Charles is still found on the pew list of the Catholic Church as late as 1823. The descendants drifted to Mexico and Philadelphia. The former branch of the family, in the course of time, founded the prosperous and famed banking firm of McManus & Co., an institution of international reputation and the largest and most prominent in our sister republic. The Philadelphia family likewise, achieved more than ordinary success in life.”

Here we have a conspicuous example of the class of men whom Ireland gave to America in her early days.

John Frazer, who was born at Glassborough, County Monaghan, in 1709, left Ireland in 1735 and located in Philadelphia. In course of time he became a very wealthy man. He was a shipping merchant, owning several vessels engaged in the West Indian trade. He married Mary Smith, who was born in Cleary, County Monaghan. He died in Philadelphia in 1765. His son, Patrick Frazer, commanded a company of the Fourth Pennsylvania, a regiment under the command of Anthony Wayne. He became lieutenant-colonel of the Fifth Pennsylvania, and was brigadier-general of Pennsylvania militia. His grandson, Robert Frazer, was a distinguished lawyer at Thornbury, Pa.

John McCord emigrated from Ireland in 1750, and settled in Sherman’s Valley, Pa. His father also located at Landisburg, Pa., about the same time, and on his farm a fort was erected for protection against the Redmen in the Indian war of 1755. It is still known as McCord’s Fort.

David Milligan came from Ireland to Mifflin County, Pennsylvania, in 1766. He and his two brothers, John and James, served in the Fifth Battalion of Cumberland Militia through the Revolutionary War. David was twice taken prisoner. All these were in active 40service up to 1778. Their brother, Thomas, and their mother, joined them from Ireland in 1785.

Robert Guthrie, a name Anglicized from McGrath, was born in Derry; settled with his family in Lancaster County in 1744. His wife’s name was Brighid Dougherty, a native of Carndonagh, County Donegal. Their son was a lieutenant-colonel in Colonel Brodhead’s regiment through the Revolutionary War. He was in the expedition against the Six Nations, and with Harbison’s company of rangers in the border wars against the Indians. His great-grandson was mayor of Pittsburg in 1897.

Roger Connor, a native of Cork, settled at Lancaster in 1740. He established a hat factory there and purchased lands in many parts of the province, principally in Lancaster, Carlisle and York. He had Irishmen in his employ, too, and in the Philadelphia Mercury of November 24, 1743, he advertised for “Patrick Dollard, a hatter by trade, aged about twenty years, a lusty, well-set fellow, etc.” Patrick was a redemptioner and had left the service of his countryman before his term had expired. It was Roger Connor who gave the land on which St. Mary’s Church, in Lancaster, was built. His name appears on the list of subscribers to the fund for the relief of the sufferers by the Boston massacre in the Revolution. He died at Lancaster in 1776.

John and Charles Connor also settled in Lancaster about 1740, and are thought to have been kinsmen of Roger. In 1758, Charles went to Philadelphia and his name appears on the list of the early contributors to St. Mary’s Church. He died in 1775 and bequeathed his property to his nephew, Charles, son of Cornelius O’Connor, of Carrigtwohill, County Cork.

Another family named Connor lived in Ashton Township, Chester County. Charles Connor died there in 1750.

Thomas G. Connor, son of another Charles Connor, who was born at Philadelphia in 1786, is buried in Mount Vernon Cemetery, Philadelphia. His wife’s name was Martha Fitzgerald.

Morgan Connor, or O’Connor, was one of the early settlers in Pennsylvania. In the Pennsylvania Archives, Vol. X, he is referred to as “among the first to enter the service of his country as lieutenant in Captain George Nagle’s company, in Colonel Thompson’s regiment.” After the campaign of 1775–’76 he was ordered south as a brigade major for Gen. John Armstrong. He served with credit 41down to the winter of 1779, and on his return in that year he became lieutenant-colonel of Hartley’s regiment and subsequently colonel of the Eleventh Regiment. He was lost at sea in 1780, on a voyage to the West Indies. According to Volume I, No. 47, Register of Wills Office, Philadelphia, letters of administration on O’Connor’s estate were granted to Dennis McCarthy, on September 8, 1780, when McCarthy, Bryan O’Hara and Patrick Byrne gave a bond in the sum of £3,000.

In a pamphlet issued by Benjamin Franklin in 1744, entitled, Plain Talk, or Serious Considerations on the Present State of the City of Philadelphia and Province of Pennsylvania, appears a letter written in that year by Governor Morris of New Jersey, to Governor Clinton of New York, in which he said: “There are here a Popish chapel and numbers of Irish and Germans that are Papists, and I am told that should the French land 1,500 or 2,000 men, they would in that province soon get ten or twelve thousands together, which would in that case be not a little dangerous to these and neighboring colonies.”

Edward McGuire, who belonged to the staff of General McGuire in Austria, came to Philadelphia in 1751, with wines, in which he had invested his patrimony. He was the son of Constantine McGuire and Julia MacEllengot of the County of Kerry. He established himself in business in Philadelphia, but subsequently went to Alexandria, Va., thence to Winchester in 1753, where he built a hotel and gave the ground for and built the Catholic Church at Winchester in 1790. He died in 1806. His descendants were lawyers, doctors and ministers, some of whom married into the best old Virginia families.

Acrelius, in his History of New Sweden (as Pennsylvania was sometimes called prior to the English settlement), writing of 1758, said: “Forty years back our people scarcely knew what a school was. In the later times there have come over from Ireland some Presbyterians and some Roman Catholics, who commenced with school keeping, but as soon as they saw better openings they gave that up.”

Among the early Philadelphia schoolmasters, the following advertised in the Mercury: Charles Phipps, “from Dublin,” in 1729, and James Conway, on July 17, 1729. George Brownwell also advertised his school in the same year. The schoolroom later became a 42dancing academy, and was opened by “Theobald Hacket, dancing master, lately come from England and Ireland.” Alexander Butler advertised his school on November 12, 1741. On June 21, 1790, John Reilly opened a school at Columbia, and in the following year his scholars were taken by Francis Dunlevy, who taught the higher branches. This was continued until 1793, when Reilly gave the entire school to Dunlevy and opened another school at Mill Creek. It is stated in the Magazine of Western History for February, 1888, that this was the first school in the American settlements of the Ohio.

Many of these Irish schoolmasters are mentioned in Wickersham’s History of Education in Pennsylvania.

An Irish schoolmaster taught school at Chester in 1741. Rev. Mr. Backhouse of that borough, wrote the London Society for Propagation of the Gospel, that the Quakers had “set up another schoolmaster, one of their own sort truly, but a native Irish bigoted Papist, in opposition to one Charles Fortesque.” The name of this Irish schoolmaster is not mentioned.

John Conly taught “an advanced school” at Byberry, Philadelphia County, before the Revolutionary War.

John Downey, who was among the first settlers of Harrisburg, according to Wickersham, taught school at Harrisburg for a number of years. He was also a justice of the peace, town clerk and member of the Assembly. In 1796, he presented Governor Mifflin a plan for a state system of education, “in which he discussed the whole subject of education, showing a wonderful sense of its importance in a government like ours and a clear conception of the nature of the system necessary to make it general.”

On May 15, 1767, Miss Mary McAllister advertised in the Philadelphia papers to open a boarding school for young ladies in that city. “Hers was the first school of the kind in Philadelphia” (Wickersham).

Thomas Neill was a schoolmaster in the Wyoming Valley before the massacre of 1778. He is described as “an Irishman of middle age, learned, a Catholic, a Free Mason, fond of dress, remarkable for his fine flow of spirits and pleasing manners, a bachelor and a schoolmaster.” He lost his life in the massacre of Wyoming.

In 1790, a number of Catholics from Maryland settled in Cambria County, Pennsylvania. “A school was opened there,” says Wickersham, “under the direction of a schoolmaster named O’Connor.”

43Wickersham also states that the pioneer settler of northern Cambria County was a Captain Maguire. Other settlers who followed him from Maryland in 1790 were named Kaylor, Burns, McDale and Carroll, the descendants of the latter having been the founders of the present town of Carrolltown. The second white child born in that section is said to have been Michael Maguire. The number of places in Cambria County which bear Irish names indicate the extent of these Irish settlements. For instance, Driscoll, Carrolltown, Kaylor, Dale, Dougherty, Sheridan, Condon and Patton, called after the settlers, and Dysart and Munster, called after Irish places. Immediately to the north of Cambria, in Clearfield County, there are places names Mahaffey, McGee, McCartney, McCauley, Welshdale, Moran, Curryrun, Mitchel, Shawville, Barrett and Donegal, and in the other counties surrounding Cambria, are places called Tyrone, Armagh, Avonmore, McKee, Curryville, Kelley, Fleming, Connor, Daley, Downey, Lavansville, and so on.

James Nowlins taught school at Mauch Chunk. According to Wickersham, he was one of the first white men who located at that place.

“Paddy” Doyle taught school at Phœnixville. He is mentioned in Pennypacker’s Annals of Phœnixville. A description of him says “his nationality was revealed by a very decided brogue.”

Robert Williams, an Irishman, was a teacher at Greensburg.

John Sharpless conducted an academy on Second Street, Philadelphia, in 1791.

Rev. S. Magaw opened an academy on Spruce Street in 1800.

Philip Garrett and two other teachers opened a night school at Philadelphia in 1799, and their advertisement stated it was “for poor children and would do the teaching themselves.” Two years later their effort was organized into the “Philadelphia Society for the Establishment and Support of Charity Schools.”

In the settlement of New Londonderry, Chester County, Samuel Blair, an Irishman, established a school in 1740. This settlement was founded fourteen years before by immigrants from Derry and Donegal. Blair is described in Pennsylvania history as “one of the most able, learned, pious, excellent and venerable men of his day.” His academy was called “the school of the prophets,” and “from it there came forth many distinguished men who did honor to their instructor and their country.”

44One of the most eminent educators in the province was Dr. Samuel Finley, who arrived from Ireland in 1734 and located in Pennsylvania, where he taught school. In 1744 he founded an academy at Nottingham, Md., where some of the most distinguished men in the country laid the foundation of their education and usefulness. Among his many scholars were such men as Governor Martin of North Carolina, the famous Benjamin Rush of Philadelphia, his brother, Judge Rush, Governor Henry of Maryland, and Doctor McWhorter of New Jersey. It is said “there were no better classical scholars formed anywhere in the county” than in this school. In 1761, Doctor Finley was appointed president of Princeton College. He died in 1766.

Dr. Francis Alison, of Donegal, came to Pennsylvania in 1735, and settled at New London, Chester County, where he opened a school. At the time of its establishment there was a great want of learning in the Middle Colonies, and Doctor Alison is said to have instructed all who came to him “without fee or reward.” A Dr. Patrick Allison, who was born in Lancaster County in 1740, is thought to have been a relative of the Donegal schoolmaster. He held a place “in the very first rank of the American clergy, and had scarcely an equal for his eloquence.”

The father of John W. Geary, governor of Pennsylvania from 1867 to 1873, was an Irishman who had settled early in Franklin County. He became an iron manufacturer, but having failed in business and lost his entire investment in the mines, he opened a select school in Westmoreland County, to which he devoted the remaining years of his life. His son, General Geary, commanded a Pennsylvania regiment in the Mexican War, and was commissioned governor of Kansas in 1856. He fought in the War of the Rebellion and distinguished himself for his bravery at Gettysburg. “His name will forever be associated with the great events of the brilliant Chattanooga campaign.” While in the command at Lookout Mountain, his son, Capt. Edward Geary, a youth of eighteen, was killed by his side.

William Powers, who was elected a member of the Hibernian Society of Philadelphia in 1790, is referred to in Campbell’s history of that society as “a teacher in the university.”

Benjamin Workman, who also joined in the same year, is described as a teacher of mathematics. He advertised in the Freeman’s 45Journal on June 28, 1786, as “from the University of Pennsylvania.”

Rev. S. B. Wylie, a native of Moylarg, County Antrim, was a teacher in a private academy at Philadelphia in 1797, in which year he fled from the wrath of the British government. He was an early member of the Society of United Irishmen in Belfast. He became professor of languages in the University of Pennsylvania and was vice-provost of that institution. He joined the Hibernian Society in 1811.

William Findlay, who was born in Ireland in 1750, came to Pennsylvania in August, 1763, and taught school in Westmoreland County for several years after his arrival. He was elected to the state Legislature from Westmoreland County, and was a member of Congress from 1791 to 1799, and again from 1803 to 1817. He was a prominent writer and pamphleteer on subjects devoted to the public welfare. He was a member of the Hibernian Society.

Among the members of the Hibernian Society who were elected in 1790, Francis Donnelly, John Barry, John Heffernan and James Kidd are described as schoolmasters in Philadelphia.

Patrick Farrall, who joined the Society in 1792, and who is described as “the first clerk in the office for settling accounts between the United States and individual states” after independence had been won, is thought to have been a Pennsylvania schoolmaster.

Andrew Porter, a member of the Hibernian Society, opened “an English and Mathematical School” in Philadelphia in 1767, in which he taught till 1776, when he was appointed a captain of marines and ordered to the frigate Effingham. He was a son of Robert Porter, who emigrated from Derry to New Hampshire in 1720, and who afterwards removed to Montgomery County, Pa. He was transferred from the marine corps to the command of the Fourth Pennsylvania Artillery, which post he held until the close of the war. He fought in several battles of the Revolutionary War at the head of his gallant regiment, and is said to have been personally commended by Washington for his conduct at the battle of Germantown. He became general of Pennsylvania militia, and took a prominent part in all movements for the welfare of his native state. Gov. David R. Porter of Pennsylvania, Gov. Bryan Porter of Michigan, and James M. Porter, secretary of war under Tyler, were grandsons of the exile from Derry, Robert Porter.

In 1815 the population of St. Louis was 2,000. Billon’s Annals for 1817–’20 states: “The adult male population of that day was about 700. Of American birth 400, French and Spanish 150, and of foreign birth 150. Of these, fully two thirds, or about 100, were Irishmen, some fifteen or twenty European Frenchmen, about the same number English and Scotch, and some ten or twelve Germans.”

The tax list for 1811 shows Auguste Chouteau as the largest taxpayer, the Irish-American firm, McKnight & Brady, second. The first directory of St. Louis (1821) contains 749 names. Of these but few are Germanic. As late as 1827 there were but twenty-seven German families here.

In 1663 Marquis de Tracy was governor-general of all the French possessions in America, and another Franco-Irishman, Chevalier McCarthy, in 1751, was commandant of the French settlement of the Illinois territory, and in 1769 a native Gael, Alexander O’Reilly, had command under the Spanish.

Peter Conley appears as a witness to Laclede’s will. Charles Gratiot was a member of the firm of David McCrae & Co., at Cahokia, from 1771 to 1781. Among the earliest mortgages in St. Louis is that of Pierre Saffray to Joseph O’Neille. Mathew Kennedy, in 1771, executed a bond to Antoine Bernard, and in the will of Jan Louis Lambert, a merchant, who died here in 1771, is found memoranda of an indebtedness due Morrissey & Co. Both Kennedy and Morrissey were prominent merchants here long prior to this.

When Patrick Henry, then governor of Virginia, determined to check the progress of the English on the Western frontier, he gave the command to the son of an Irishman, Gen. George Rogers Clark. Virginia was unable to furnish the money to equip Clark’s troops for the Illinois campaign, but an Irish merchant of New Orleans, Oliver Pollock, borrowed $70,000 from Count O’Reilly, once commandant of the Louisiana territory. What Morris did in the East 47Pollock did in the West for the American cause. To his financial aid the United States owes the success of Clark’s Illinois campaign. That Clark had many soldiers of Irish birth in his army is shown by a deposition taken at Kaskaskia, June 11, 1779, in which are the names of Andrew McDonald, Aaron Barrett, Patrick Shine, Andrew Coil and Tarrance Mooney.

The first American who settled in St. Louis after Clark’s surprise of Kaskaskia, in 1778, was Philip Fine, son of Thomas Fine, an Irish settler in Virginia. He came in 1781. Kaskaskia was the settling place of many Irish in the early days, among them being Robert Morrison, an Irish merchant, who arrived in 1792.

In 1800 occurred the murder of Adam Horne, on the Meramec. The commandant at Carondelet appointed as witnesses to the inventory John Cummings and John Donald, the witness to the order being Bartholomew Harrington.

In 1803 Governor Delassus organized two companies of militia for the protection of New Madrid, and appointed Richard Waters, captain, and George K. Reagan, lieutenant of cavalry, and Robert McCoy, captain, and John Hart, ensign of infantry. William Sullivan obtained the first tavern license issued in the town after its transfer to the Americans, and was appointed by General Harrison constable and coroner, holding in the latter capacity the first inquest. In 1816, when Chouteau laid out the first addition to the town, Sullivan purchased a half block, on which he built a residence, where he died.

Immediately after the transfer of the territory, Colonel Delassus addressed an official note to the new American officials commending, among others, the following officers who had served under him in the French service: James Mackay, commandant at St. Andrew, “an officer of knowledge, zealous and punctual”; also Mr. Mathew McKonel, Robert McKay, “a brave officer,” and Dr. Samuel Dorsey, surgeon of the fort.

After the transfer came the descendants of Irish settlers of Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, the Carolinas and Tennessee, a sturdy, vigorous, independent and progressive race, to whom President Roosevelt, himself a descendant on the maternal side, pays tribute in his Winning of the West. The fathers of many of them took part in the Revolutionary War, others were those who were banished from Ireland through the same laws that forced Americans to rebel.

48Among the latter was Joseph Charless, a native of Westmeath, who sought his fellow refugees, Mathew Carey and William Duane, in Philadelphia. He worked as a compositor on Duane’s Aurora, and set up for Carey the first folio edition of the Bible printed in the United States. Shortly afterward he left for Kentucky, coming later with his printer’s outfit on mulebacks to St. Louis, where he began the publication of the first newspaper printed west of the Mississippi, the Missouri Gazette, in 1808.

In 1804 came John Mullanphy, the celebrated philanthropist. His third daughter, Jane, married Charles Chambers, son of John Chambers, a United Irishman, who, with Thomas Addis Emmet, Dr. William Macneven and thirteen others, after their release from a political prison, came to America, where they rose to distinction.

James Rankin was the first sheriff of St. Louis under American rule, and the first grand jury contains some Irish names, and many transfers of real estate from early settlers are recorded this year, among them that of Manuel Lisa to Patrick Cullen and Joseph Bent. Eighteen hundred and four was the year when the old Fort Bellefontaine was selected for the establishment of Jefferson Barracks, which, after its abandonment, in 1826, was left in charge of Capt. John Whistler, a native of Ireland, founder of Fort Dearborn, in 1803, now the city of Chicago, and grandfather of the famous American artist, James A. McNeil Whistler. He died in St. Louis in 1829.

This year also saw the departure of Lewis and Clark to the Rocky Mountains, Clark being a brother to Gen. Rogers Clark. Among the party were George Shannon, who afterward became United States attorney for Missouri, and Patrick Gass.

A remarkable Irishman came in 1805—Jeremiah Conners. In 1818 he was the owner of the 40–arpent lots, on which he laid out Washington Avenue. Part of his property he donated to Bishop Dubourg, in 1820, for founding St. Louis University, the first of its kind in St. Louis. At his house was organized the first Irish society established in the city, in 1818.

William Christy, whose people came from County Down, was also a famous man. He laid out the whole section known as North St. Louis. Another large Irish landholder was Patrick McMasters Dillon, who, previous to leaving Ireland, was involved in the Emmet rising. He laid out several additions to the city on lands he purchased, 49his last being “Dillon’s Fourth Addition,” in 1840, on a tract purchased from Fred Dent, father-in-law of President Grant. One of his daughters, Martha N., married the celebrated Capt. James B. Eads.

Among other large purchasers of real estate in the early years occur the names of James Mackay, James Conway, Mathew Boyse, John Hogan, Hugh O’Neill and John Dougherty. A famous lawyer of this time was Col. Luke E. Lawless, a native of Dublin, who came in 1816, and who, after the resignation of Judge William C. Carr from the Circuit Court, succeeded him. Still another was Nathaniel Beverly Tucker. He became judge of the Circuit Court. One of the family married John Patten Emmet, youngest son of Thomas Addis Emmet, who was appointed professor of chemistry in the University of Virginia by Thomas Jefferson, the son of the union being the celebrated Dr. Thomas Addis Emmet of New York. Another legal luminary was Hamilton Rowan Gamble, whose people came from Belfast. In 1861 he was chosen provisional governor of the state.

In the first House of Representatives of the territory, S. McGrady represented Ste. Genevieve. In the legislative council occurs the name of James Flaugherty. William Neeley became president of the council. The first state Legislature met in the Missouri Hotel, built by Thomas Brady, a famous Irishman of his day.

Col. John O’Fallon, son of Dr. James O’Fallon, native of County Roscommon, surgeon under Washington, came in 1811, and resided with his uncle, General Clark. The name has become so identified with the history of the city as to need no mention. Francis Redford opened, in 1804, the first school for instruction in English. The honor of giving the grounds for its first seat of learning belongs to a native of the Emerald Isle. The proud distinction of being called the “Father of the University of Missouri” belongs to a man whose ancestors came from the County Tyrone, Dr. James Rollins.

The first bank, the Bank of St. Louis, organized in 1813, had as one of its commissioners Thomas Brady, and the second, the Bank of Missouri, had among its directors John McKnight and Mathew Kerr, and the Bank of the State of Missouri, organized in 1837, had among its directors Hugh O’Neill, Edward Walsh, Edward Dobyns and John O’Fallon. A branch of the United States Bank was started in 1819, with John O’Fallon as president.

50The Merchants’ Exchange began as a debating Society, in 1836, with Edward Tracy as president and John Ford as secretary. The Millers’ Association, the first of its kind in the West, was established in 1849, among the members being John Walsh. Financial exchanges need telegraphic connections, so along came a Leitrim man, Henry O’Reilly, in 1847, who opened here the first telegraph office west of the Mississippi.

In military life the men of the “Fighting Race” were to the fore. The St. Louis Grays, the first volunteer organization, started in 1832, had for its ensign John P. Riley, but a volunteer company of light infantry preceded it in 1819, having for its captain Henry W. Conway. Other companies were added to the Grays in 1842, forming the First Regiment, St. Louis Legion, among the designations of the companies being “Montgomery Guards,” with Patrick Gorman, captain; “St. Louis Guards,” Daniel Byrne, captain; “Mound City Guards,” John H. Barrett, captain; “Morgan Riflemen,” Henry J. McKillop, captain.

In this review of the “pioneer” Irish in St. Louis, many names necessarily are omitted. Sufficient to mention men of worth in their day, such as John C. Sullivan, collector, in 1814; Judge Thomas McGuire, 1817; Captain McGunnegle, the Rankin Brothers, Hugh, Robert and David, who came hither from Ireland in 1819; Bernard Gillully, who was in partnership with Edward C. Cummings; James Clemens, Patrick Walsh, Richard K. Dowling, Thomas Hanley, Thomas M. Doherty, Mayor Ferguson, William Carr Lane, Bryan Mullanphy, and others.

Such men, indeed, were the “cream of St. Louis society” in the early part of the nineteenth century.

We hear much of the part played by the Irish in the creation and maintenance of the American republic in the military sense, but what they have contributed towards its civil, commercial, manufacturing or educational development is much overlooked and remains unknown to readers of the present day.

From “Les Combattants Francais de la Guerre Americaine.”
2. Published in Paris, 1903.

Régiment de Dillon.
Le comte Dillon (Arthur).
Colonel En Second.
Le chevalier Dillon (Théobald).
Dillon (Barthélemy).
O’Moran (Jacques).
Quartier-Maitre Tresorier.
Moncarelly (Barthélemy).
Moore (Gerard).
Purdon (Simon).
Bancks (Thomas).
Nugent (Anselme).
Swigny (Paul).
Shee (Robert).
Moore (Guillaume).
O’Neill (Bernard).
O’Berin (Michel).
Taaffe (Laurent).
Capitaines En Second.
De Mandeville (Jacques).
Macquire (Philippe).
Macdermott (Thomas), ainé.
O’Reilly (Jean).
Kelly (Guillaume).
Macdermott (Thomas).
Novolan (Christophe).
O’Doyer (Denis).
Lynck (Isidore).[3]
Coghlan (Therence).
3. Possibly intended for Lynch. Some of these attained higher rank during the war and after.

Greenlaw (Jean-Bernard).
Dillon (Thomas).
O’Keeffe (Patrice).
O’Farel (Claude).
De Macdermott (Bernard).
Welsh (Michel).
Evin (Nicolas).
Commerfort (Joseph).
Browne (Jean).
Duggan (Jean).
Lieutenants En Second.
Darcy (Louis).
Fitz Harris (Guillaume).
Browne (Thomas).
Taaffe (Christophe).
Fennell (Jean).
Hussey (Jean).
52Le chevalier Whyte Seyslip (Nicolas).
Swigny (Edmond).
O’Farell (Emanuel).
O’Farell (Jacques).
Maclosky (Jacques).
De Morgan (Jean-Baptiste).
Mac Sheehy (Patrice).
Fitzgerald (Edouard).
Shee (Guillaume).
O’Farell (Emmanuel).
Fitzmaurice (Joseph).
O’Reilly (Charles).
Macdonald (Jean-Baptiste).
O’Meara (Daniel).
Khnopff (Louis).
Mahony (Denis).
Sheldon (Guillaume).
O’Moran (Charles).
Owens (Henry).
Strange (Patrice).
Purdon (Henry).
Murphy (Patrice).
Dehays (Thomas).
Régiment de Walsh.[4]
4. The officers of but one battalion of the regiment of Walsh are given here.

O’Brien (Thadée).
Quartier-Maitre Tresorier.
Bancelin (Charles).
De Fitz Maurice (Thomas).
Le chevalier de Walsh (Charles).
O’Niel (Jean).
De Nagle (Jacques).
O’Brien (Jean).
D’Arcy (Jacques).
Capitaines En Second.
Stack (Edouard).
Bellew (Laurent).
O’Croly (Charles).
O’Driscol (Jacques).
Le chevalier O’Connor (Armand).
Plunkett (François).
O’Riordan (Jacques).
Keating (Guillaume).
Barry (Richard).
Lieutenants En Second.
O’Sheil (Jacques).
O’Meara (Jean-Baptiste).
O’Gorman (Charles).
Meighan (Georges).
Mac-Carthy (Eugène).
Keating (Jean).
Cruice (James).
O’Crowly (Felix).
Darell (Philippe).
O’Flyn (Jacques).
Barker (William).
Traut (Thomas).
Barry (David).
O’Cahill (Louis).
Tobin (Jacques).
53M. Macarty de Marteigue, commandant of Le Magnifque, 1782.
Du Fay de Carty, an ensign aboard Le Magnifque, 1782.
Abbe Maccabe, chaplain of L’Annibal, 1779–1781.
Roger Morrison, chaplain of L’Andromaque, 1778–’79, and of L’Eveille, 1780–’82.
Abbe Bartholome Omahony (O’Mahony), chaplain of L’Ivelly.
Abbe Dowd, “Irlandais,” a chaplain of Le Jason.
Macarty, an ensign aboard Le Conquerant, 1780–’82.
De Rochefermoy (Mathieu), a lieutenant in the regiment de Bourbonnais.
Editorial in the Irish-American, New York, October 14, 1905.
5. On page 121, Vol. V, Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society: “Thomas the Irishman” is mentioned as in the Dutch records of New York. Thus, Hon. Peter Stuyvesant, Director-General of New Netherland, writing to Capt. Martin Cregier, 1663, says: “Your letter by Thomas the Irishman has just been received.” … On August 5, 1663, Captain Cregier writes in his journal: “Thomas the Irishman arrived here at the Redoubt from the Manhatans.” On September 1, 1663, Captain Cregier writes: “Thomas the Irishman and Claesje Hoorn arrived with their yachts at the Kill from the Manhatan,” and on the 17th of the same month the captain writes: “Thomas the Irishman arrived today.” The foregoing references may be found in Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New York, edited by Fernow, Vol. XIII, Albany, 1881.

In the preparation for an exhaustive history of early New York Mr. Dingman Versteeg, archivist of the Holland Society, has been able to trace out many heretofore lacking details of the record of the Irishman who was so prominent here in Governor Stuyvesant’s time.

His name was Thomas Lewis, and he must have gone to Holland from Ireland some time previous to 1657. How long he remained there does not appear, but, in that year, he was sent from Amsterdam under contract to the Dutch West Indies Company as a carpenter to New Amsterdam, as this city (New York) was then called. His name was transformed in the records to Thomas Lodewicksen, a sort of Latin-Dutch combination.

For three years after this he does not seem to have made much stir here, and then he appears as the captain of a bark plying between this city and Albany. A man of such standing in this community at that time was a real captain of industry and a citizen of substance.

The favor and regard in which Lewis was held by Governor Stuyvesant is evidenced by the fact that his bark was used to transport troops in the Esopus war of 1663, and on it Stuyvesant made his headquarters, so dating a number of letters still extant.

Lewis was married to a Dutch wife, Geesje Barents, a member of a prominent and well-known family in this city. He had several children. One of them, Thomas Lodewicksen, Jr., married Frances, daughter of the famous Jacob Leisler, head of the colony, which is another indication of his father’s social prominence.

55Lewis died here, on September 14, 1685, and his widow was named executrix of his will by Governor Dongan, April 1, 1686. There are many of his descendants among the various Lewis families scattered over this state, but few of them, perhaps, know that their ancestor was that “Thomas the Irishman” mentioned so frequently in the old Dutch records of Stuyvesant’s time.

James and Isaac Savage and their two sisters, came to America from Ireland. Afterward, about 1763, their father, James Savage, being then an aged man, came to this country to Newton, Mass., where the two daughters had settled. There he died and was buried.

His sons, James and Isaac, settled at Woolwich, Me., where James was early killed by the Indians. Isaac married and had a large family. His wife’s name is not known. Among their children was a son, who settled at Wiscasset, Me., another son who settled at Woolwich and another son, James, who also settled at Wiscasset. James (3) married Mary Hilton, who was born at Berwick, Me., in 1721, and lived to be 100 years old. James and Mary had seventeen children. Order of birth is not known.

They were as follows: Isaac, who married Deborah Soule; Abigail, married, June 13, 1765, Robert Lambert; Lydia, married, February 1, 1776, Daniel Ring; Hannah, born 1745, married Thomas McFadden; James, married Annah Young; Ebenezer, born 1753, married Sarah Chase; Abraham, married, in 1783, Patience Young; John, married, in 1783, Susannah Tinkham or Pinkham; Jacob, born in 1759, married, in 1781, Hannah Gray; Mary, married, in 1795, John Card; Charles, married, in 1784, Margaret Corillard, and married, second, about 1785, Margaret Rose Lovejoy; Catherine, died April 24, 1800, unmarried; Edward, born 1776, married, June 6, 1790, Sarah Smith; Andrew, born 1769, married Tamson Tibbetts; Christiana, Daniel, Ann.

An interesting historical paragraph recently contributed, states that in 1798 Edward O’Brien printed in New Haven, Conn., his “School Dictionary: Being a compendium of the latest and most improved dictionaries,” which exists in two copies—the British Museum copy (perfect) and the Yale College Library copy (lacking ten pages). This was the first dictionary by an American author published in this country. It has no date, but is thought to have been issued towards the end of 1798. Its author, who taught school in Guilford, Conn., was born there March 10, 1757, and died there August 20, 1836. Soon after its publication its author and the Rev. John Elliott (1768–1824, great-great-grandson of John Elliott, the Indian apostle) prepared the second American dictionary, which was copyrighted in June, 1799, and published in January, 1800.

James Stevenson, a native of Ireland, was born in 1750 and was brought to this country when a child. During the Revolutionary War he served as a sergeant in Colonel Evans’ Pennsylvania regiment, was captured by the enemy and held for a year in the notorious British prison ships.

After the war he married Hannah Bull, a daughter of Col. John Bull, of Chester County, Pa., a soldier of the Revolution. They removed to Lawrence County, Pa., Mr. Stevenson dying in Poland, Ohio, in 1834. He left many descendants and a society has been formed among them. It holds annual reunions.

Among his descendants may be mentioned: John H. Stevenson, of Allegheny; Prof. William M. Stevenson, of Pittsburg; Rev. Frank B. Stevenson, of New Castle; Dr. Silas Stevenson; James A. Stevenson and E. S. Stevenson, of New Castle; T. D. Stevenson, of New Bedford, Pa.; Mrs. Rebecca Stevenson Neal, of Pulaski, Pa.; Capt. Thomas S. Calhoun, of Georgetown, Pa.; Thomas S. McCready, of Manchester, Kas.; Homer A. McCready, of Hancock County, W. Va.; Thomas W. Stevenson, of East Liverpool, O.; William E. Stevenson, of Hookstown, Pa., and W. H. Stevenson, of Hookstown.

Andrew Haley was of the Isles of Shoals. He was of Irish blood and had a son, Andrew, who married Elizabeth Scammon, of Kittery, Me., in 1697. Andrew Haley, Sr., early settled on the islands and eventually became styled “King of the Shoals.” He and his descendants seem to have long occupied that portion of the Shoals known as Haley’s Island. In the Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, for 1800, is a paper descriptive of the Shoals, from which paper we extract the following: “The only secure harbour in these islands is Haley’s, which opens to the S. W., having Haley’s island S. E., Malaga N. W., a wall built by Mr. Haley, between 70 and 80 paces in length, on the N. E…. At the close of the year 1800 there were on Haley’s island, three decent dwelling houses, occupied by Mr. Haley, an ingenious and respectable old gentleman of seventy-six, and his two sons, with their families. Mr. Haley has expended a handsome fortune in erecting the expensive wall before mentioned, wharves, and other useful works. Among these are a windmill, rope walk, 270 feet long; salt works erected before the war [Revolution], a bake house, brewery, distillery, built in 1783, and a blacksmith’s and cooper’s shop.”

Long before the Revolution, and long after that period, Irish pork and butter were imported to this country in great quantities. A Boston paper publishes the following letter, which was dated October 29, 1763, and sent from a leading firm in Boston to parties in Ireland: “This is to Desire you will as soon as possible & without Fail Ship us from Cork 250 Barrels Best Irish Pork & 100 Firkins of good Irish Butter, the weight of each Barrell of Pork to be mark’d on the head, to be well Pack’d. This Article will be very Scarce & Dear here, that we must Depend upon your shipping it with the 100 Firkins of Butter [all] to be here in March if possible & if no oppor’y to this place Ship it to Halifax to the care of Benj. Gerrish Esqr. and as soon as the next May Butter is fit to ship we Desire you will then ship us 100 Firkins more of the best Rose May Butter. We rely on your 58care to have these articles of the best kind & purchased at the best Rates, which charge to our accott. We beg your attention to this that we may not by any means be disappointed, as we shall be in great want of it. We are with Respect, Gent., Your most hum. Servts, Messrs. Jona. Barnard & Co.”—(From The Recorder [A. I. H. S.], Boston, Mass., March, 1902.)

A Moravian missionary who went from Pennsylvania to Georgia, in 1743–’44, writes that while in the lower valley of Virginia: “I asked him (Joist Hite) for the way to Carolina. He told me of one which runs for 150 miles through Irish settlements, the district being known as Irish tract.”—(Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, October, 1904.)

Barnabas Palmer, of Rochester, N. H., was born in Cork or Limerick, 1725, emigrated from there with two brothers, and enlisted under Sir William Pepperill. Barnabas sailed from Portsmouth, N. H.,—one of the force of 3,000 men, 1745, and on the Isle of Cape Breton, under Fort Louisburg, left his right arm. Subsequently he settled in Rochester, N. H., married, had fourteen children, and was a member of the General Court of New Hampshire that ratified the Constitution of the United States. Here is another fragment of history: Lieutenant-General Pepperrell, in 1745, ordered Maj. John Stover to organize a company at Wells, Me., for the Louisburg expedition. The order was promptly carried out. Among the volunteers were Edward Welch, John Conaway, James Gillpatrick, John McDaniel, James Read, Michael Wilson and John Burks (Burke?). They sailed March 24, 1745, for Cape Breton. Some of the company died there. In the fall of 1745 most of the survivors returned to Wells.

Workmen who were digging in Congress Street [Boston] the other day found an interesting old coin which is said by experts to link the records of Boston currency nearly two centuries ago with a mintage controversy that stirred even the phlegmatic George III, and elicited some of the most famous witticisms of Dean Swift and dignified declarations of Sir Isaac Newton. It is about one third larger than an American quarter and has on the obverse side an idealized head of George III, in the center, surrounded with the words “Georgius Deo Gratia Rex.” Perhaps the intrinsic interest is in the reverse side, which has in the center a symbolic figure of Ireland, bearing a harp, and on the border is stamped “Hibernia—1723.” The first anomaly in this is that, although it was on its face an Irish coin, it was neither coined nor circulated in that country, but, owing to indignant protests of Irish dealers, crystallized by the sarcasms of that witty divine, Dean Swift, it was shipped over to Boston, where it circulated as the “colonial half-penny.” In the old country it was called the “Woods half-penny,” on account of its coinage by a Londoner of that name. This was the chief element of grievance, as Ireland was then approaching the time when the aspiration of a Grattan were to find realization, and Swift argued in his famous Drapier letters that the country should not have these foreign and false coins passed upon it.—(Boston Transcript, October 12, 1895.)

Since I forwarded the data relating to Dennis and William Mackarty, I have again examined the probate records of this town, and have made the discovery that the will of Dennis Maccarty of Warren was probated November 7, 1757. As Dennis of Bristol did not die until 1760, it follows that there must have been living in Bristol County two men bearing the same name, both of whom served in the French wars.

60I enclose a copy of the will of Dennis of Warren. In 1757, Warren, as you know, included Barrington. You will notice that the legatees mentioned in the will were all Barrington men; therefore, I conclude that that Dennis resided in the west section of the town. Again, the testator mentions no kindred, while Dennis of Bristol had a wife and son. Here is the will mentioned:

“In the Name of God Amen I Dennis Maccarty of Warren in the County of Bristol in the Colony of Rhode Island Labourer being engaged in the expedition against Crown Point; and not knowing what Shall befall me Being now of a Sound and Disposing mind; Thanks be to God; Do make this my last will and Testament in manner following; Principally and first of all I give my soul to the hands of God that gave it and my Body to the earth to be Decently Buried in a Christian manner hoping for a Blessed Resurrection thro the merits of Jesus our only Redeemer; and as to my worldly goods where with it hath Pleased God to Bless me I give the same in the following manner;

“Item. My Will is that my Just Debts and Funeral Charges be Duly and Seasonably Paid by my executor.

“Item. To my loving and well beloved Friend Peleg Richmond I give a Note of hand I have against him of one hundred and thirty-two pounds old tenor Rhode Island currency.

“Item. To my loving and beloved friend John Roger Richmond I give all my wearing apparel.

“Item. To my friend Mary Richmond Juner I give one hundred pounds. To her sister Elizabeth Richmond I give sixty pounds; and to Sarah Richmond I give forty pounds; all to be paid in old tenor Rhode Island.

“Item. To my beloved friend Benjamin Viall I give a note of hand I have against him of Forty Pounds three Shillings old tenor.

“Item. To my beloved friend Thomas Brown I give Thirty Pounds old tenor Rhode Island currency.

“To my Trusty and Beloved Friend Solomon Townsend of Warren, Clerk, whom I make executor of my last will and Testament I give and bequeath all the Remainder of my moneys, Bills, notes, Bonds, and wares that Shall Remain and become Due After the above Legacies are Paid. And I Do Ratify and confirm this to be my last will and testament. In Witness hereof I have Set my hand and 61Seal this Thirtieth Day of April in the Twenty ninth year of his majesties’ Reign Anno Domini Seventeen Hundred and Fifty Six.

“Dennis X Maccarty,
“Signed, Sealed, Published and delivered by sd. Dennis Maccarty to be his last Will and Testament.

“In presence of
“Constant Viall.
“David Allen, Jr.
“Samuel Viall.”
Probated November 7, 1757.”
From The Recorder (I. A. H. S.), February, 1902.
The sloop Seaflower left Belfast, Ireland, July 10, 1741, bound for Philadelphia, in the province of Pennsylvania. She had 106 persons aboard, mainly emigrants.

The Seaflower was owned by Joseph Thompson of New Haven, Conn., and Capt. Ebenezer Clark, master of the sloop. Thompson owned three fourths and Clark the remainder. When about two weeks out, Captain Clark, the master, sickened and died and the mate was also taken ill.

Thus began a reign of suffering, wretchedness and misery that has seldom been surpassed in the annals of ocean voyages. Some time after the master’s death the sloop sprung her mast and to add to the horrors of the voyage the supply of water and provisions began to run low.

The accident to the mast, the sickness and other troubles greatly extended the voyage so that long before the American coast was sighted many of the ship’s company and passengers had perished of hunger.

In order to sustain life the living were driven to feed on the dead. Six bodies had been thus consumed and the seventh was being cut up when the Success, man-of-war, came alongside and her captain supplied 62the well-nigh crazed survivors of the Seaflower with provisions sufficient to bring them into port.

Now to account for this fearful voyage: It is possible that the sloop was overcrowded on leaving Belfast; also that a miscalculation had been made as to the probable length of time that would be required for the voyage, this leading to an inadequate supply of water and provisions. The death of the master and the illness of the mate likewise had a decided tendency to complicate matters. When the food supply was at length exhausted, and the last drop of water gone, thirst was added to the horrors of hunger. With the vessel still many leagues from land, the awful sufferings of passengers and crew can be imagined, not described.

Forty-six died on the passage.

The Seaflower cast anchor in Boston Harbor, October 31, sixteen weeks having elapsed since she sailed from Ireland. On the date mentioned, October 31, 1741, the selectmen of Boston convened in session, there being present: Captain Forsyth, Caleb Lyman, Jonas Clark, Mr. Hancock, Mr. Cook and Captain Steel. At this meeting was considered “The sloop Seaflower this day arrived from Belfast, Ebenezer Clark, late master, with 65 passengrs on board….” The following minute was recorded, viz., that

“Whereas a Sloop from Ireland with a number of Passengers on board being arrived in this Harbour & apprehending danger may acrue to the Inhabitants by reason of the Hardships the People have Suffered in their Passage being obliged to eat some of their People to Sustain Life, Voted That the Select Men View the State of the Persons on board with Doctr Clark & Report what Circumstances they are in….”

The selectmen accordingly visited the afflicted survivors of the Seaflower and found the facts as here outlined. So serious was the case, that the Selectmen again met on November 2 and decided to wait on the governor and council to acquaint them with the conditions and see what could be done. The same day, November 2, a meeting of the governor and council was held in the council chamber in Boston, the selectmen appeared, stated their case and sought advice.

They declared that about thirty of the passengers were in “very low circumstances & not able of taking care of themselves, but require the speediest care to preserve life.” The selectmen prayed 63“that suitable provision may be made for them or else they must perish.” The governor and council accordingly

Ordered that the selectmen secure the papers belonging to the owners and last master, with the goods aboard and dispose of the servants and passengers in hospital on Rainsford’s island, where they were to be supported and nursed. It was also ordered that the “owners of the said Sloop” be speedily advised of existing conditions and requested to come to Boston, “pay the Charges herein expended & take all further Care in the Premisses as shall be necessary.”

The selectmen thereupon sent an express to Joseph Thompson, of New Haven, asking him to repair to Boston and take charge of the Seaflower and servants. They likewise directed the town clerk of Boston to write to Mr. Thompson. The selectmen also voted that Captain Forsyth and Captain Steel of their number be a committee to go aboard the sloop and take an account of the papers, etc., and secure them, Mr. Savell to see that the unfortunate people were supplied with all things necessary to their comfort until the vessel was taken to Rainsford’s island. Mr. Ball was directed to take the sloop there as soon as possible.

On Tuesday morning, the vessel and passengers were taken over to the island “with the help of Capt. Tyng & his People who came in the long boat & other persons.” The passengers were all carried ashore and lodged in the hospital. Doctor Clark gave directions for the treatment of the patients, and men were put in charge of the vessel and the goods aboard.

The selectmen met again on November 16. Mr. Thompson of New Haven appeared and stated that he owned three fourths of the sloop and that Ebenezer Clark, the deceased master, owned the rest. He asked that the vessel’s papers he delivered to him and this was done. Thompson and Captain Steel, the latter one of the selectmen, assumed all the charges incurred.

The facts briefly stated herein have been obtained from the minutes of the selectmen of Boston as reproduced in printed form by the record commissioners of that city.

From The Recorder (A. I. H. S.), Boston, Mass., December, 1901.
Portsmouth, R. I., was settled in 1638. Nine years later it was the most populous town in the colony. Here Eleazar Slocum was born on the “25th day of the 10th month 1664.” He resided there until some twenty years of age when he removed to Dartmouth Township, now included in the city of New Bedford, Mass.

In Dartmouth he wedded an Irish girl named Elephell Fitzgerald. Concerning her there are two theories. The first is that she was the daughter of an Irish earl and came to this country with her sister, who was eloping with an English officer. The second theory is that favored by Charles E. Slocum, M. D. Ph. D. In his History of the Slocums he inclines to the belief that Miss Fitzgerald was one of those Irish maidens who were shipped to New England in Cromwell’s time or at later periods.

There were doubtless large numbers of these Irish girls brought over. The majority of them were, without question, Roman Catholics. Frequently their fate was a hard and cruel one. Thebaud, in his Irish Race in the Past and the Present, writing on the subject says:

“Such of them as were sent North were to be distributed among the ‘saints’ of New England, to be esteemed by the said ‘saints’ as ‘idolaters,’ ‘vipers,’ ‘young reprobates,’ just objects of ‘the wrath of God’; or, if appearing to fall in with their new and hard task-masters, to be greeted with words of dubious praise as ‘brands snatched from the burning,’ ‘vessels of reprobation,’ destined, perhaps, by a due initiation of the ‘saints’ to become ‘vessels of election,’ in the meantime to be unmercifully scourged with the ‘besom of righteousness,’ at the slightest fault or mistake.”

Some, however, met a better fate. Their lines fell in more fortunate places. In many cases they were kindly treated and, in time, married into the families of their recent masters. Some of them, too, reared large families of manly sons and womanly daughters and lived to a happy old age. Many of their descendants must exist today in high places. Perhaps some are not aware of their maternal Irish descent, while a few may be reluctant to acknowledge it if they are. 65Yet, many of these Irish girls were descended from the old nobility and clansmen whose names and fames had ranked with the most illustrious in Europe.

Miss Fitzgerald’s marriage to Eleazar Slocum took place about 1687. Their children were Meribah, born in 1689; Mary, born 1691; Eleazar, born in 1693–’94; John, 1696–’97; Benjamin, 1699, and Joanna, 1702. There was also another child named Ebenezer. In 1699 the husband and father is recorded as giving £3 toward building a Quaker meeting house. His will was proved in 1727. It makes the following provisions concerning his wife:

“Item—I give and bequeath Elephell, my beloved wife, the sum of twenty pounds [per] annum of Good and Lawful money of New England, to be paid Yearly and Every Year By my Executrs During her Naturall life—

“Item—I give and bequeath to Elephell my beloved wife an Indian girl named Dorcas During the time she hath to Serve by Indenture—she fulfilling all articles on my behalf—

“Item—I give and Bequeath to Elephell my beloved wife, The great low room of my Dwelling house with the two bedrooms belonging together with the Chamber over it and the Bedrooms belonging thereto, and the Garrett and also what part of the Nw Addition she shall Choose and one half of the cellar, During her Naturall life.

“Item—I will that my executors procure and supply Elephell my wife with firewood sufficient During her Naturall life, And whatsoever Provisions and Corn shall be left after my Decease, I give to Elephell my wife for her support, and also the hay for Support of the Cattle. The above gifts and Bequests is all and what I intend for Elephell my wife instead of her thirds or Dowry.”

To his son Eleazar he bequeathed the northerly part of the homestead farm, 100 acres, with house, barns, orchard, etc.; to son Ebenezer, the southerly part of the homestead farm “on which my dwelling house stands.” To Eleazar and Ebenezer he also gives other lands, and to Ebenezer, in addition one pair of oxen, a pair of steers, eight cows, two heifers and £12. The remainder of the horses, cattle, etc., he gives to Eleazar and Ebenezer. The inventory shows £5,790 18s 11d personal estate.

His widow, Elephell (Fitzgerald) Slocum, made a will “the 19th day of the first month called March 1745–6.” It was proved October 4, 1748. Joanna, one of her daughters, married Daniel, son of 66John Weeden of Jamestown, R. I. A son of theirs was named Gideon Slocum Weeden.

The late Esther B. Carpenter of Wakefield, R. I., author of a delightful volume of sketches entitled South County Neighbors, once alluded to Miss Fitzgerald in a note to the writer. Miss Carpenter said that she remembered to have heard her maternal grandmother say that she valued her Irish line of descent from Miss Fitzgerald above any other she could claim. This Irish connection had always been a common remark in the family. The grandmother in question had named one of her daughters Alice Joanna after her Irish ancestress, whose daughter Joanna had married a Weeden as already stated. Many of the Weeden, Slocum and other families now in Rhode Island trace descent back to Elephell, the gentle Irish girl. Descendants of Elephell (Fitzgerald) Slocum are found today in New Bedford, Mass. The writer recently conversed with one of them.

By J. W. Faulkner, in the Cincinnati Enquirer.
“We have determined to hold this place, and, by heavens, we can.” This was the closing sentence of a military despatch written on the night of July 29, 1813. It was penned in the commandant’s room of the rude stockade known as Fort Stephenson, on the Sandusky River.

The writer was Maj. George Croghan, of the Seventeenth United States Infantry, a boy who had just attained his twenty-first year. It was addressed to Gen. William Henry Harrison, in command of the American forces in the Northwest. The reply of General Harrison to this remarkable despatch was an order removing Major Croghan from command and ordering him to report to headquarters under virtual arrest for disobedience.

Young Croghan responded promptly, traversing a dangerous country. Face to face with his general he explained that it was not braggadocio that inspired the language of his message. When it was written it was expected that it would fall into the hands of the enemy, then boastfully advancing to the attack. With the warlike 67eloquence that came as heritage from his Irish ancestors, Major Croghan showed his general that it was too late to retreat from the fort, and that it was a necessary military maneuver to hold it pending the execution of other movements. His tongue won for him what every great soul desires—opportunity. Restored to command, he returned to the fort and won a victory that will forever live in the annals of the early republic.

Not long ago the body of Major Croghan was interred at the base of the monument erected to the memory of the soldiers of Sandusky County. This imposing shaft marks the site of the old fort where the dead hero won his laurels and where the blow was struck that opened the way to ultimate victory over the British and Indian power in the northwestern country. Over his grave will stand as a silent witness the single cannon used in defense of the fort, an ancient six-pounder, which wears the affectionate feminine sobriquet of “Old Betsy.” It was a single belch from the iron jaws of this that decided the fate of the battle, and though inanimate, still it deserved a share of the glory that surrounded the interment of the gallant Croghan.

Since that eventful day in August many great events have occurred to fill the pages of history. General Harrison became greater and filled the president’s chair. Around the base of the old fort a city has sprung up named after Gen. John C. Fremont, the Pathfinder. In Croghan’s day the little settlement was known as Lower Sandusky, to distinguish it from the city in Wyandot County known as Upper Sandusky. So powerful a pleader as Rutherford B. Hayes, then a practising attorney at the Sandusky County bar, and afterward president of the United States, pleaded that the old name be permitted to stand.

There was pomp and ceremony to mark the final sepulture of the old commander’s dust in the ground that he hallowed with his victory, but no greater tribute could be paid to his soldier memory than to tell again the story of the battle. He came of fighting stock, this young American soldier. The blood of “Kelly, Burke and Shea” flowed in his veins and he smelled the battle from afar off. His father was William Croghan, an Irishman, born in Dublin in 1752, but who was well settled in this country when the War of the Revolution broke out. He fought at Monmouth, Brandywine and Germantown, and froze with the rest of the immortal band at Valley Forge.

68Joining in the drift from the Virginias across the mountains, he reached the settlement at the falls of the Ohio, where Louisville now stands. In 1791 he married Lucy Clark, sister of George Rogers Clark, the mighty figure of the Vincennes campaign, who saved an empire to the American republic. Another brother, William, was the Clark who, with Captain Lewis, made the historic exploration tour across the then unknown continent. Of such a union was born the man whom a state and a nation afterward honored for bravery. The exact place of his birth was at Locust Grove, Ky., a few miles below Louisville. When but twenty years of age he gained distinction at the battle of Tippecanoe, and was promoted to a captaincy in March, 1812, being detailed as aide-de-camp to General Harrison, with the rank of major. This was his condition when the events that were to make him famous began to unfold themselves.

The Indians, under Tecumseh, and the British, under General Proctor, had raised the siege of Fort Meigs, in what is now Wood County, and were coming toward the post at Upper Sandusky and Seneca. The British sailed around into Sandusky Bay, while their Indian allies marched across through the swamps and marshes of the Portage River. They expected to meet and make a combined attack upon Lower Sandusky while Harrison was engaged in protecting Forts Winchester and Meigs. The work known as Fort Stephenson was in reality an old stockade used for storage purposes, and inclosed an acre of ground.

Examination by Harrison some days before the allies invested Fort Meigs showed that the stockade was commanded by a hill to the southeast. It was not strong enough to resist heavy artillery, and only 200 men could be accommodated as a garrison. Croghan was left in charge, with orders that if the British approached by water, which carried the presumption that if they had their heavy artillery, he was to retreat, if possible, destroying both the fort and the public stores. If only the Indians came he was to stand fast, as retreat through these wary hostiles was an impossibility and a defense was a certainty.

On July 29 Harrison received word that the siege of Fort Meigs had been raised and that it seemed the intention of the allies to descend upon either Sandusky or Seneca. At a council of war held that night it was decided that Fort Stephenson was untenable and orders were sent to Major Croghan to carry out his original instructions. 69This order did not reach Croghan until the next morning at eleven o’clock. A council of his officers reached the decision that it was too late to retreat and the famous note was sent and the meeting with Harrison arranged. On August 1 the advance guard of the enemy was seen on the hill over the river. They were the fleet-footed Indians who had been observed by a reconnoitering party from headquarters the day before. There was but one piece of artillery in the fort, “Old Betsey,” and it was promptly fired, causing the redskins to retire. Within a half hour the British gunboats, a part of Commodore Barclay’s fleet, hove into sight. A landing was effected a half mile below the fort and a howitzer disembarked and mounted.

A British officer, Major Chambers, with a flag of truce, was sent forward and was met by Ensign Shipp, of the Seventeenth Regiment. The visitor demanded in the name of General Proctor the immediate surrender of the fort. The Americans were warned that it would be almost impossible to restrain the Indians in case of success, and that the whole garrison would be slain. The gallant answer was returned that the Indians would find no one to massacre when the fort fell, for every man had sworn to die before surrender.

The battle then opened, the gunboats, the land battery, five hundred Wellington veterans and eight hundred Indians joining in the attack. Throughout the evening Croghan fired his six pounder in a desultory way, moving it from place to place to make it appear that he had more artillery. Ascertaining from the enemy’s fire that the northwestern angle of the fort was to be reached, he made preparation to checkmate his plans. During the night the gun was removed to a block house which commanded that angle and the embrasure was masked. The piece itself was loaded with grape and slugs. Croghan’s foresight was vindicated when the next day additional artillery was landed and the hammering of the doomed angle was renewed. The shaking wall was reinforced with bags of sand and even of flour, making it capable of resisting the pounding. On the evening of August 2 the grand assault was launched, Colonel Short leading the principal column.

He rallied his men with great bravery under a destructive rifle fire and gained the ditch beneath the stockade walls. There he ordered his men to cut down the pickets and give the Americans no quarter. At the proper second of time the masked embrasure was thrown open and the slug-charged cannon was permitted to belch its death-dealing 70contents into the close packed mass of soldiers at short range. Few escaped this destructive fire. Colonel Short was killed.

The second column, led by Major Chambers and Colonel Warburton, was also defeated by the line in charge of Captain Hunter. When night came the enemy withdrew in a disorderly fashion, leaving behind them one of their gunboats, some of the wounded, much ammunition and many guns. At nine o’clock the next morning, Major Croghan sent an express to Harrison announcing his victory and the retirement of the defeated enemy. The defenders of the fort lost only one killed and seven wounded of the 100 men who answered roll call. Ten times that number opposed them, and 2,000 more were in reserve near Fort Meigs to cut off any reinforcement from that direction.

In his official report of the battle Harrison said: “It will not be among the least of Proctor’s mortifications that he has been baffled by a youth who has just passed his twenty-first year. He is, however, a hero worthy of his gallant uncle, Gen. George Rogers Clark.” The brevet rank of lieutenant-colonel was at once conferred upon the young hero by the president of the United States, and he was presented with a sword by the ladies of Chillicothe. Of this victory, Gen. W. T. Sherman, writing from the standpoint of a military expert, said: “The defense of Fort Stephenson by Croghan and his gallant little band was the necessary precursor to Perry’s victory on the lake and of Harrison’s triumphant victory on the Thames. These assured our immediate ancestors the mastery of the great West, and from that day to this the West has been the bulwark of the nation.”

The following year saw him made a full lieutenant-colonel. He served with distinction until 1817, when he resigned and went to New Orleans to live. He was made postmaster of that city in 1824. Some years later he was appointed inspector general of the army, and in 1835 he was voted a gold medal by Congress in recognition of his fight of twenty-two years before.

He died on January 8, 1849, while the guns were thundering their salutes in honor of another great victory, that of General Jackson, another Irishman’s son, over Packenham and the British below New Orleans in 1814. His body was removed to the old family burying ground at Locust Grove and buried near that of his famous uncle, where they were found last June by Maj. Webb C. Hayes, acting for 71the Fremont Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, which is named after Major Croghan.

They were removed to Fremont on June 10, and were placed temporarily in the vault at Oakwood Cemetery. The pall-bearers were five venerable survivors of the Mexican War who had enlisted in Sandusky County. The youngest was seventy-seven years of age and the oldest eighty-five. As Croghan was inspector-general of the army during the Mexican War, they can be said to have served under him. The dead hero left three children. His only son, St. George Croghan, died on the field early in the Civil War, wearing the gray of the Confederate army. A grandson, also George Croghan, survives, and there are other descendants on the distaff side.

The Daughters of the American Revolution have erected on the British redoubt 250 yards northwest of Fort Stephenson a tablet commemorating the fact that it was there that the cannon from Commodore Barclay’s fleet thundered against Croghan’s walls. Exultingly the fact is proclaimed that Barclay was afterward wounded and his entire fleet, including the cannon which had been used against Fort Stephenson, was captured by Commodore Perry at the battle of Lake Erie in the following September.

Compiled from an Article by “Iveagh,” in the Belfast (Ireland) Witness.
The year 1718 marks an epoch in the history of America, because in that year a band of sturdy Ulster men turned their faces and fortunes towards the new world. This early and most important organized company of emigrants to leave Ireland in the eighteenth century sailed from Lough Foyle in the year above named, and consisted of about 100 families. (Marmion’s Maritime Ports of Ireland.) These people founded a colony in New Hampshire which became famous in the history of America. The emigrants were of as much importance to America as were those of Plymouth, and from them are descended equally if not more distinguished men.

In 1727, 3,000 people sailed for the North American colonies 72from Belfast Lough. The following year, ships took 1,000 more, and in the next three years as many as 4,200. The tidings of the success of the New Hampshire colonists and of those who preceded them to other parts of America, drew between the years 1720 and 1742 over 3,000 emigrants annually from Ulster alone. (Gordon’s History of Ireland.) This enormous emigration, for the period, was stimulated by the rich resources and grand opportunities offered in a new country on the one hand, and on the other by the land laws and the restrictions placed on Irish industries.

In 1736 a number of families emigrated from Banbridge, County Down, and neighborhood; amongst them were members of the Glass, MacDowell, Magill, Mulholland, Linn and other families. These people settled in the Shenandoah Valley on the banks of the Opequan, Virginia.

In the beautiful valley of Shenandoah, three miles south of Winchester, Va., you will find the ruins of the old Opequan Presbyterian Church, destroyed in the Civil War. From the Donegal (Pennsylvania) Presbytery, as early as 1736, the Presbyterian settlers received attention, as they were visited by missionaries and ministers from that Presbytery, making it the earliest preaching place in the valley. The first pastor was John Hodge, who may justly be esteemed the founder of the church, as he gave five acres of land for the church site and graveyard. Mr. Hodge, with many of his large family, are buried there, as well as Samuel Glass, the emigrant from Banbridge.

Samuel Glass, the leader of the Banbridge emigrants, took up his residence at the head spring of the Opequan, after many wanderings through the then almost pathless woods, naming the homestead Greenwood, from the grand old forest which covered for the most part the 16,000 acres of land which he had purchased. His son David settled lower down the river, at a place named Cherry Mead, and Robert, another son, took up his abode at Long Meadows. James Vance, a son-in-law of Samuel Glass, resided in the same neighborhood. Another son-in-law named Becket, lived between the Glass estate and North Mountain.—(Foot’s Sketches of Virginia, second edition.) Samuel Glass died at an advanced age, honored and respected by all the settlers over a large portion of the state; he had centered in his person many good characteristics—courage, thrift, perseverance. In the cemetery, near the old homestead, stands a monument to Samuel Glass and his wife, erected by his descendants. 73It is an obelisk, executed in limestone, standing on a pedestal, in all over ten feet in height. On the south side is inscribed:

To the Memory
and his wife,
from Banbridge,
County Down,
A. D. 1736.
Samuel Glass had six children: John, Eliza, Sarah, David, Robert and Joseph—all born at Banbridge. Joseph Glass, the son of Samuel Glass, had twelve children: Mary, Samuel, Robert, Georgetta, Sarah, Elizabeth, Joseph, Martha, Ruth, David, Nancy, and Sophia. Joseph Glass, son of Joseph, son of Samuel, the emigrant, entered the ministry of the Presbyterian Church. He was much esteemed, and widely known as an eloquent preacher. Other members of the family also distinguished themselves.

William Linn, son of one of these settlers, was born at Banbridge and served under Lord Dunmore, Governor of Virginia, in the wars with the Indians. In the several encounters which took place he distinguished himself, and was rewarded with a commission as lieutenant. Soon after the breaking out of hostilities with the mother country, Linn joined the First Virginia Regiment with the rank of lieutenant.

An expedition was organized with the object of securing ammunition from the Spanish authorities at New Orleans. Capt. George Gibson, an Ulsterman, was entrusted with the leadership of the party, and attended by Lieutenant Linn, with a detachment of their company, descended the river Ohio from Fort Pitt on the 19th of May, 1776, reaching New Orleans on the 22d of September, after a succession of adventures that, in narrative, more resemble romance than the features of sober truth. The shores of the Ohio were lined with hostile Indians, and no white man before had attempted the voyage. 74Captain Gibson having accomplished his mission, and being secretly released from prison, in which he had been confined to remove the suspicion of the British residents, placed Lieutenant Linn in command.

Captain Gibson took ship from New Orleans, taking with him the powder for service on the seaboard, and in due course landed at Philadelphia, and from thence proceeded to Virginia. Linn’s party, with a total strength of forty-three men, arrived at Wheeling in the spring of 1777, with the barges containing the supply of powder for the western posts. The party suffered many hardships and ran considerable risk from the Indians. For this important and arduous service Gibson was raised to the rank of major and Linn to that of captain. In 1780 we find Linn a colonel commanding a battalion at the battle of Pigua or Chillicothe, in which action he distinguished himself with bravery, his battalion having borne the brunt of the battle, losing many of its men. Colonel Linn continued to serve the revolted colonies after they had achieved their independence. He was ordered to the West to assist in the campaign against the Northwest Indians, and was killed in attempting to reach a secret rendezvous at a place called No-Linn-Hill, in Kentucky—a name acquired from the first exclamation of surprise by a party of his men not finding him at the spot.

6. Died in September, 1905. He was a founder of the Society and its first treasurer-general. This paper was the opening one of a series contributed by him to the Boston Pilot, in 1890, and bearing the general title of “How the Irish Came as Builders of the Nation.”

“The Massachusetts Bay” was, of all the original thirteen colonies, the most hostile towards the Irish, and it made but little difference with the Puritans whether the former were Catholic or Presbyterian, all fared alike, and were looked upon as people neither to be encouraged nor tolerated.

However, they continued to come in, despite this dislike, in one capacity or another, and one—Captain Patrick—appears in the records of 1632. Florence McCarthy was a resident of Boston in 1686. He was a butcher by occupation, and one of the founders of the first Episcopal Church in the town.

Esther MacCarty’s name is signed to an indenture, as a witness, about the same period. According to Palfrey, New England, up to the beginning of the great Irish emigration, was more unmixed in blood than any county in England. While this may seem true of Massachusetts, it will hardly apply to New Hampshire, and will not stand investigation in the Bay State, for according to the same authority, 400 or 500 Scotch were transported by Cromwell to Massachusetts in 1651, and thirty-four years later 150 families of French Huguenots came, followed in 1719, by 120 families of Irish, mainly from the North of Ireland. To these mentioned by Palfrey must be added, on the authority of Drake, 200 families of the unfortunate Acadians sent to Massachusetts about 1750.

No mention is made at all of the thousands sold into a kind of slavery by Cromwell to New England and the West India Islands, from Ireland, and yet, between 1651 and 1655, on the authority of Prendergast, over 6,000 boys and girls, mainly from the South of Ireland, were shipped to those two points.

The addition of 400 or 500 Scotch, 150 families of French Huguenots 76and the unknown number of Irish arriving in Massachusetts in less than twenty-five years from the establishment of the colony of Massachusetts Bay, will justify a contradiction of this statement of Palfrey’s. The Acadians and the Irish are prolific, and in this respect could keep pace with their English neighbors, and a comparison of the well-known New England families of the past hundred years, with an equal number of families in any English county, will prove it, for names, as a rule, are the surest guides to nationalities, and scattered over New England, from the dates named, are families bearing well-known French and Gaelic names, many of them slightly changed, but enough left of the original to trace the transformation. When the War of the Revolution broke out, this mixture of English, Irish, Scotch and French blood was pretty well compounded, and it was not surprising that the men of the new American race humbled Britain, and brought her to her knees.

Adams and Hancock, Sullivan and Knox, Stark and McClary, Revere and Bowdoin were, in New England, representatives of the nations mentioned, while the names of Washington and Jefferson, Moylan and Carroll, Mercer and Paul Jones, Laurens and Marion, showed that the same process was at work throughout the colonies.

Many Americans, no matter whence they sprung, now mount the “Anglo-Saxon” hobby, which, like a circus steed, has been so well padded by writers of history that there is little danger of a dismount, and in order to be in harmony with the aristocratic trend of the age, a double hitch is provided by trotting out the “Scotch-Irish” nag as a running mate, a trifle bony, perhaps, and a little ungainly at first, but time, good feeding and careful grooming, will make a perfect match, for both are of the same stock-humbug—a princely origin, for in this age humbug is king, and its capital, unlimited, is wind.

While Irish blankets and Kilkenny rugs were mercantile commodities in New Hampshire before King William of “glorious and immortal memory” had trigged the wheels, Irish butter was a most desirable article in Boston, as we find that John Hancock, among other goods advertised in his Faneuil Hall store, speaks of “Newcastle coal and Irish butter cheap for cash.” Cork from time immemorial being the great butter mart, it would not be at all surprising if some of the light-footed and light-hearted sons of that lively city came over with butter. McCarthy is one of the great Cork names, and in addition to Florence and Esther, named between 1680 and 1760, Elizabeth, Thade, William and Calvin Maccarty are met quite frequently 77in the records of the town of Boston, all persons of means and holding responsible positions.

Florence was town constable in 1693, and Thade Maccarty was elected to a similar position in 1673. For damage to her house, blown up to check a fire, Mrs. Elizabeth Maccarty was awarded the sum of $300 and Maccarty’s corner, on King Street, was a locality frequently mentioned. Florence was a man of consequence, and one of the leading men in his business. Leave was given him, in 1693, to build a slaughter house, and from the frequent mention made of him he must have been the John P. Squire of his day at the Hub. William Bryant was a servant of Capt. William Hudson in 1679, doubtless one of Cromwell’s transports, many of whom were, by that date, scattered over New England, especially in what is now Maine and New Hampshire. Larry is quite common along the border, between the Pine Tree and Granite states, and the first met in history bear the distinctive given names of Cornelius, Dennis and Teige. O’Leary is a South of Ireland name, and the presence of persons bearing it so early in the colonies, substantiates what is stated by Prendergast in the Cromwellian Settlement.

Eugene Linch (Lynch) came to Boston from Virginia in 1712. The name of Lynchburgh in the “Old Dominion” denoted the presence of this good old Galway name. Eugene found a wife in Beverly; and although bearing an aristocratic Norman name, he was not good enough to reside in Boston, being ordered to go to Beverly and stay with his wife. James Bettrell, “an Irish shoemaker,” had better luck, however, being allowed to remain, on giving bonds. James Barry was a noted huntsman in 1702, and was complained of for allowing his dogs to run loose. The town constable ordered him to shut them up.

There is quite frequent mention of ships loaded with passengers from Ireland, bound for Pennsylvania or Virginia, putting into Boston, from stress of weather, want of provisions, or sickness among the people on board. Care was taken by the town authorities to prevent the landing of any of the passengers, and the records are full of such instances, between 1700 and 1800, and the town constables were at their wits’ ends to keep the unwelcome visitors out, for those who landed in other parts of the country came by land to Boston, attracted, no doubt, by the rising trade and manufactures of the future metropolis of New England. Of this class, undoubtedly, was 78Charles Conner, his wife and child, who came from Philadelphia in 1732, only to be ordered out of town at once—a fate many of his nationality had to suffer during this epoch.

Drake, in his Landmarks of Boston, says: “About 1718 a number of colonists arrived from Londonderry, bringing with them the manufacture of linen and the implements used in Ireland. These emigrants also introduced the general use of their favorite vegetable, the potato.”

They were not met with a warm welcome, however. So many were coming from Ireland, in 1718, that Dea. John Marian was ordered to appear before the courts and take such steps as he might deem proper to keep them away from the town of Boston, and in this respect the authorities were impartial. No distinction was made between the natives of Cork or Belfast, Londonderry or Limerick, the followers of the old faith or the new; all were treated alike; it was enough to know that they were Irish. But despite all the obstacles thrown in their way, they kept coming, and so fast that finally the town council resolved that some steps must be taken to register them, so in case any of them became a town charge, their nationality might be known.

To that end all persons receiving or entertaining any of the Irish people were ordered to notify the authorities, on penalty of being fined twenty shillings for the first forty-eight hours and ten shillings for every twenty-four hours afterwards. Repeated warnings were given, but were as often disregarded. January, 1719, John Maccanis, wife and four children, were ordered to leave (John McGuinnis would be nearer the mark). Two shiploads, under command of Capt. Robert Holmes and a Captain Dennis, were refused permission to land, the same year. In September, 1744, three Irish boys and sixteen Irish girls were captured by a French privateer and forwarded from Capt. Breton to Boston. Among them were James Connor, Thomas Bryan, Charles White, Mary Roberts, Mary Price, Sarah Agin, Mary Benson, Margaret Anderson, Sarah Hathay, Elizabeth Campbell, Mary Hammell, Eliza Fitzgerald, Sarah McMahon, Bridget McNamara, Eliza Dunster, Fanny Brady, Jenny Richardson, Kathleen Morris, Mary Derham. No doubt these poor waifs were looked after by the Charitable Irish Society, which was then instituted about seven years. The feeling against their nationality was gradually wearing away, and the settlements of their countrymen in 79New Hampshire were already furnishing the best fighting men against the French and Indians.

As early as 1758, the Macs, with many other well-known Irish names, were taking a prominent place in the town records. McCarthy, McCarroll, McClane, MacCluer, McConnell, McCown, McCullum, McDaniel, McDonnell, McDonald, McElroy, McFadden, McFarland, McGowan, McIntire, McKeen, McKey, McKnight, McKenzie, McLean, McNeal, McPherson, McQuestion, Mooney, Montgomery, Moore, Murphy, Ryan, Powers, Welch, etc., were entered side by side with their English neighbors, so that there is no question that Boston had within its borders when the Revolution broke out, a large share of that stock,—the Irish—which made its influence felt during the struggle, and which furnished in the massacre one of the first victims, in the person of Patrick Carr.

Besides Boston, there were few towns in New England where an Irishman could not be found between 1700 and 1800. In the contingent from Ipswich, Mass., in 1755, at Lake George, were John Fitzpatrick, William Connolly and Thomas Looney, and in the records of deaths in the town’s history is that of James Fitzgerald, who died in 1727. Americans bearing these names, some of them changed slightly, are found all over the country—Fitzes and Geralds, Patricks, and Connollys, the latter changed to Colony and Collony. The modern Fitzes discard any but a Norman origin, however, and the Patricks are, of course, “Scotch-Irish.”

Jeremiah Smith, born in Ireland in 1705, came to Massachusetts in 1726, locating at Milton. He was accompanied by his wife. He was the first to raise potatoes in the town, and the first to manufacture paper in the colony, and perhaps in the country. A neighbor of his, a Mr. Babcock, having raised two bushels of potatoes from seed given him by Mr. Smith, came to the latter and told him he did not know what on earth to do with so many. Mr. Smith told him not to fret, he would buy them of him. Babcock said he did not know what to do with his Irish help; they did not understand raising American vegetables; he sent one of them out to get some green corn for dinner the other day, and he came back without any, saying that “he had dug up five or six hills, and the divil a kernel of corn could he find.” Smith told him that the Irish knew as much about raising corn as the Americans did about raising potatoes, and knew less how to use them. Smith was a member of the Presbyterian Church in 80Boston. He bears honorable mention in the town history, and was respected by all his fellow-townsmen. He died in 1790.

John Sullivan was also interested in the manufacture of paper, in that section, between 1780 and 1790, and associated with him in the business were Patrick Connor and Michael McCarney. Others of Irish birth in the town at the same time, who were prominent in its affairs, were Peter O’Kelly, Hugh McLean, Peter McElroy and James McClary. That was quite a group of Irishmen in a suburb of Boston, and there was no question but that they were men of enterprise and push. O’Kelly, with his wife and six children, went to South Carolina in 1796. McCarney was one of a corporation, organized in 1798, the Mill Creek and Neponset River Company, for the manufacture of paper. Their mills were situated near where the chocolate manufactory of Walter Baker was afterwards located. McCleary’s name appears on the rolls of the Charitable Irish Society in 1789. This is one of the names noted in New Hampshire’s military and civil history. Maj. Andrew McClary, of Stark’s regiment, was killed at Bunker Hill. He was one of the finest looking, as he was one of the bravest, men in the army, and his death was then looked upon as a great loss to the cause of Independence.

Among those who went with a colony from the Massachusetts Bay to Delaware, in 1644, were John Nolin and his wife. The Swedes, who were already located there, looked upon the newcomers as interlopers, and made it very unpleasant for them. The result was the appointment of a commission to investigate the alleged outrage on the Massachusetts men. John Nolin was one of the principal witnesses, the Swedish governor having placed him in irons. Nolan was undoubtedly the correct way of spelling the name, and it would not be at all surprising if, like Darby Field of New Hampshire, he was one of the “Irish soldiers for discovery.”

John Patrick of Barre, Mass., was a lieutenant in the company recruited in that town, at the outbreak of the Revolution. His father was an emigrant from Ireland, and the original name was Kilpatrick. His descendants are scattered through New England, and like all sprung from Gaelic stock, have been prolific. He died in 1807, aged sixty-eight. Gen. M. R. Patrick, provost marshal of the Army of the Potomac, and at his death superintendent of the Soldiers’ Home at Dayton, Ohio, was one of his descendants. In harmony with the usage of the day, the descendants of the lieutenant derive a “Scotch-Irish” ancestry for the founder of the family.

81Among the births recorded in Boston in the returns of births and baptisms, from 1630 to 1699, are Francis, son of Thaddeus and Eliza MacCarty, February 19, 1666; Thaddeus, son of the same parents, in September, 1670; Margaret, born February 25, 1676; Catherine, born January 23, 1679, of the same parents; Elizabeth, daughter of Florence and Elizabeth MacCarty, born December 25, 1687; Thomas, son of the same, born February 5, 1688 (evidently a mistake in dates); William, son of the same, born February 3, 1690. Mrs. Eliza MacCarty died July 6, 1696. Florence waited a little over a year before taking another partner, but not thinking it best to live alone, he married Sarah Newwork on August 24, 1697. She presented him with another Sarah in 1698.

The William MacCarty mentioned, became a noted shipmaster, and had the reputation of being a fine navigator. He was an enterprising man, fully up to the standard reached by his father and grandfather. The son, Rev. Thaddeus MacCarty, born in 1721, was a graduate of Harvard College and a minister in the Congregational Church. He was called to the pastorate of the first parish in Worcester, in 1746, where he remained thirty-seven years. He married a Welsh girl, and by her had fifteen children. He is described as being tall and slender, with dark eyes, sonorous voice and very pleasing address. He was a prolific writer, and like James Sullivan of another Munster family, one of the most scholarly men of his day; he died in 1784. His son, Thaddeus, born in 1747, was a noted medical practitioner. He first located in Dudley, then changed to Fitchburg, Mass., where he established a hospital for the treatment of smallpox by the Suttonian method. Here at one time he had 800 patients. He afterwards removed to Keene, N. H.

Another son, William MacCarty, was quartermaster of Colonel Bigelow’s Fifteenth Massachusetts Regiment in the Revolutionary War. Thus, in Massachusetts, three of the best known South of Ireland families, O’Brien (in Maine), MacCarty and Sullivan, were represented before and during the Revolution; and it is pleasant to record that all were true to the cause of Independence.

The Mackues had a representative in Timothy, son of Timothy and Ann Mackue, born October 20, 1699, probably one of the McCues or McHughes, all the same. Sarah, daughter of William and Olive McLoughlin, was born on October 29, 1689; and Eliza followed on September 10, 1691, who was joined by Mary, born on 82March 22, 1694. These undoubtedly are the ancestors of many McGloughlins, McLathlans, or Lafflins, as the fancy seized their descendants to alter the spelling, just as the name McCarthy became in time Maccarty, Maccartie, MacCarter, Carter or Carte, varied occasionally by Carty. On February 14, 1658, not a great many years after the founding of the colony, “James Webster a Scotishman & Mary Hay an Irish maid were married.” Mary was, no doubt, one of the poor girls torn from her home in Ireland, but hard as her lot was, she was fortunate in not being sent to the West Indies; but would it not be of interest to find, at the present time, the descendants of the Scotch laddie and the Irish lassie, the Websters of 1658?

Another couple, married April 5, 1692, bear names that denote Irish blood—Andrew Rankins and Grace Butler. The ceremony was performed by Gov. Simon Bradstreet. Daniel, son of Dermin—probably Dermot—Mahoone, was born Oct. 4, 1646. The next child born to the couple, on August 29, 1648, bore the well-known Irish name of Honour, and the name itself must have been Mahon, or Mahoney. Mrs. Mahone died November 8, 1656, and her husband, like his countryman, McCarty, did not remain single long, as another child, Margaret, was presented him on June 3, 1661, but it was after his death, which took place on April 2, 1661. His widow, Margaret, did not long grieve for him, for in the following July, 1661, the record reads, “Bryan Morfrey (Murphy) an Irishman & Margaret Mayhoone widow were married 20th July by John Endecott Governor.”

The Murphys were on hand “airly,” and no doubt made their mark, but where are their descendants? Hannah, daughter of John and Ann Cogan, was born September 6, 1636. This may be one of the characteristic names of England, but is more common in Ireland, being carried there by Milo De Cogan, one of Strongbow’s Norman knights. John was born to Garrett and Mary Bourne, May 30, 1643. Both given and proper names have an Irish appearance. The first Kelly having the honor of being entered on the records of births was Daniel, son of David and Elizabeth Kelly, born December 18, 1647; like the Murphys, they were on hand early; and also like the Murphys, are of the undiluted old stock, Gaelic to the core. Today, on account of the prominence of the name, it is as American as it is Irish, and what is still better, the spelling remains the same in both countries.

83The first Butler, who heads the roll of a long line of descendants, and a representative of one of the most illustrious names on two continents, makes his bow in August, 1653, in the person of Benjamin, son of Stephen and Jane Butler. November, 1656, “Edmond Coussins of Pulling Point and Margaret Bird an Irish maid servant to John Grover of Rumney Marsh were married.” An Irish linnet to a French Huguenot, probably. Mary and John Bohanno, another Scotch laddie, and an Irish lass, were blessed with a little Mary on May 9, 1658. From these records it can be safely inferred that the exiles from Scotland and Ireland, the victims of Cromwell’s tyranny, were, in their persons, uniting the two branches of the old Gaelic race, as frequent mention is made of marriages between them.

Bohanno was undoubtedly Bohan or Buchanan, both from the same root. John Morrell, an Irishman, and Lysbell Morrell, an Irishwoman, were married, August 31, 1659. March 15, 1661, John Reylean, an Irishman, and Margaret Brene, an Irishwoman, were married by John Endicott, Governor. John, son of John and Sarah Starkey, was born on September 23, 1666, abbreviated later on to Stark. Barry appears on the roll, January 8, 1688. James, son of James, being born on that date. Kenney does not appear until 1691, when, on February 13, Moses and Margaret Kenny were blessed with the gift of a daughter. Like Butler and Kelly, this is not one of the most common names in America, as it is in Ireland—McKenna, Kenna, Kenny. Mulligan turns up in 1681, in the person of Robert, son of Hugh and Eleanor Mulligan, born on August 9. The Millikens and Mullikens can trace the stream and find the source, perhaps, here. Morrissey (spelled Morris and Morrisse) appears in 1655.

Edward Morris and Dermon (Dermot) and Honora Morrisse are mentioned quite often—some of the transports, undoubtedly. Another of the exiles, or the child of one, was Johanna Heffernan who married Christopher Vale in 1692. Mary Lynch married James Townsend in 1693, and Henry Townsen wedded Mary Keefe the same year—two more “Scotch-Irish” unions if names are an index to nationality—and still another at the same time was that of Mary Peard to Samuel Swetman.

The good old name of Hayes, in the persons of Thomas and his wife, Bridget, shows up July 25, 1690, when unto them a child 84was born, named Eliza. This is like some other names mentioned, found now all over the country; in this case, Bridget must be the Eve of the modern Garden of Eden—the Hub—at least so far as the Hayes’ are concerned, for she was the first of the tribe in the Trimountain Paradise. Reilly has two representatives in John and Bridget Rylee, who had born to them on September 10, 1693, a daughter, Hannah. After 1700, Irish names peculiar to the South, as well as the North of Ireland, rapidly appear. In the records of the selectmen of the town of Boston, September 27, 1736, John Savell was required to give a bond for a servant imported from Ireland by Captain Arnold. James Wimble had to do the same for George Lucas’ wife and child from Ireland.

Captain John Carrell—Carroll—ditto, for twelve persons he brought from Ireland in his vessel. Dinish and Honor Cniae—Kenna—and their two boys, were of this number. September 29, Joshua Winslow, Esq., gave a bond for William Steward, wife and two children, imported by Captain Boyd. Steward was a cooper, and in the following November was admitted an inhabitant of the town.

7. Published originally in Munsey’s Magazine, New York, April, 1906.

A certain green isle in a northerly sea is the historic home of the Irish people, but the present address of at least two thirds of the scattered race is “United States of America.” Boston, not Belfast nor Dublin, is now the greatest Irish city in the world; and the overwhelming majority of Irishmen who have risen to places of distinction have done so under the Stars and Stripes.

The historian who shall do full justice to the Irish branch of the human family has not yet appeared, either in the United States or elsewhere. Consequently, there are few races, if any, which have been so persistently misunderstood and undervalued. Even in this country, where such a mistake is least excusable, there has been a tendency in some quarters to regard the Irish as merely an element of the rank and file. The truth is that they have contributed their share of leaders and pioneers in almost every line of progress.

At least seven of our presidents have had more or less of Irish blood in their veins. Jackson, Buchanan and Arthur were the sons of Ulster parents; and the first American ancestor of Polk was an Irish immigrant. Monroe and McKinley were more remotely related to the “fighting race.” The latter, it is well known, was fond of saying, “We Irish.” Roosevelt, also, had several Hibernian twigs on his family tree. This, in itself, is an amazing record of Celtic leadership—to have helped to mold the character of seven American presidents out of twenty-five.

In the making of America, the Irish have been structural. No other word represents their influence so well. In the clearing of forests, the digging of canals, the building of railroads, and the extension of commerce, our civilization owes an incalculable debt to Irish hands and Irish heads.

In the traits of our national character, too, we Americans are all more Irish than we realize. Our versatility and buoyancy, our 86quickness of initiative, our free and unconventional ways, and the sporting instinct that leads us to take chances and beat records, are a few of the evidences of an Irish strain in our blood.

If the handiwork of the Irish were painted green, the average American city would be splashed on all sides with emerald hues. Yet there are few who are aware of this, even among the Irish themselves. A New Yorker, for example, may rise in the morning, bathe in water that comes from the Croton dam, built by James Coleman, ex-president of the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick; breakfast on Cudahy bacon; then take the subway, built by John B. McDonald, past the new College of the City of New York, built by Thomas Dwyer, to his office in a skyscraper built by John D. Crimmins, where he will cable to Alaska over a line laid by David Lynch, to order certain freight sent via James J. Hill’s Great Northern Railroad. Then, with a cigar bought from one of George J. Whelan’s 300 cigar stores, he will read the New York Sun, published by William M. Laffan and delivered by the American News Company, founded by Patrick Farrelly—and remark to an English friend:

“Yes, of course, this is an Anglo-Saxon country.”

When J. I. C. Clarke, the genial playwright, wrote his famous poem on “Kelly and Burke and Shea,” it was generally supposed to be a poetic fancy. On the contrary, I find it to be a simple matter of American history that the Kellys, the Burkes and the Sheas have been to the fore in every generation. They were all three in the battle of Lexington, as well as in the death-list of the Maine. When Hobson sank the Merrimac, a Kelly and a Murphy were his comrades in danger. Our first noted woman abolitionist was Abbie Kelley. William Darrah Kelley, of Philadelphia, was a Congressman for nearly thirty years. Hall Jackson Kelley was the founder of Oregon. The late Eugene Kelly, the New York banker, won renown as a philanthropist. Among the living members of this redoubtable family, James E. Kelly is a well-known electrical engineer. The Kelly Ax Company has a fifty-acre plant in Charleston, W. Va. Elsewhere * * * you will find the wonderful story of William Kelly, whose invention has added hundreds of millions to the wealth of the steel industry.

In the Burke family, three heroic figures appear in the first chapter of our Revolutionary history—Thomas Burke, the first governor of North Carolina; Adamus Burke, chancellor of South Carolina; 87and John Daly Burk, historian, patriot and duelist. All three were fighters with pen and sword, who made an indelible mark on the Southern states a century ago. In 1872, when Froude cast some aspersions upon the Irish, it was Father Thomas Burke who took up the cudgels against him. And at the present time we have Burkes enough in the United States to fill a “Burke’s Peerage” of their own. There are two bishops who bear the famous name, at Albany and St. Joseph; one brigadier-general, at Portland, Oregon; one congressman, in South Dakota; a railroad president, at Cleveland; and a judge at Seattle.

As for the Sheas, at least four of them have buffeted their way to the front—Gen. John Shea,[8] who won his laurels in the Revolution; Capt. Daniel Shays, who first fought at Bunker Hill and then stirred up a little side-show rebellion on his own account; George A. Shea, an eminent chief justice of New York; and John Gilmary Shea, the historian of the Catholic Church in the United States.

8. Gen. John Shee.

In the American business world of today, a large proportion of the solid men—the men who stand like pillars under the heavy burdens—are of Irish blood. Most conspicuous of all stands the financier upon whom the mantle of J. Pierpont Morgan seems to have fallen—the man who is not only combining but coördinating American capital—Thomas Fortune Ryan. He is one of the greatest masters of financial statesmanship, who cuts the Gordian knots of finance and ties others of his own.

Equally immovable, in a different field, stands James J. Hill, born in Canada of Ulster parents. What this one man has done for the United States has never yet been fully told. He is the creator of the Northwest—the railway builder who has opened up a territory equal to a couple of Germanys—the steamship builder who has linked America with the markets of the East. He has made wide pathways of commerce from Lake Superior across 1,500 miles of wilderness and 5,000 miles of ocean to the ports of China, Russia and Japan. Ever since he double-earned his first dollar as a Mississippi roustabout, fifty years ago, his life has been a continuous obstacle-race; and there have been few occasions when James J. Hill missed a hurdle.

Two other railway presidents are Samuel Sloan, of New York, 88who was born when Madison was in the White House; and Richard C. Kerens, of St. Louis. Daniel O’Day[9]—every inch of him Irish—is one of the most important members of the imperial group of financiers who float the flag of Standard Oil. Forty years since, he was a laborer in the oil regions, whose main problem was to find a job; today, as he jokingly says to his friends, his main problem is to find out how to invest his surplus. Another New Yorker of Titanic mold is Alexander E. Orr, who was nineteen years old before he had seen any other country than Ireland. As a president of large commercial bodies, he has few equals. He is a director who directs. For nearly fifty years he has stood under the heaviest responsibilities, and was recently chosen, because of his ability and uprightness, to preside over the immense interests of the New York Life Insurance Company.

9. Recently deceased.

If we speak of great Irish bankers, where is there a large American city without one? In Pittsburg, for instance, where there are a score of banks bulging with steel millions, the dean of the financial fraternity is Thomas Mellon, who, like Alexander E. Orr, was born in Tyrone. In New York there are three, at least, who are too prominent to miss—Thomas M. Mulry, the new president of the Emigrant Industrial Savings Bank, which was wholly Irish in its origin, and which holds a hundred millions in its vaults; Miles M. O’Brien, who was for some time the president of the board of education; and Samuel G. Bayne, who is notable for having organized national banks in seven states. Charles J. Bell is a conspicuous figure in the national capital, as John C. Davis is in Wyoming. And in Chicago John R. Walsh has been a notable banker and capitalist for twenty years. The recent collapse of his financial structure should not obscure the facts of his extraordinary career. To begin as a barefooted newsboy, and to struggle to a place of power in the sixth greatest city in the world, always preferring to fight big enemies rather than little ones—that was Walsh’s record.

Among the cattle kings of the West are Timothy Kinney, of Wyoming, and George Russell, of Nevada. Also in Chicago, Milwaukee and Omaha are four brothers who know something about the cattle and beef trade—four brothers whose parents left Kilkenny in the forties because black famine threatened them with starvation; who began their business life with no more chance of fortune than 89any day laborer in the United States, and who are today numbered among the few masters of the food supply of the world—Michael, Edward A., John and Patrick Cudahy.

Other weighty business men, scattered here and there, are John Flannery, the Savannah cotton king; Thomas F. Walsh, of Washington, who is the president of the Irrigation Congress; John D. Crimmins, the contractor who has added 400 buildings to New York; Patrick F. Murphy, president of the Mark Cross Company and well known in New York as an after-dinner speaker; Edward Malley, who began with a pack on his back and has now a department store in New Haven; Ephraim Dempsie, merchant and public man of Spokane; P. B. Magrane, a well-known merchant in the shoe city of Lynn; and William P. Rend, the coal magnate of Chicago.

Among the great Irish merchants of former days, the most notable was A. T. Stewart, whose New York store was the largest of its kind, either in America or elsewhere. His capital was $3,000 when he began to sell his Belfast laces, and more than forty millions when he died.

In the United States, as well as in Great Britain, many of the most distinguished judges have been of Irish blood. Among the nine justices who sit supreme over all American courts, two are Irish by descent—Judge Edward D. White and Judge Joseph McKenna. As yet, no one has compiled a list of the Irish judges in the various state Supreme Courts; but to take New York as an instance, we find five who are of unusual prominence—Martin J. Keogh, Morgan J. O’Brien, James Fitzgerald, George C. Barrett and Victor J. Dowling. It should also be mentioned that the chief judge in the Philippine Islands—John T. McDonough, formerly of Albany—is Irish born. William J. Hynes, too, a lawyer of whom Chicago is justly proud, began life in County Clare.

To answer fully the question “What have the Irish done for American education?” would need a small book in itself. Was not the late Pres. William Rainey Harper, the father of Chicago University, of Irish descent? This extraordinary man crowded the work of several centuries into less than fifty years, sacrificed his preferences as a student that he might carry the heaviest financial responsibilities, and died poor after having gathered a dozen millions for his university.

Of our Irish born educators, no one outranks William H. Maxwell, 90who has been for eight years the superintendent of New York’s public schools. Under him are 16,000 teachers and more than half a million children, the most lively and cosmopolitan army of youngsters in the world. Superintendent Maxwell has had to fight for every inch of progress in his development of the New York school system; but like the dogged Ulsterman that he is, he has driven ahead with his far-reaching projects, no matter whether the hue and cry was with him or against him.

“Nothing is too good,” he says, “for the taxpayer’s child.”

Speaking of public schools, it would be a sin of omission at this point not to mention the thousands of young women of Irish birth or parentage who are doing faithful work as schoolteachers in all parts of the United States.

The number of our Irish professors is comparatively small. Some who deserve special mention are Maurice F. Egan, of the Catholic University in Washington; James McMahon, of Cornell; Robert Ellis Thompson, of the Central High School in Philadelphia; and Thomas C. Hall, of the Union Theological Seminary in New York. A Gaelic chair was established in 1896 at the Catholic University by the Ancient Order of Hibernians, and is filled at the present time by Prof. Joseph P. Dunn, who is of American birth. To John Tyndall, the notable Irish scientist, the United States owes a double debt, inasmuch as he not only delivered a course of lectures here in 1872, but devoted the proceeds to the cause of scientific research in America.

It is very seldom that an Irishman lacks the gift of speech. Take away our Irish orators and journalists, and this would be a dumb and cheerless country indeed. Here, for instance, is an offhand list of Irish writers of the past and present:

Capt. Mayne Reid, the idol of American boys, and a soldier in our War with Mexico; John Boyle O’Reilly, the editor and poet; FitzJames O’Brien, who wrote the famous short story, “The Diamond Lens”; Ignatius Donnelly, the most versatile and picturesque public man of his generation in Minnesota; Edwin Lawrence Godkin, of the New York Evening Post, a fighter in the high realm of national morality; Henry W. Grady, editor of the Atlanta Constitution; Patrick Walsh, who was editor of the Augusta Chronicle and represented Georgia in the United States Senate; and Joseph Medill, founder of the Chicago Tribune.

91Among those still living are James Jeffrey Roche, now in the consular service; Joseph Fitzgerald, author and translator; William M. Laffan, proprietor of the New York Sun; George T. Oliver, of the Pittsburg Gazette; Eugene M. O’Neill, of the Pittsburg Dispatch; John McLeod Keating, who won fame by his fight against yellow fever in the South; and John F. Finerty, the eloquent founder of the Chicago Citizen.

Three great publishers of Irish birth have been Mathew Carey, of Philadelphia, the friend of Lafayette; Robert Bonner, founder of the New York Ledger; and Patrick Donahoe, founder of the Boston Pilot and Donahoe’s Magazine. The name of William Desmond O’Brien, too, deserves to be included in this paragraph. Mr. O’Brien was a wealthy contractor of New York who devoted eighteen years of his life to the preparation of an Encyclopedia Hibernica, and who died, broken-hearted, in 1893, with his great project unfinished. Among Irish-American publishers now living, the most notable is P. F. Collier, founder of Collier’s Weekly.

This power of expression, which is typical of the Irish race, rises frequently to the heights of art. The Goddess of Liberty, on the dome of the Capitol at Washington, was chiseled by the hands of Thomas Crawford, who was of Irish parentage, and whose son is the well-known novelist, F. Marion Crawford. Many an American city has been enriched by the genius of Augustus St. Gaudens, one of the best beloved and most eminent of American sculptors. The statue upon which St. Gaudens is now working, in his Vermont studio, is a heroic figure of Parnell for the City of Dublin, St. Gaudens’ birthplace. Among the landscape painters, Edward Gay, of New York, has held a place for forty years; and another veteran artist of Irish birth is William Magrath, who painted “On the Ould Sod”—a clever study of Irish character that hangs in the Metropolitan Museum in New York.

It is to Dublin, also, that we are indebted for Victor Herbert, our popular conductor and composer, and for Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore, the famous band master of Civil War times. There have not been so many Irish singers of operatic rank, although the Irishman who cannot sing at all is as rare as a white blackbird. Probably the most notable was Catherine Hayes, who arrived in this country in 1851, married an American husband and settled in California. Among the best-known dramatic stars of Irish birth now upon the 92stage are Ada Rehan and James O’Neil, and the elder John Drew was a son of Erin. Andrew Mack and Chauncey Olcott are the most popular of those who portray Irish life.

That the Irish have been in politics goes without saying. In most states they have furnished more than their share, both of bosses and of reformers. Richard Croker, the Tammany Hall leader, and Charles O’Conor, who overthrew the Tweed Ring, fairly represent the two contending forces in American political life. So much has been written indiscriminately of Irish bossism that it is nothing but fair to state that some of the present leaders of the “anti-graft” movement are Mayor Dunne, of Chicago; Mayor Fagan, of Jersey City; District Attorney Moran, of Boston; and Hugh McCaffrey, a member of Mayor Weaver’s cabinet, in Philadelphia. The late Patrick A. Collins, congressman, consul-general in London and mayor of Boston, was for years the foremost Irishman in New England.

In the present Congress there are dozens of members of Irish descent, but only three of Irish birth—Senator Thomas M. Patterson, of Denver, who has been for thirty years a national figure; Representative Bourke Cockran, who is unequaled in the Celtic flow of his eloquence; and Delegate Bernard S. Rodney, of New Mexico. Senator Thomas Kearns, one of the solid pillars of the state of Utah, was born in Canada of Irish parents; and James D. Phelan, the well-known Californian, was the son of a wealthy Irish merchant of San Francisco. Three other public men of Irish birth are Thomas Taggart, of Indianapolis; William McAdoo, of New York; and ex-Governor James E. Boyd, of Nebraska. And no Irishman will ever allow the fact to be forgotten that James G. Blaine, one of the greatest figures in all American political history, was of Irish descent. His great-grandfather, Ephraim Blaine, bore an honorable part in the Revolutionary struggle, and far back in colonial days the Blaines were among the hardiest pioneers of the Cumberland Valley.

Rising to the religious world, we find many noted Irish names, alike in the Protestant and Catholic churches. There are no fewer than twenty-three bishops and five archbishops in this country who learned their first prayers on Irish soil. This may also be said of Cardinal Gibbons, who was born in the United States, but taken to Ireland in infancy. The five archbishops are John M. Farley, John J. Glennon, John Ireland, John Joseph Keane, and Patrick John Ryan. When was there ever before such a distinguished quintet of Johns?

93Like St. Gaudens and Herbert, Dr. William S. Rainsford hails from Dublin. Thirty years ago he entered New York an unknown young curate, and proceeded to establish the foremost institutional church in America, having at the present time more than 5,000 members. Unfortunately, overwork has recently compelled him to resign.

Historically, there have been four Irish churchmen who have wielded a great influence in American affairs—Father Mathew, the apostle of temperance, who persuaded 600,000 Americans to sign the pledge; Archbishop Hughes, of New York, who was sent to England by President Lincoln during the Civil War; Father Ryan, the poet of the South; and the Rev. John Hall, the pulpit orator of New York.

Nothing can be more absurd than to speak of the Irish as newcomers in America. No one but a resurrected mound-builder would be entitled to do that. For the last thousand years or more, wherever there has been any great enterprise on foot, in the thick of things there have always been men with the shamrock in their hearts. The ship that carried Columbus from the known continent to the unknown had a Galway man aboard—so we are told on good authority. And one of the maps which cheered Columbus forward showed a country across the ocean which was called “Great Ireland.” This far western land had been discovered, it was reported, by St. Brendan, an Irish monk, eight or nine centuries before.

There were a few Irish on the Mayflower, but the first large body arrived about twenty years later. There were five or six hundred of them—a forlorn and pitiful mob, forcibly transported from their native land. Those were the black days of Cromwell, when $25 was paid for the head of a wolf and $50 for the head of a patriot Irishman. In ten years probably 100,000 were driven out, and many of them came to the American colonies.

The first big Irishman in our colonial history was Gov. Thomas Dongan, who gave New York its earliest charter, and who deserves to be called one of the pioneer champions of popular rights in America. The second was the distinguished philosopher, Bishop Berkeley, who came from Derry to Rhode Island in 1728, lured by a missionary enterprise that failed. All through the eighteenth century came a steady stream of the exiled Irish—men and women who had been toughened in a terrible school, and who were fit and ready for the perils of the American wilderness. Most of them were from 94the north of Ireland—from little Ulster, that giant-breeding province whose sons have made history in almost every country of the earth. They were the first across the Alleghanies. They settled Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia and the coal and iron regions of Pennsylvania. Such men as Daniel Boone, Davy Crockett and Matthew Lyon were their leaders. It was they who colonized Ulster County in New York and Londonderry in New Hampshire. The colonial hero of the Catskills was Timothy Murphy—so wrote Jay Gould in his famous History of Delaware County, published fifty years ago.

When the War of Independence began there were Irish on the firing-line everywhere. They had a personal as well as a colonial grievance against Great Britain; and here was a chance, at last, to even up old scores. A writer of those times describes them as “a hardy, brave, hot-headed race; excitable in temper; unrestrainable in passion; invincible in prejudice. They are impatient of restraint, and rebellious against anything that in their eyes bears the resemblance of injustice. They were the readiest of the ready on the battlefields of the Revolution.” These were not parlor virtues, but they were the kind that founded the American republic. “You lost America by the Irish,” declared Lord Mountjoy in the British Parliament.

In those critical days, while thousands were dilly-dallying, the Irish were hot for action. It was John Sullivan who struck the first blow, four months before the historic skirmish at Lexington, by capturing military stores at Portsmouth. The Sullivan family, of which he was a member, furnished three governors for the young republic. Their mother, in her old age, used to say that she had often worked in the fields carrying the governor of Massachusetts, while the governors of New Hampshire and Vermont tagged at her skirts. The first British warship was captured by an O’Brien; and John Barry became the official father of the American navy by receiving the earliest commission as captain. The first American general to fall was the brilliant Richard Montgomery, whose virtues compelled even Lord North to lament his death. It is an interesting fact, and one of which few are aware, that the three monuments in front of New York’s oldest church—St. Paul’s, on lower Broadway, are in memory of three famous Irishmen—General Montgomery, Thomas Addis Emmet and Dr. William MacNevin, the first scientific chemist of New York.

95In 1776 three of the signers were of Irish birth—Matthew Thornton, James Smith and George Taylor. Five others, at least, were of Irish blood—Edward Rutledge, Thomas Lynch, Thomas McKean, George Reed and Charles Carroll of Carrollton. The secretary of the assemblage, who read aloud the Declaration on the birth-morning of our republic, was Charles Thompson, Irish born and the son of an evicted farmer. And one of the first societies to back George Washington with men and money was the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick of Philadelphia, who raised half a million dollars and swung into line with a cheer. Only one of their members objected, and his name was struck from the society’s rolls. Washington was a frequent guest at their banquets and an honorary member, as President Roosevelt is of the same society in New York.

No history of the Revolution is complete without its Irish chapter. What with the dashing work of the Irish Brigade under Count Dillon; with the exploits of Mad Anthony Wayne and General Moylan, the Murat of the Revolutionary cavalry; and with the powerful aid of Burke and Sheridan in England, King George the Third found himself beset by Irishmen from all quarters. There were whole companies of Irishmen who fought for American independence under their own green flag, as loyal to their adopted country as to the land of their birth.

The most typical Irishman of pioneer times was Andrew Jackson, our seventh president. One secret of his greatness lay in the fact that there were many men of his mold and nationality in every American community. It is a fact that should cause every Irish heart to beat with pride that the first American president who rose from the rank and file, without the prestige of aristocratic birth or the polish of education, was the son of a rack-rented exile from Ulster. It may even be true that he was the first in the world’s history to climb so high, not by force of arms, but by the free choice of a free people.

“Old Hickory,” as his soldiers called him, has had no superiors as a popular leader. None of his enemies, and he made many of them, could question his honesty, his sincerity, his courage. He believed that the duty of a government was to protect the weak, curb the strong, and obey public opinion. During his presidency the United States bounded into industrial greatness and international prestige.

Overlapping Jackson came another typical Irishman, equally great 96in peace and war—Gen. James Shields. This remarkable man climbed to fame by half a dozen various paths. He was the hero of two wars, a judge of the Illinois Supreme Court, a governor of Oregon, and the only American who has had the honor of representing three states in the United States Senate. Like Jackson, he was gentle and chivalrous in private life, and an incarnate fury on the field of battle. His whole career was one of romantic knight errantry and adventure. He was a wit and a maker of epigrams. One of his happiest replies was on one occasion when he was asked to name his greatest victory.

“My greatest victory,” he answered quickly, “was won on the day when my sweetheart, Mary Carr, said ‘Yes.’”

After the terrible famine caused by the failure of the potato crop in 1845 and the following years, the Irish poured into America in mighty hosts. Since that time more than four millions have arrived here, ready with Celtic buoyancy for the battle of life in a new land, and yet almost heart-broken to leave the green fields of their fathers.

“Is it hard to die, Barney?” asked a friend of a dying Irishman.

“It is,” replied Barney; “but not so hard as it was to leave Ireland.”

But they went to work with a laugh and an “Irish hurrah.” Whether they knew it or not, they had arrived when they were most needed. The era of railroads and steamships had begun. Great cities were being built and being rebuilt. The factory system was being established in New England. The iron and steel trade had secured a solid foothold. And so, while the Irish had nothing to offer at first but labor, labor was what the United States was most urgently in need of at that stage of its development.

When the Civil War put American manhood to the test the Irish were everywhere—in the thickets of the Wilderness, at the Bloody Angle of Gettysburg, on the crimson field of Chancellorsville. Standing for state rights—the rights of which John C. Calhoun had been the great exponent—were Gen. Patrick R. Cleburne, Senator Regan, the Texan, and others. Standing for the Union were Sheridan, Meade and Meagher, whose dashing valor is one of our national boasts. Unquestionably “Little Phil” Sheridan deserves a high place, not only among American generals, but among the foremost military commanders of the world. Today, among the retired veterans of the United States Army there are three brigadier-generals of 97Irish birth—Richard Comba, John J. Coppinger and William Quinton.[10] There is also one rear-admiral—Joseph Trilley.

10. To these three should be added: Brig. Gen. Bernard J. D. Irwin, Brig. Gen. Michael Cooney, Brig. Gen. James W. Scully, Brig. Gen. Charles P. Eagan, Brig. Gen. William E. Dougherty, Brig. Gen. John R. McGinness and Brig. Gen. John J. O’Connell, all natives of Ireland.

For more than two hundred years the sons of Ireland have been among the pathfinders who prepared the way for the American nation in its mighty sweep from the Atlantic to the Pacific. No region has ever been too remote or perilous to daunt the Irish pioneer. Whoever discovers the North Pole will no doubt find a Kelly or an O’Brien already on the spot. It was Capt. John J. Healy, for instance, who was the commercial discoverer of Alaska; and when the United States first took possession of that frozen country, four of the sixteen white men in its largest settlement were found to be subscribers to the Irish World. Gen. Patrick E. Connor was a trail-maker in Utah, as Philip Nolan and Sam Houston were in Texas. Henry W. Oliver, the late steel king of Pittsburg, who had the most dramatic career of ups and downs that western Pennsylvania has ever known, was the first Pittsburgher to realize fully the value of the Lake Superior iron ore. In consequence, he piled up a forty-million fortune. Missouri had Brian Mullanphy, who left a fortune for the assistance of poor immigrants. In fact, when the history of any western state is written, it will be found that among the army that cleared the way there was always an Irish brigade.

The plain, straight truth about the Western Irish is more wonderful than any fanciful tale woven in the loom of Arabian imagination. Talk about Monte Cristo or Sinbad the Sailor! They are paltry adventurers compared with men like John W. Mackay or Marcus Daly. With his three partners, also Irish—James C. Flood, James G. Fair and William S. O’Brien—John W. Mackay changed the silver markets of the world. Within a comparatively few years these four men took a treasure of $150,000,000 from one hole in the side of a Nevada mountain—the famous Comstock lode. Always ready for big enterprises, Mackay put his millions behind James Gordon Bennett’s dream to link America and Europe together by an Atlantic cable, and drove the scheme ahead to complete success. What Marcus Daly did in Montana was different only in detail. He, too, “grasped the skirts of happy chance” with a grip that landed him and his friends among the most powerful money kings of his generation.

98All five of these Irishmen began at the lowest rung of the ladder. They made themselves the leaders in a country of strong and daring men, by being the strongest and most daring of all. And today their children have linked their fathers’ names by marriage with some of the proudest families in the older states—the Oelrichses, Vanderbilts, Duers and Girards, as well as to the princely Colonnas of Italy.

Whether it is the versatile genius of the Emmets of New York; or the fighting pluck of “Bucky” O’Neil, who was killed with the Rough Riders at Santiago; or the sagacity of John Mitchell, who is the leader of 150,000 miners—whether it is the sheer brain force and inventiveness of a Fulton, a Morse or a McCormick, or the quaint and witty wisdom of “Mr. Dooley,” there have always been qualities of the Irish head and the Irish heart that brought honor to the little home-land of the Celt.

“There is nothing negative about the Irish,” said Patrick Ford—which is exactly what anyone who knows the rugged old journalist would have expected him to say. They may be on the wrong side of the quarrel, but one thing is always certain—they are never on the fence. They care little or nothing for obstacles and adverse circumstances. They are the best of friends and the best of enemies—the quickest with either the open hand or the fist—the most loyal to a cause and the most rebellious against a tyranny. They live closest to hope and farthest from despair.

“Why,” said Maurice Healy, an Alaskan fur trader, “I’m only 700 miles from a bank!”

You can bend and twist an Irishman, but you can seldom break him—the records of insanity and suicide prove this. He “works hard in time of peace and fights hard in time of war,” as President Roosevelt has said. Impulsive, daring, constructive, indomitable, the Irishman has done indispensable work in this land of his choice.

“May his shadow never grow less!”—so say we all.

Leading Events in the Career of the Society, for 1906, or of Special Interest to the Members.
Jan. 4.
Death of P. J. Kenedy, New York, senior member of the firm of P. J. Kenedy & Sons, publishers. Mr. Kenedy was a member of the Society.
Jan. 6.
The U. S. gunboat Hist arrived at the Charlestown (Mass.) navy yard today from Newport, R. I. Chief Boatswain Hugh Sweeney, who was in command, immediately turned the vessel over to Boatswain Patrick Shanahan and returned to Newport.
Jan. 10.
Thirtieth meeting of the council of the Society is held this evening at Providence, R. I. Hon. Thomas Z. Lee of Providence presides.
Jan. 10.
Following the council meeting just mentioned the members and friends partook of dinner at the Narragansett Hotel, Providence.
Jan. 18.
Annual meeting and dinner of the Society. The event took place at the Hotel Manhattan, 42d Street and Madison Avenue, New York.
Jan. 18.
A dinner to James McMahon was given at the Waldorf-Astoria, New York, tonight, by the officers of the Emigrant Industrial Savings Bank, that city. Mr. McMahon retires from the presidency of the bank after fourteen years’ service. He is a member of the Society.
Jan. 29.
Death of Ambrose F. Travers, New York, a member of the Society.
Feb. 1.
Governor Swanson of Virginia is inaugurated. He has appointed Hon. Joseph T. Lawless, of Norfolk, a member of the Society, to be a colonel on his staff.
Feb. 4.
Capt. James Connolly of Coronado, Cal., a member of the Society, writes to Secretary Murray that he has contracted with a Boston publisher to bring out a volume of verse entitled “The Jewels of King Art,” in commemoration of a famous Irish monarch.
Feb. 18.
John A. McCall, a life member of the Society, dies at Lakewood, N. J.
Feb. 21.
Rev. John F. Leary, rector of St. Michael’s Church, Chapman, Kan., and chaplain of the Grand Army of the Republic, died on this date. He was a native of Ogdensburg, N. Y. During the Civil War he served as a member of the Fifteenth New York Engineers. That was before he became a priest. He was in the engagements at the Wilderness, Spottsylvania and Appomatox. Though he was wounded at Bermuda Hundred, he was able to get back to his regiment in time to be in at the finish at Appomatox Courthouse. Father Leary was elected chaplain-in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic at the national encampment held last September.
Feb. 28.
George T. Little, librarian of Bowdoin College, requests a copy of Volume II of the Journal of the Society for that institution. He states that the college is already in possession of the other volumes of the series.
Rev. Cyrus Townsend Brady, LL. D., of the Society, is the author of a volume brought out this month entitled, The True Andrew Jackson. It is illustrated, comprises 503 pages, and is dedicated as follows: “To that most useful and eminent citizen, John D. Crimmins, and our fellow-members of the American-Irish Historical Society, I dedicate this appreciation of the greatest among the many of Irish lineage who have contributed to the upbuilding of the republic.”
March 2.
The State Historical Society of Missouri, by its secretary, expresses a desire to secure copies of the publications of our Society.
March 8.
Cyril Crimmins, a son of Hon. John D. Crimmins, New York, becomes a life member of the Society.
March 9.
Frederick H. Hild, librarian of the Chicago Public Library, writes that the library is desirous of having a complete set of the Journal of the Society, and also copies of such other publications as may be issued.
March 12.
The Rhode Island state house commissioners granted this afternoon, permission to the Society to erect a tablet in the edifice to Gen. John Sullivan of the Revolution.
March 13.
The Providence (R. I.) Evening Tribune contains an interesting article on the memorial tablet which the 101Society purposes erecting in the state capitol, Providence, to Maj.-Gen. John Sullivan of the Revolution.
March 14.
An article on Maj.-Gen. John Sullivan is published in the Providence (R. I.) Evening Tribune today, accompanied by his portrait.
March 15.
Most Rev. Robert Seton, titular archbishop of Heliopolis, lectured at the Irish College, Rome, today, on The Irish in America. Among those present was Cardinal Michael Logue, archbishop of Armagh, and primate of all Ireland.
March 24.
A despatch from Montreal, this date, states that the Oakhall restaurant, corner of St. Peter and Notre Dame streets, that city, was burned out last night. Special interest centres in the fact that the building was occupied in 1775 as the headquarters of Gen. Richard Montgomery and staff of the American army in Montreal.
March 28.
Melvin G. Dodge, librarian of Leland Stanford Junior University, California, wishes copies of Volumes I and III of the Journal of the Society for that institution. He writes us to that effect.
March 31.
Gaelic Notes in this week’s New York Irish World has the following: “Now that the question of teaching Irish history in the schools has again come to the front, we would repeat the suggestion made by us a couple of years ago to the American-Irish Historical Society, that in no possible way could it so promote the objects for which it is organized as by the preparation of a popular text-book of the history of the race in America, suitable for the use of schools. The Society has the material for doing this; it could do it without loss to itself, and with great profit to the race, which it would thus have put under a debt of gratitude.”
Death of Gen. M. T. McMahon at his home in New York City. He was a judge of the New York Court of General Sessions at the time of his death. He had practised law in New York for many years and was a fine speaker, but he was known chiefly as a soldier. He was educated at St. John’s College, Fordham, from which he graduated in 1855, and then went to Buffalo, 102where he studied law in the office of Eli Cook, then mayor of the city, in company with Grover Cleveland, since president of the United States. Although able to pass the examination, he was too young to be admitted to the bar, and he became a correspondence clerk in the general post-office at Washington. In President Buchanan’s administration he was appointed special post-office agent to the Pacific coast. He was admitted to the bar at Sacramento in 1861. At the first call for troops at the breaking out of the Civil War he raised the first company of cavalry on the Pacific. He was elected captain of the company, but when it was decided that the company should not go to the front he resigned and went to Washington. He was made a captain in the regular army and an aide-de-camp to Gen. George B. McClellan, whose bosom friend he remained until “Little Mac’s” death. He served in every engagement in which the Army of the Potomac took part. When the Sixth Corps was disbanded he was adjutant-general and chief of staff. He also served under Generals Franklin, Sedgwick (who was killed at the Wilderness), Baldy Smith and Wright. He received the congressional medal of honor for bravery at the battle of White Oak Swamp. Congress also presented him with a jeweled sword for conspicuous bravery at Spottsylvania and other battles. At the close of the war he was assigned as adjutant-general under General Dix, to the Department of the East. He resigned in 1866 and became corporation attorney of New York City. President Johnson made him minister to Paraguay. In 1879 he ran for Congress against Robert B. Roosevelt and was defeated. Two years later he was appointed receiver of taxes by Andrew H. Green, then comptroller. He was United States marshal for the Southern District of New York under President Cleveland. After that he was an assemblyman and a state senator. For years he had been one of the managers of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers. In 1896 he was elected judge of the Court of General Sessions. General McMahon 103was a Fenian and was ready for service in Ireland. He was also a member of the Clan-na-Gael in its earlier days. His brother, John E. McMahon, who was attorney-general and adjutant-general of New York state under Governor Seymour, was colonel of the One Hundred and Sixty-fourth New York Volunteers, which he raised in Buffalo at the outbreak of the war. The regiment was later consolidated with the Phœnix Zouaves, a Fenian regiment, and McMahon became colonel. It was part of the Corcoran Legion. Col. John E. McMahon was killed at the siege of Suffolk, Va., in 1863. The other brother, James P. McMahon, was a captain in the Sixty-ninth with Thomas Francis Meagher, later became lieutenant-colonel of the One Hundred and Fifty-fifth New York, and was promoted to be colonel of the One Hundred and Sixty-fourth New York, in place of his brother, Martin. He remained in command of the latter regiment until he was killed in a charge at the battle of Cold Harbor on June 3, 1864.
About this time is issued from the Blanchard Press, Worcester, Mass., a volume entitled: “A Study in the Etymology of the Indian Place Name Missisquoi.” The author of the work is George McAleer, M. D., of Worcester, a member of our Society.
The Munsey Magazine (New York) for this month has a paper on the Irish in America by Herbert N. Casson.
April 7.
Death today of Capt. Patrick S. Curry, Lynn, Mass., a member of the Society. He passed away at Nashua, N. H., where he had been superintending the construction of a new post-office building.
April 9.
Daniel Walsh, a member of the crew of the Monitor when she fought the Merrimac, during the Civil War, died in Lawrence, Mass. He was a native of Ireland.
April 18.
Hon. James D. Phelan, ex-mayor of San Francisco, who is a member of the Society, is appointed a member of the Committee of Safety by Mayor Schmitz of that city, which committee is rendered necessary by the great earthquake and fire disaster.
April 18.
E. Festus Kelly, of Northerwood House, Lyndhurst, Hampshire, England, expresses his interest in a paper 104on “The New Hampshire Kellys,” which appeared in Volume V of the Journal of the Society, and desires a copy of the same.
April 20.
Patrick J. Meehan, of Jersey City, N. J., editor of the Irish-American of New York, the oldest Irish newspaper in the United States with the exception of The Pilot, and who may be styled the Nestor of the Irish-American and Catholic journalistic fraternity, died on this date.
April 20.
A despatch from Lowell, Mass., today states that the O’Sullivan Rubber Co., of that city, has wired $500 to the mayor of San Francisco to aid the earthquake sufferers. The check was signed by Treasurer Humphrey O’Sullivan, who is a member of our Society, as is James O’Sullivan, president of the company.
April 25.
At Phalerum, Greece, today, Martin J. Sheridan of the Irish-American A. C., New York, won the contest at discus throwing. Giorgantas, a Greek, was second.
April 25.
President Roosevelt, in a proclamation today, urges the American people to now send their contributions for the alleviation of the distress in San Francisco, directly to ex-Mayor James D. Phelan, chairman of the finance committee in San Francisco, instead of to the American Red Cross. The proclamation goes on to say: “The need of employing the Red Cross, save as an auxiliary, has passed, and I urge that hereafter all contributions from any source be sent direct to James D. Phelan, chairman finance committee, San Francisco. Mr. Devine of the Red Cross will disburse any contributions sent to him through ex-Mayor Phelan and will work in accord with him in all ways.”
April 26.
Reception this evening to Rear-Admiral John McGowan, U. S. N., the new president-general of the Society. The event took place at the residence of Hon. John D. Crimmins, 40 East 68th Street, New York.
April 28.
An editorial in the New Century, Washington, D. C., this date, says: “As an individual contributor to the San Francisco relief fund, one notices an Irish name leading all the rest—far and above in amount, the generosity of the Rockefellers, the Astors and the Vanderbilts. The 105name is that of James D. Phelan, who subscribed $1,000,000. And this, notwithstanding that he himself lost $15,000,000 by the fire. These great catastrophes always evoke large-hearted acts and assure us that neither magnanimity, public spirit nor courage have yet vanished from the face of the earth. Mr. Phelan’s conduct proclaims him a man worthy of his wealth. We learn, further, that he is a Catholic, a graduate of a Jesuit college and that he was mayor of San Francisco from 1896 to 1902. As he is only forty-five years of age, we shall hope to hear more of him hereafter.”
A committee organized by Archbishop Farley, of New York, for the relief of the San Francisco sufferers, has been very successful. Among the members of the Society who have contributed to the fund, together with the amount given by each, are the following: Archbishop Farley, $1,000; Hon. John D. Crimmins, $1,000; Hon. W. Bourke Cochran, $1,000; Eugene Kelly, $1,000; James S. Coleman, $300; Francis J. Quinlan, M. D., $250; Hon. Morgan J. O’Brien, $250; Edmond J. Curry, $100; J. Henry Haggerty, $100; all of New York. Mr. Crimmins is treasurer of the fund.
May 3.
Warren Upham, secretary and librarian of the Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minn., writes that the organization is desirous of possessing a complete set of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society.
May 5.
The New York Irish-American for this week has the following relative to our San Francisco member, ex-Mayor James D. Phelan: “In San Francisco the man of the hour in whose hands is the management of the great relief fund, and under whose executive direction the important movements that are to lift the stricken city up from the depths and rebuild her shattered fortunes have already been begun, is that well-known Irish-American, James D. Phelan, former mayor of the city. Although his personal and business losses must reach millions, it is reported that he has devoted the sum of $1,000,000 out of his private fortune to employ the afflicted laboring people of his native city. Mr. Phelan, whose father was one of the men who made San Francisco 106rich and famous, was born in 1861, and was educated at St. Ignatius College, in that city, where he graduated with honor, after a four years’ course of study. He then entered as a student at the law department of the University of California, of which he is also a graduate. He was selected mayor of the city, as a Democrat, in 1896, and served until 1902. His régime was marked by zeal and ability in the public service. The Democrats of the state Legislature complimented him with their nomination for United States senator a few years ago. He is one of the leading capitalists of the United States, and has numerous commercial and mining interests. He is president of the Mutual Savings Bank and the finest business block in San Francisco, situated on Market Street, bore his name. It withstood the shock of earthquake, but the resulting fire reduced it to a mass of smoking ruins. Mr. Phelan has been for years a generous supporter of the Irish cause and has stood by both Parnell and Redmond with his influence and his money. His father aided in receiving Terence Bellew McManus, John Mitchel and Thomas Francis Meagher when those patriots escaped from the British penal settlements in Australia and sought liberty and new careers in America. No city has been more generous in aid of Ireland than San Francisco and its people, of all races, are renowned for their hospitality and liberality, and foremost among those who offered that hospitality has always been James D. Phelan. In the new city that is to rise triumphant from the ashes of the present disaster his grateful fellow-citizens will no doubt give him every honor in their bestowal.”
May 12.
The funeral took place, at Boston today, of Patrick E. Flood. He was a member of the crew of the U. S. S. Kearsarge when she fought the Alabama.
May 29.
John F. Sweeney, Buffalo, N. Y., becomes a life member of the Society.
May 30.
In the old Granary burying ground, Boston, this morning, was unveiled a slab marking the burial place of those who fell in the Boston massacre of March 5, 1770, and of a boy who was killed on the previous February 10722. The modest slab of slate is in keeping with the other memorials in this historic burying ground. It was erected by Boston Chapter, S. A. R., and is the first permanent marker that has been placed over these graves. Dr. Samuel Crowell, president of the Boston Chapter, unveiled the slab with a brief introductory speech, presenting Dr. Moses Greeley Parker of Lowell, president of the Massachusetts Society, who congratulated Boston Chapter on the work it has done and is doing. Edward W. McGlenen, city registrar, of the committee, gave a brief historical sketch of the events leading up to the massacre, including the shooting of the boy, Christopher Snider, by the British soldiers, who fired into his father’s house. Little attention has been paid in history to the killing of this boy, called on the slab “the innocent first victim of the struggles between the colonists and the crown.” The slab stands close to the grave of Samuel Adams and is in plain view from the street. The inscription reads:
The Remains of
Victims of the Boston Massacre
March 5th, 1770
Were here interred by order of the
Town of Boston
Here also lies buried the body of
aged 12 years
Killed February 22nd, 1770
The innocent first victim of the struggle
between the Colonists and the Crown
which resulted in
Placed by Boston Chapter, S. A. R.
June 4.108
Hon. Arthur P. Gorman passed away this morning in Washington, D. C. He was the senior United States senator from Maryland and was the Democratic leader in the upper branch of Congress. Deceased was a native of Woodstock, Md., and was born in 1829. His grandfather, John Gorman, came to Pennsylvania from Ireland in 1784 and settled in Harrisburg.
June 13.
John J. Coffey, of Neponset (Boston), Mass., passes away. He was a member of the Society and took much interest in the work of the latter.
June 15.
Death of Hon. Michael J. Sullivan, a member of the executive council of the governor of Massachusetts, at his home in Boston. He worked his way through the Boston University Law School and continued his legal studies in the office of the Hon. Patrick A. Collins, afterwards mayor, and was in July, 1898, admitted to the bar. He was elected a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1898, and re-elected in 1899. He served on the important committee of metropolitan affairs and represented Mayor Collins on that committee, looking after the interests of the City of Boston. He was a candidate for the state Senate in 1900, but was defeated. In the following year he was chosen a member of that body, and re-elected in 1902. He was a member of the governor’s council in 1904, 1905 and the present year. Governors Bates, Douglas and Guild, in whose councils Mr. Sullivan served, had high admiration for him. In June, 1905, he was in charge, officially, of the Massachusetts delegation to the Lewis and Clark Exposition in Portland, Ore. The state was represented at the funeral by Governor Guild, Lieutenant-Governor Draper and members of the executive council, Senate and House, and the city by Mayor Fitzgerald and members of the board of aldermen and common council, and men connected with the different departments.
July 18.
Death of Patrick F. Sullivan, Boston, Mass., a member of the Society.
July 23.
Hon. John J. Flaherty of Gloucester, Mass., a justice of the Superior Court of Massachusetts, died today.
Aug. 22.
Rev. Denis P. O’Flynn, New York City, a member of the Society, passes away.
Aug. 26.
Death of Col. O’Brien Moore, Tucson, Ariz., a life member of the Society.
Aug. 29.
Col. James Quinlan, a member of the Society, passes away at his home in New York City.
Sept. 25.
Richard Deeves, New York, contributes $100 to the Permanent Fund of the Society.
Oct. 1.
William Pigott, Seattle, Wash., becomes a life member of the Society.
Oct. 12.
The Ninth Massachusetts Regiment, under command of Col. William H. Donovan, starts for New York City to participate in the dedication of the new armory of the Sixty-ninth Regiment, N. G. S. N. Y. With the Ninth went a number of invited guests, including Mayor Fitzgerald of Boston, Mayor Duggan of Worcester, Mayor Casey of Lowell, Mayor Kane of Lawrence and other Massachusetts gentlemen.
Oct. 13.
Dedication in New York City today of the new armory of the Sixty-ninth Regiment. Mr. Justice James Fitzgerald of the New York Supreme Court, a member of our Society, presided.
Oct. 21.
John C. Sullivan, registrar of probate for Plymouth County, Mass., was accidentally killed tonight by being struck by a trolley car. He was sixty-four years of age and had been registrar of Plymouth County for many years. Born in Ireland, he came to this country alone when a small boy. He attended the local schools and later Peirce Academy and Brown University, the latter in Providence, R. I. He enlisted during the Civil War and served out his full term, being a good soldier and comrade. After the war he was admitted to the bar.
Oct. 29.
Death today of Hon. Robert T. Davis, M. D., of Fall River, Mass., a member of the Society.
Oct. 29.
Reuben G. Thwaites, secretary and superintendent of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis., writes to us saying: “Thank you most cordially for your kindly gift of books and pamphlets to our 110library. We shall certainly appreciate them very much indeed. We trust that you will continue to favor us with your several publications, as we have a very large, growing, and much used collection of material in the field in which your Society works.”
The American-Irish Historical Society this month receives an invitation from the American Historical Association to send a representation to a conference of historical societies to be held in Providence, R. I., December 26–29, 1906.
Nov. 2.
William Doogue, superintendent of public grounds, Boston, Mass., passed away this evening. He was a member of the Society.
Nov. 5.
It is stated that the Hon. Morgan J. O’Brien, presiding justice of the appellate division of the New York Supreme Court, today filed his resignation with the secretary of state at Albany. Judge O’Brien will become a member of a prominent New York law firm.
Nov. 6.
The Hon. James H. Higgins, mayor of Pawtucket, R. I., is today elected governor of Rhode Island. He is the first Catholic to be elected to the office.
Nov. 6.
Joseph F. O’Connell, a member of the Society, is today elected to Congress from the Tenth Massachusetts district.
Nov. 6.
Patrick J. McCarthy, a member of the Society, is today elected mayor of Providence, R. I.
Nov. 21.
The secretary of the State Historical Society of Missouri writes that he has forwarded us the first number of a quarterly review just issued by his society and that they shall be glad to place us on their regular mailing list, and to receive from us copies of such publications as our Society may issue.
Nov. 23.
The librarian of the public library, St. Louis, Mo., writes for two volumes of the Journal of the Society to complete the library’s set.
Nov. 23.
Anniversary of the birth of Edward Rutledge, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. He was of Irish parentage.
Nov. 29.
Anniversary of the birth of Charles Thomson, the “perpetual secretary” of Congress; a native of Ireland.
Hon. George F. O’Neil, Binghamton, N. Y., becomes a life member of the Society.
Dec. 2.
Died on this date, in 1783, Thomas Burke. He was a native of Ireland, and was chosen governor of North Carolina in 1781.
Dec. 11.
A meeting of the council of the Society is held this evening in Providence, R. I.
The following members of the Society died during the year 1906, much and deservedly regretted:

Coffey, John J., born in County Kerry, Ireland, 1831; died at Neponset (Boston), Mass., June 13, 1906. He enlisted for service in the Civil War on December 13, 1861, in Company C, Twenty-eighth Massachusetts Regiment (the famous Faugh-a-Ballaghs), which formed part of Meagher’s Irish Brigade, and he later fought with the Fourth Heavy Artillery of Massachusetts. Among the famous battles in which he took part were Marye’s Heights, Gettysburg and Fredericksburg. He was stricken with rheumatic fever, which necessitated his taking furloughs. With the exception of these two absences he served from the first year of the war until its conclusion, and was in the army which assembled in Washington for review preparatory to its disbandment at the close of hostilities. He returned to Boston after the war, and was active in military organizations. He joined the Montgomery Light Guard Veteran Association and various other Irish societies. He was a most patriotic man and an active worker in the interests of his native land. He was identified with the Irish National League, Irish National Federation and the United Irish League. He also belonged to Division 43, A. O. H., the Knights of St. Brendan and John A. Andrew Post, No. 5, G. A. R. He is survived by his wife and six children: James D. and Timothy J. Coffey of Boston; Charles M. Coffey, who has been in the West and Alaska for some years, part of the time serving in the United States Cavalry; Mrs. George G. White of Dorchester, Mass.; Mrs. William H. Murphy of Neponset; and Miss Anna S. Coffey, a teacher in the Henry L. Pierce School, Dorchester, who lived with her parents. When a collection of articles for an Irish-American loan exhibition for the World’s fair at St. Louis, Mo., was being gotten up in 1904, John J. Coffey, the subject of this obituary, contributed an Irish flag that had been carried during the Civil War by the Twenty-eighth Massachusetts. Accompanying the flag, he sent a letter, the following being an extract therefrom: “This flag has a precious history. It was presented to the Twenty-eighth Regiment, through the late Patrick Donahoe, by the Irish women of Boston, on Sept. 24, 1861, at the same time Governor Andrew presented the regiment with the flag of the State of Massachusetts. My company (C) was selected as the right center or color company, and my brother, Michael J., whose height exceeded mine by two inches, was selected as color sergeant of this green flag, and carried it until he fell mortally wounded at the second battle of Bull Run, August 30, 1862; after that it went through Chantilly, South Mountain 113and Antietam. On the memorable day of the attack on Marye’s Heights, at Fredericksburg, it was the only green flag unfurled—and by this I do not intend to cast any reflections on the other four regiments of the Irish Brigade. Some time before Chancellorsville, in May following, Colonel Byrnes and the other officers of the regiment concluded that it was too cumbersome, subscribed among themselves and procured a flag of lighter fabric (worsted), and laid the old flag (this one) aside, but in safe keeping, and you may rest assured that it has been scrupulously cared for and treasured by the custodian.”

Coleman, James S., builder of the new Croton Dam, New York, and street cleaning commissioner from 1881 to 1891, died at his home, 38 East 69th Street, New York City, December 17. Deceased was one of the best-known contractors in this country. At the time of his appointment as commissioner of street cleaning by Mayor Grace of New York he was engaged in the construction of the Texas and Pacific Railroad, which work was turned over to other contractors, while deceased gave his whole time to the study of his work for the city. He was the first commissioner to realize the many commercial uses to which city waste might be put, and he so arranged the disposal of garbage as to clear for the city $90,000 yearly. Mayor Grace appointed him to a six-year term, which continued through the term of Mayor Edson, and subsequently he was re-appointed for another six-year term by Mayor Hewitt. In 1892 he received the contract for the building of the new Croton Dam, and shortly before his death the entire work was completed. Deceased was born about sixty-three years ago. He came of a family of contractors, his father having engaged in that business until his death. He spent his boyhood in Madison, N. J. Deceased was prominent in charitable work of an unobtrusive sort and was a member of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the American Geographical Society and the Manhattan, Catholic and Hardware clubs, Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, and was a member of the board of managers of the Catholic Orphan Asylum. Funeral services were held at St. Patrick’s Cathedral.

Curry, Capt. Patrick S., born in Ireland; died in Nashua, N. H., April 7, 1906. He came to this country when a young man, eventually settling in Lynn, Mass., where he was long engaged in the granite business. During the Civil War he rose from the ranks to command Companies C and G of the Third Massachusetts Cavalry, under Banks and Sheridan. He was one of the volunteers at the storming of Port Hudson, and for his bravery there was given a medal by Congress. During the siege of Baton Rouge he was made provost marshal at that place. He was wounded several times. In 1883 he was elected representative to the Massachusetts General Court from Lynn, and was the author of the free text-book bill. He also presented the bill abolishing contract labor in prisons. At the time of his death he was superintending the construction of a new post-office building in Nashua, N. H.

114Davis, Hon. Robert T. (M. D.), born in County Down, Ireland, 1823; died in Fall River, Mass., October 29, 1906. He was the son of John and Sarah (Thompson) Davis. His father was a Presbyterian and his mother a member of the Society of Friends. They came to America in 1826 and settled in Amesbury, Mass. Doctor Davis was educated in the Friends’ School at Providence, R. I., and at Amesbury Academy, and began the study of medicine with Dr. Thomas Wilbur, well remembered as a leading physician in Fall River. He passed two years at Tremont Medical School in Boston and was graduated from the medical department of Harvard in 1847. In 1850 he went to Fall River and began the practice of his profession, winning a high rank as a skillful physician. When a young man he was active in the anti-slavery movement and in 1851 made a speech in favor of instructing the local representatives to vote for Charles Sumner for United States senator. He was a member of the state constitutional convention in 1853, and in 1858 and 1861 was a state senator. He was a member of the national Republican convention which nominated Abraham Lincoln in 1860, and also in 1876 when Rutherford B. Hayes was nominated. At the request of Governor Andrew of Massachusetts, he introduced the resolution for the appointment of peace commissioners to attend a convention in Washington in an endeavor to preserve peace between the North and the South. During the early days of the Civil War he assisted in the formation of the Seventh Massachusetts Regiment, intending to accompany them to the front as surgeon, but gave way to a relative of the colonel of the regiment, who was desirous of securing the appointment. He was later appointed by Governor Andrew medical examiner of recruits for his district, and later examiner of applicants for exemption from military duty on account of physical disability. He was one of the three local surgeons who, in obedience to a call from Washington, after the second battle of Bull Run, went to Alexandria and assisted in treating the wounded. In 1863 Governor Andrew appointed him a member of the State Board of Charities, and in 1869 he was appointed a member of the State Board of Health by Governor Claflin, and when the two boards were consolidated he was appointed as a member of the new board by Governor Talbot. In 1873 he was elected mayor of Fall River without opposition, and at the close of his term he donated his salary to the Children’s Home. He was elected to Congress in 1882 and re-elected in 1884 and 1886 and was afterwards appointed by Gov. Oliver Ames a member of the Metropolitan Sewerage Commission. Doctor Davis in his long life had been prominent and successful in so many different fields that his early life as a physician and politician had been in a sense forgotten by the present generation. During the Land League and other Irish movements, Doctor Davis was always generous in support of Home Rule principles, and he had frequently been heard making eloquent and appealing pleas for the freedom of his native land. He was identified with the business interests of Fall River as a large owner of real estate and as one of the largest holders of mill stock in the city. He held large blocks of stock in a number of the mills, preferring to invest so as to be 115a dominant factor in the corporation in which he was interested. Doctor Davis held many offices in the corporations of the city. He was a director and also president of the Algonquin Printing Company, the Stafford mills and the Wampanoag mills. He was also a director in the Davis mills, the Merchants’ mills and the Stevens Manufacturing Company. He had been president of the Fall River board of trade, the Union Hospital Corporation and the Home Market Club. Doctor Davis married, in 1848, Sarah Congdon Wilbur, daughter of Dr. Thomas Wilbur of Fall River, who died in 1856, and in 1862 he married Susan A. Haight, daughter of Moses Haight of Westchester County, New York, who passed away a few years ago. He is survived by one son, Robert C. Davis of the law firm of Jackson, Slade & Borden.

Doogue, William, born in Queen’s County, Ireland, 1828; died in Dorchester (Boston), Mass., November 2, 1906; superintendent of public grounds, Boston, Mass. When a lad his family emigrated, settling in Middletown, Conn. Here Mr. Doogue was educated in the local schools, having in his native country received primary instruction at a private school. At the age of seventeen he was apprenticed to Affleck, Whitmore & Co., of Hartford, Conn., who operated one of the most extensive nursery and greenhouse plants in New England at the time. Here he learned the science of floriculture, horticulture and landscape gardening. He served five years with this firm, and during the last three years of his apprenticeship studied botany under the tuition of Professor Comstock of Trinity College, a well-known writer on that subject. After the death of Mr. Affleck, Mr. Doogue became a partner in the firm, the style of which was changed to that of Whitmore & Co. In 1865 Mr. Doogue dissolved his connection with the firm and came to Boston. He assumed the entire management of the floricultural and horticultural business of Charles Copeland in Boston and Melrose, Mass. Later he established himself in business as a florist and was most successful. In 1871 Mr. Doogue’s skill was fittingly recognized when he was chosen to lay out the grounds of the Centennial Exposition held in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, and make a tropical and sub-tropical display. He did splendid work and was highly complimented, and as a reward was presented with two gold and two silver medals and diplomas. Mr. Doogue transformed the Boston Public Garden from a place of a few monotonous floral displays during the summer season, to one of a succession of brilliant, attractive and artistic flowering and rare plants and exotics, which have been the delight of visitors. He propagated many of the most rare and costly plants and bulbs, and accumulated stocks of these and other products of the greenhouse and nursery, which are today worth in money much more than the whole plant has cost the city. It may be said he created the department of public grounds, for when he took charge of it it was only a name, a title; now it is a substantial and creditable asset of the city, as well as a fitting monument to the genius and memory of William Doogue. Mr. Doogue was liberal, but unostentatious in his contributions to works of religion and charity. 116His aid to the Home for Destitute Catholic Children and St. Mary’s Infant Asylum, Dorchester, is remembered with gratitude by the Sisters having charge of those institutions. He leaves five children, Mrs. Timothy McCarthy, Mrs. D. H. Sullivan, Mrs. John O’Connell and Luke J. and William J. Doogue. The funeral of Mr. Doogue took place from the Church of the Immaculate Conception, Boston, in which for years he had been a faithful worshipper. In the congregation were Mayor Fitzgerald, ex-Mayor T. N. Hart, city officials and representatives of organizations of which Mr. Doogue was a member. Interment was at Middletown, Conn.

Kenedy, P. J., born in New York City, 1843; died there January 4, 1906. He was educated at the Christian Brothers’ School in Canal Street, New York. Being brought up in the book business, he assisted his father in his stores in Centre Street and in Mott Street and Barclay Street. On his father’s death, Mr. Kenedy succeeded to the business, and so well did it develop that he soon took over the entire building at No. 5 Barclay Street, which in time became the most extensive Catholic publishing house in the country. A few years ago he took two of his sons into the firm with him, and they will continue the business, the foundation of which their grandfather, John Kenedy, laid eighty years ago. In the fall of 1895, Pope Leo XIII made Mr. Kenedy a publisher to the Holy See, in New York. He leaves a widow, three sons and four daughters.

Moore, Col. O’Brien, born in Ireland; died in Tucson, Ariz., August 26, 1906. A life member of the Society. At the time of his death he was general manager of the Citizen Printing and Publishing Co., Tucson, controlling a valuable newspaper plant and issuing a daily and weekly. He was a man of great brilliancy. On the breaking out of the war with Spain, he entered the service as lieutenant-colonel of the Second West Virginia Infantry. After a year’s service, and peace being declared with Spain, he became lieutenant-colonel of United States Volunteers for the operations in the Philippines, where he served for eighteen months, until his regiment was mustered out. He then settled in Tucson. He was a newspaper man of much ability and experience. Some of his early newspaper career was spent in Houston, Tex., on the Post, of which journal he became managing editor. He was later managing editor of the St. Louis Republic, and was also Washington correspondent for that paper at Washington, D. C.

McCall, John A., born in Albany, N. Y., 1849; died at Lakewood, N. J., February 18, 1906. He became clerk in the Albany State Currency Assorting House; was later in the service of the Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Co. until 1869; served in the New York state insurance department as clerk, 1869–’76; was deputy superintendent, 1876–’83; superintendent of insurance of New York, 1883–’86; comptroller Equitable Life Assurance Society, 1887–’92, and was later president of the New York Life Insurance Co. He was a life member of the Society.

117O’Flynn, Rev. Denis P., born in County Cork, Ireland, 1847; died in New York City, August 22, 1906. He was educated at St. Colman’s College, Fermoy, and then spent two years in study in Paris. He entered Louvain University, Belgium, and obtained the degree of doctor of theology. Returning to Paris, he was ordained to the priesthood and then came to America. He was eventually made vicar apostolic to the Bahamas. He became rector of St. Mary’s Church, Saugerties, N. Y., and for fifteen years, up to the time of his death, was rector of St. Joseph’s Church, New York City.

Quinlan, Col. James, born in Ireland, 1843; died in New York City, August 29, 1906. He came to this country when he was but seventeen years of age. He became a first lieutenant in the Sixty-ninth New York Regiment, and, in 1861, went with it to Washington, D. C. He was mustered out the following year, and joined the Eighty-eighth New York Volunteers, which was part of Meagher’s famous Irish Brigade. For conspicuous bravery at Savage Station, in June, 1862, Colonel Quinlan subsequently received the United States medal of honor.

Sullivan, Patrick F., born in County Kerry, Ireland; died in Boston, Mass., July 18, 1906. He came to Boston, Mass., when he was about sixteen years of age. Obtaining employment in a clothing store at the North End, his first venture in life’s struggle was made. Later he took a position with the house of Leonard & Co., brokers in furniture and auctioneers. Succeeding years found him connected with Libbie, dealer in rare books, and he continued in this business under the title of Sullivan Bros. & Libbie until the early eighties, when he took premises in School Street, Boston, under the name Sullivan & McDonald, and later Sullivan Brothers, auctioneers. As one of the principal assessors of the City of Boston, he established a reputation for skill and judgment which caused his opinion to be sought and followed without hesitation. His generous, charitable nature and his devotion to religion, as well as his broad, practical mind, is shown in the following disposition of his fortune in public benefactions. By the first clause of the will, the testator gives to his sister, Catherine A. Sullivan, $30,000 as a preferred legacy, and then the following bequests are made: To the Catholic University of America, $5,000; to the trustees of Boston College in Boston, $5,000; to St. John’s Ecclesiastical Seminary, Brighton, $5,000; to the trustees of the Boston Public Library, to be expended for the purchase of Catholic standard books, approved by the archbishop of Boston, or by the president of Boston College, $5,000; to the Little Sisters of the Poor on Dudley Street, Roxbury, Mass., $5,000; to the House of the Good Shepherd, Boston, $5,000; Carney Hospital, in memory of Thomas F. Sullivan, deceased brother of the testator, $5,000; to St. Mary’s Infant Asylum and lying-in hospital, Dorchester, $5,000; to the Free Home for Consumptives, Quincy Street, Dorchester, $5,000; Society for Propagation of the Faith, $3,500; to particular council of St. Vincent de Paul Society, to be distributed 118among the various conferences of the archdiocese of Boston, $2,500; to Home for Destitute Catholic Children, Boston, $2,500; Holy Ghost Hospital for Incurables, Cambridge, $2,500; to the reverend superior of the Paulist Fathers of the City of New York, for missions to non-Catholics, $1,500; to superior of Rocky Mountain Mission of Society of Jesus, to aid in carrying on religious missions among the Indians, $1,500; to Cardinal Gibbons, to aid in carrying on religious missions among colored people of this country, $1,500; to the Conference of St. Vincent de Paul connected with Church of All Saints, Center Street, Boston, $500; to the pastor of All Saints’ Church of Center Street, to aid in paying off the debt on said church, $1,500; to Conference of St. Vincent de Paul connected with Cathedral of Holy Cross in Boston, $500; to the St. Vincent Orphan Asylum, Camden Street, Boston, $2,000; to the Working Boys’ Home, Boston, $2,000; to House of Angel Guardian on Vernon Street, Boston, $2,000; to Trinity College, Washington, D. C., $1,500; to Church of the Immaculate Conception, on Harrison Avenue, $500; to Church of Our Lady of Perpetual Help, Boston, $500; to Cathedral of Holy Cross, Boston, $500; to Church of St. Mary of the Sacred Heart on Endicott Street, Boston, $500. Five thousand dollars is distributed among certain nieces of the deceased, and the rest and residue of the property is given to the sister of the testator, Catherine A. Sullivan.

Travers, Ambrose F., born in New York City, September 8, 1851; died in New York, January 29, 1906. He was of the firm Travers Brothers Company, cordage manufacturers, and was a brother of the late Francis C. Travers of New York. The latter was also a member of the Society and very active in advancing its interests. Vincent P. Travers, another brother, is likewise a member of the organization.

[For officers of the Society see pages 5 and 6.]
Adams, Hon. Samuel, president and treasurer of the O’Neill-Adams Co., 20th to 22d Street, Sixth Avenue, New York City; director, Garfield National Bank; member of the New York Chamber of Commerce; trustee, Excelsior Savings Bank; an ex-state senator of Colorado.

Adams, T. Albeus, president, Manhattan Refrigerating Co., 525 West Street, New York City; president, Adams & Co., New York; president, Union Terminal Cold Storage Co., Jersey City, N. J.

Ahern, John, 5 Highland Street, Concord, N. H.

Aspell, John (M. D.), 139 West 77th Street, New York City; member of the Academy of Medicine; of the County Medical Association, and of the Celtic Medical Society; recently president of the latter; visiting surgeon to St. Vincent’s Hospital.

Bannin, Michael E., of Converse, Stanton & Co., dry goods commission merchants, 83 and 85 Worth Street, New York City; member of the Merchants Association, New York; director, the Emigrant Industrial Savings Bank; vice-president, the Catholic Summer School (Cliff Haven); member of the Merchants and Catholic clubs, New York, of the Montauk Club, Brooklyn, and of the Brooklyn Arts and Science Institute; director, the Columbian National Life Insurance Co.; director, American Investment Securities Co.; director, Citizen Trust Co., Brooklyn.

Bannon, Henry G., 107 East 55th Street, New York City; president of the Irish National Club; secretary, Celtic-American Publishing Co.

Barrett, Michael F., of Barrett Bros., wholesale and retail dealers in teas, coffees, etc., 308 Spring Street and 574 Hudson Street, New York City.

Barry, Hon. Patrick T., 87–97 South Jefferson Street, Chicago, Ill. (Life member of the Society); advertising manager, Chicago Newspaper Union; director, First National Bank of Englewood, Ill.; director, The Chicago Citizen Company; has been a member of the state Legislature of Illinois; prominently identified with educational interests.

Barry, Rev. Michael, Oswego, N. Y.

Baxter, Rev. James J. (D. D.), 9 Whitmore Street, Boston, Mass.

120Blake, Michael, of John Leonard & Co., iron and steel, 149 Broadway, New York City.

Bodfish, Rev. Joshua P. L., Canton, Mass.; formerly chancellor of the Roman Catholic archdiocese of Boston; a director of the Bunker Hill Monument Association.

Bourlet, John W., of the Rumford Printing Co., Concord, N. H.

Boyle, Hon. Patrick J., Newport, R. I.; has been mayor of that city many terms.

Brady, Rev. Cyrus Townsend (LL. D.), rector, Trinity P. E. Church, Toledo, Ohio; member of the Society of Colonial Wars, of the Sons of the Revolution, of the Military Order of Foreign Wars, and of other patriotic organizations; chaplain of the First Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, war with Spain; formerly Protestant Episcopal archdeacon of Pennsylvania; author of For Love of Country, For the Freedom of the Sea, Stephen Decatur, Commodore Paul Jones, Border Fights and Fighters, The True Andrew Jackson, and other works.

Brady, Owen J., with The H. B. Claflin Co., 224 Church Street, New York City.

Brandon, Edward J., city clerk, Cambridge, Mass.

Brann, Rev. Henry A. (D. D.), 141 East 43d Street, New York City (Life member of the Society).

Brennan, Hon. James F., lawyer, Peterborough, N. H.; a trustee of the New Hampshire State Library.

Brennan, James F., contractor, 2 Garden Street, New Haven, Conn.

Brennan, P. J., 788 West End Avenue, New York City.

Brett, Frank P., town clerk and attorney, Waterbury, Conn.

Brierly, Frank, 268 West 131st Street, New York City.

Broderick, William J., 52 Morton Street, New York City.

Brosnahan, Rev. Timothy, rector of St. Mary’s Church, Waltham, Mass.

Buckley, Andrew, Parsons, Labette County, Kansas.

Burke, Robert E., recently city solicitor, Newburyport, Mass.

Burr, William P., office of the Corporation Council, New York City.

Butler, M. J., real estate and insurance, Morris Avenue, corner of 144th Street, New York City.

Butler, T. Vincent, with R. G. Dun & Co., New York City.

Buttimer, Thomas H., lawyer, Hingham and Boston, Mass.

Byrne, Dr. C. E., of the C. E. Byrne Piano Co., East 41st Street, New York City.

Byrne, Joseph M., insurance, 800 Broad Street, Newark, N. J.

Byrne, Rt. Rev. Mgr. William (D. D., V. G.), rector of St. Cecilia’s Church, St. Cecilia Street, Boston, Mass.

Byrnes, Patrick J., builder and general contractor, 105 East 31st Street, New York City.

Cahill, John H., lawyer, 15 Dey Street, New York City; prominently identified with telephone interests; vice-president, secretary, attorney and director of the New York Telephone Co., and the Empire City Subway Co. He is also a director of the American District Telephone Co.; the Chesapeake 121and Potomac Telephone Co.; the Holmes Protective Co.; the New England Telephone and Telegraph Co.; the Delaware Telegraph and Telephone Co.; Northwestern Telephone and Telegraph Co., and the Southwestern Telephone and Telegraph Co.

Calnin, James, 101–107 Lakeview Avenue, Lowell, Mass.

Cannon, Thomas H., of the law firm Cannon & Poage, Stock Exchange Building, Chicago, Ill.

Carbray, Hon. Felix, Benburb Place, Quebec, Canada; member of the Royal Irish Academy; Fellow of the Royal Society of Antiquaries, Ireland; member of the Quebec Harbor Commission and of the Quebec Board of Trade; consul for Portugal at Quebec, and dean of the Consular Corps; trustee of St. Patrick’s Church, and of St. Bridget’s Asylum; has represented his district in the parliament of the Province of Quebec. He was one of the pioneers in the lumber trade between the St. Lawrence and South America; has engaged in the general commission and shipping business; and has been a member of the successive firms: Carbray & Routh; Carbray, Routh & Co.; and Carbray, Son & Co.

Carmody, T. F., lawyer, Waterbury, Conn.

Carney, Michael, of M. Carney & Co., Lawrence, Mass.

Carroll, Edward, Leavenworth National Bank, Leavenworth, Kansas.

Carroll, Edward R., 333 East 51st Street, New York City; clerk’s office, Court of General Sessions of the Peace, City and County of New York.

Carroll, John L., secretary, American Oil & Supply Co., 23 Division Place, Newark, N. J.

Carter, Patrick, real estate, mortgages and insurance, 32 Westminster Street, Providence, R. I.

Carter, Hon. Thomas H., Helena, Mont.; a United States senator.

Casey, Michael, of Casey & Bacon, wholesale grocers, Pittsfield, Mass.

Cassidy, John J., 907 Adams Street, Wilmington, Del.

Cassidy, Patrick (M. D.), Norwich, Conn.; was surgeon-general on the staff of Gov. Luzon B. Morris of Connecticut, ranking as brigadier-general.

Chittick, Rev. J. J., Hyde Park, Mass.

Clancy, Laurence, dry goods merchant, West Bridge Street, Oswego, N. Y.; president of L. Clancy, Sons & Co.; trustee, Oswego County Savings Bank; director, electric street railway; member, Normal school board; has repeatedly declined a nomination for mayor of Oswego.

Clare, William F., lawyer, 71 Nassau Street, New York City.

Clark, Rev. James F., New Bedford, Mass.

Clarke, James, of James Clarke & Co., booksellers and publishers, 3, 5 and 7 West 22d Street, New York City.

Clarke, Joseph I. C., Sunday editor, New York Herald, Herald Square, New York City; residence, 159 West 95th Street.

Clary, Charles H., Hallowell, Me.; a descendant of John Clary, “of Newcastle, province of New Hampshire,” who married Jane Mahoney, of Georgetown, Me., 1750. Four children were born to them before 1760. Mr. Clary of Hallowell, Me., here mentioned, was one of the founders of the Clary Reunion Family which meets annually.

122Cockran, Hon. W. Bourke, 31 Nassau Street, New York City; a member of Congress. (Life member of the Society.)

Coffey, Rev. Michael J., East Cambridge, Mass.

Coghlan, Rev. Gerald P., 2141 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pa.

Cohalan, Daniel F., lawyer, 271 Broadway, New York City.

Coleman, John, capitalist, Louisville, Ky.

Collins, James M., 6 Sexton Avenue, Concord, N. H.

Collins, Hon. John S., Gilsum, N. H.; manufacturer of woolens; an ex-state senator of New Hampshire.

Conaty, Bernard, 30 Cypress Street, Providence, R. I.

Conaty, Rev. B. S., 340 Cambridge Street, Worcester, Mass.

Conaty, Rt. Rev. Thomas J. (D. D.), Los Angeles, Cal., bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Monterey and Los Angeles.

Condon, Edward O’Meagher, U. S. Court House and Post-office, Nashville, Tenn.; connected with the office of the U. S. Supervising Architect, Washington, D. C., as an inspector of public buildings; served in the Union army during the Civil War.

Coney, Patrick H., lawyer, 316 Kansas Avenue, Topeka, Kan. He entered the Union army in 1863, at the age of 15 years, enlisting in the One Hundred and Eleventh New York Infantry. He was detailed as dispatch bearer on General McDougall’s staff, promoted as an orderly dispatch bearer on Gen. Nelson A. Miles’ staff, served in this capacity on to Appomatox and Lee’s surrender, and was transferred June 5, 1865, to Company H, Fourth New York Heavy Artillery. He served until October 5, 1865, when he was honorably discharged at Hart’s Island, N. Y. He was wounded at the battle of Peach Orchard in front of Petersburg, Va., on June 16, 1864, and rejoined his command from the hospital after sixty days’ convalescence. In addition to his law practice, he is president and manager of the National Investment and Development Co., which is engaged in the promotion and development of 11,000 acres of mineral, gas and oil lands in Benton County, Mo.

Conlon, William L., Portsmouth, N. H.

Connery, William P., Wheeler and Pleasant Streets, Lynn, Mass.; recently candidate for mayor of Lynn.

Connolly, Capt. James, real estate, Coronado, Cal. He was born in County Cavan, Ireland, 1842; came to this country when he was but ten years of age, and spent much of his youth at East Dennis, Cape Cod, Mass. His early love for the sea was gratified later in life when he became captain of some of the finest deep-water ships sailing from Baltimore, Boston and elsewhere. His first command was the bark May Queen, a regular Baltimore and Rio packet, 1872. He then had command of the ship Pilgrim of Boston, and made several voyages to the East Indies. In 1884 he was given command of the Charger, a larger and finer ship than the Pilgrim, and sailed to ports in Japan. He next had command of the South American, “the Commodore’s ship,” of the Hastings fleet (Boston), and took her to Australia and other parts. He made several record voyages during his career, and some of these records still stand, having never been 123equalled. On one occasion he was wrecked off the coast of Africa; he and his wife upon being rescued were hospitably entertained by the Boers of the adjacent country. Returning to East Dennis, Mass., his wife’s health became poor and so he removed with her to Coronado, Cal., hoping that the change of climate would benefit her, but she died in 1901. She had accompanied her husband on several of his voyages, and had with him visited many parts of the world. Captain Connolly has written much and entertainingly. He has at present in manuscript form a novel of ocean life entitled The Magic of the Sea.

Connolly, Rev. Arthur T., Center and Creighton Streets, Roxbury (Boston), Mass.

Connor, Michael, 509 Beech Street, Manchester, N. H.

Conway, James L., 113 Worth Street, New York City.

Cooke, Rev. Michael J., Fall River, Mass. (Life member of the Society.)

Cooney, Brig.-Gen. Michael (U. S. A.), retired, 500 T Street, N. W., Washington, D. C.; born in Ireland; private, corporal and sergeant, Company A, First United States Cavalry, December 4, 1856, to December 4, 1861; quartermaster-sergeant, Sixth Cavalry, December, 1864; first lieutenant, Ninth Cavalry, July 28, 1866; captain, January 1, 1868; major, Fourth Cavalry, December 10, 1888; lieutenant-colonel, Seventh Cavalry, June 2, 1897; colonel, Fourth Cavalry, June 9, 1899; brigadier-general, retired, April 23, 1904.

Coughlin, John, 177 Water Street, Augusta, Me.

Cox, Hugh M. (M. D.), 285 St. Nicholas Avenue, New York City.

Cox, Michael F. (M. D., M. R. I. A.), 26 Merrion Square, Dublin, Ireland.

Cox, Michael H., 54 Commerce Street, Boston, Mass.

Cox, William T., 12 South Second Street, Elizabeth, N. J., owner of Cox’s Towing Line; for some years chairman of the fire commissioners of Elizabeth; ex-chief of the Elizabeth Volunteer Fire Department.

Coyle, Rev. James, Taunton, Mass.

Coyle, Rev. John D., 79 Davenport Avenue, New Haven, Conn.

Crane, Maj. John, 8 & 10 Bridge Street, New York City; of the firm Crane & MacMahon, manufacturers of wheels, carriage woodstock, and hardwood lumber. Among offices held by him may be mentioned: director of the Ganesvoort Bank, New York; trustee of Emigrant Industrial Savings Bank; president of the Irish Emigrant Society; president of Ascension Conference, Society of St. Vincent de Paul; member of the Superior Council, Society of St. Vincent de Paul; chairman of the Finance Committee for Special Work, of the same society; vice-president of the Virginia and North Carolina Wheel Co., Richmond, Va.; vice-president of the St. Marys Spoke and Wheel Co., of St. Marys, Ohio; trustee of the Soldiers and Sailors Home, Bath, N. Y.; vice-president of the Society of the Army of the Tennessee. He is also a member of the New York Commandery, Military Order of the Loyal Legion, of the New York Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, and of other organizations. He was a commissioned officer during the Civil War in the Sixth and Seventeenth Wisconsin regiments 124of Infantry, saw four years of very active service, and was regimental and brigade adjutant for a considerable period.

Creagh, Rev. John T. (J. U. L., S. T. L., J. C. D.), Catholic University, Washington, D. C.; associate professor of canon law.

Creamer, Walter H., 4 Prescott Place, Lynn, Mass. His great-grandfather, Edward Creamer, was born in Kinsale, Ireland, 1756, was graduated from Trinity College, Dublin, and in 1784 settled in Salem, Mass. He was a physician there. This Edward had a son George who married Hannah Gardner whose mother was Mary Sullivan, a sister of Gen. John Sullivan of the Revolution and of Gov. James Sullivan of Massachusetts. Walter H. Creamer, here mentioned, is a grandson of the said George and Hannah (Gardner) Creamer.

Crimmins, Cyril, of the Crimmins Realty Co., 624 Madison Avenue, New York City. (Life member of the Society.)

Crimmins, Hon. John D., 40 East 68th Street, New York City; a Life member of the Society; president-general of the organization in 1901, 1902 and 1905. Mr. Crimmins served as a park commissioner of New York City from 1883 to 1888, during which time he was treasurer and president of the board. He was a member of the Board of Visitors to West Point in 1894, and presidential elector (Democratic) in 1892 and 1904. He was appointed by Governor Roosevelt and served as a member of the Greater New York Charter Revision Commission. In 1894, he was a member of the New York State Constitutional Convention. Mr. Crimmins is a member of the New York Chamber of Commerce and is officially connected with many railway, realty and banking corporations. He is president of the Essex and Hudson Land Improvement Co.; honorary vice-president of the Trust Company of America, New York; vice-president of the Title Insurance Co. of New York; vice-president of the New York Mortgage and Security Co.; director of the Fifth Avenue Bank of New York, and also a director in the following companies: the Century Realty Co. and the Chelsea Realty Co. He is prominently identified with the charities of the Roman Catholic Church, as well as with non-sectarian charities. He is a member of the board of managers of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals; member of the executive committee of the New York State Branch of the American National Red Cross Society; member of the board of directors of the Pennsylvania, New York and Long Island Railroad Co.; member of the board of directors of the Metropolitan Bank; member of the board of managers of St. Vincent’s Hospital; member of the board of trustees of St. John’s Guild, and also of the Provident Loan Society of New York. Mr. Crimmins is also a director of the City and Suburban Homes Co. of New York, which has for its object to provide model homes at reasonable cost for working people. He is a member of the following clubs: Catholic, Metropolitan, Lawyers, Democratic, Manhattan, and of the Wee Burn Golf Club, of which he was formerly president. He is likewise a member of the board of managers of the Sevilla Home for Children, a non-sectarian charity, and is also one of the managers of the Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Delinquents.

125Crimmins, Capt. Martin L., U. S. A.; care of War Department, Washington, D. C.; a son of Hon. John D. Crimmins of New York City.

Cronin, Capt. William, Rutland, Vt.

Croston, J. F. (M. D.), 83 Emerson Street, Haverhill, Mass.

Cummings, Matthew J., overseer of the poor, 616 Eddy Street, Providence, R. I.

Cummins, Rev. John F., Roslindale (Boston), Mass.

Cunningham, James, 277 Congress Street, Portland, Me.

Curran, Philip A., of the Curran Dry Goods Co., Waterbury, Conn.

Curry, Edmond J., 69–71 East 89th Street, New York City.

Daly, John J., 1045 Longwood Avenue, Bronx, New York City; foreman, U. S. Immigration buildings, Ellis Island.

Daly, Hon. Joseph F. (LL. D.), Wall Street, New York City; chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas, New York, 1890–’96; justice of the New York Supreme Court, 1896–’98; member of the Board of Managers, Roman Catholic Orphan Asylum; member of the Advisory Board, St. Vincent’s Hospital; served in 1900 on the commission to revise the laws of Porto Rico.

Danaher, Hon. Franklin M., Albany, N. Y.; member of the State Board of Law Examiners; many years judge of the City Court of Albany.

Danvers, Robert E., 349–351 West 58th Street (the St. Albans), New York City; dealer in iron and steel.

Dasey, Charles V., Board of Trade Building, Broad Street, Boston, Mass.; steamship and insurance agent; general Eastern agent, Anchor Line S. S. Co., and of the Italian Royal Mail S. S. Co.; general agent, Insular Navigation Co.; general agency for ocean travel.

Davis, John H., assistant cashier, Seaboard National Bank, New York City.

Day, Joseph P., real estate, 932 Eighth Avenue, New York City.

Deeves, Richard, of Richard Deeves & Son, builders, 305–309 Broadway, New York City. (Life member of the Society.)

Delahanty, Dr. W. J., Trumbull Square, Worcester, Mass.

Delehanty, Hon. F. B., Judges’ Chambers, Court House, City Hall Park, New York; a judge of the City Court.

Dempsey, George C., Lowell, Mass.

Dempsey, William P., treasurer and manager, the Dempsey Bleachery and Dye Works, Pawtucket, R. I.

DeRoo, Rev. Peter, St. Joseph’s Church, 45 Fifteenth Street, North, Portland, Ore.; author of the History of America Before Columbus, a most interesting and valuable work.

Devlin, James H., 35 Parsons Street, Brighton (Boston), Mass.

Devlin, James H., Jr., lawyer, Barristers Hall, Pemberton Square, Boston, Mass.

Dixon, Richard, insurance, 52–54 William Street, New York City.

Donahue, Dan A., 178 Essex Street, Salem, Mass.

Donahue, R. J., cashier of the National Bank of Ogdensburg, N. Y.

Donnelly, Thomas F., lawyer, 257 Broadway, New York City.

126Donoghue, D. F. (M. D.), 240 Maple Street, Holyoke, Mass.

Donovan, Daniel, 21 High Rock Street, Lynn, Mass.; an authority on heraldry, armorial bearings, etc.; particularly as the same relate to Ireland.

Donovan, Henry F., editor and proprietor The Chicago Eagle, Teutonic Building, Chicago, Ill.; late colonel and inspector-general, Illinois National Guard.

Donovan, John W., real estate, mortgages and insurance, 360 West 125th Street, New York City.

Donovan, Dr. S. E., New Bedford, Mass.

Donovan, Col. William H., Lawrence, Mass.; commander of the Ninth Regiment, M. V. M.; served with the regiment in Cuba during the recent war with Spain.

Dooley, Michael F., of the Union Trust Co., Providence, R. I.

Doran, Patrick L., Salt Lake City, Utah.

Dowd, Willis B., lawyer, 141 Broadway, New York City; great-grandson of Cornelius Dowd who came to this country about 1750 and settled in Moore County, N. C., where he became prominent. The family has attained much distinction in North Carolina.

Dowling, Rev. Austin, rector of the Cathedral, Providence, R. I.

Downing, Bernard, secretary to the president of the Borough of Manhattan, City Hall, New York City.

Downing, D. P., with National Biscuit Company, Cambridge, Mass.

Doyle, Alfred L., of John F. Doyle & Sons, real estate agents, brokers and appraisers, 45 William Street, New York City.

Doyle, James, 50 Front Street, New York City; present oldest member of the flour trade in New York; member of the New York Produce Exchange from the beginning; member of the board of managers of the Exchange, 1897–1901. He and his son, Nathaniel, are associated in trade as James Doyle & Company.

Doyle, John F., of John F. Doyle & Sons, 45 William Street, New York City. (Life member of the Society.) Mr. Doyle is the senior member of the real estate firm of John F. Doyle & Sons. He was born in New York City, 1837, a son of James Doyle who participated in the Irish revolution of 1798 and who came to the United States early in 1806. This James Doyle, the immigrant, had a son who was killed in the Florida war of 1837, and a grandson who fell in 1861, fighting for the Union. John F. Doyle, the subject of this sketch and member of the Society, entered the law office of Alexander Hamilton, grandson of the first secretary of the treasury, afterwards the firm of Hamilton, Rives & Rogers, and remained with them from 1853 to 1869, in the meantime studying law and being admitted to the bar in 1862. Alexander Hamilton, Francis R. Rives, a son of William C. Rives, of Virginia, at one time minister to France and senator, and Nathaniel Pendleton Rogers, all of the old Revolutionary stock, were members of the firm. Mr. Doyle’s management of some Wall Street properties for them at this period became so conspicuous that he was urged by them to assume the management of their estates, which he did. Shortly afterwards followed the acquisition 127of the estates of such well-known people as Mrs. Harriet L. Langdon, granddaughter-in-law of the first John Jacob Astor, John Pyne March, Mrs. Morgan L. Livingston, George L. Schuyler, James M. Pendleton, A. Newbold Morris, James H. Jones, John Steward, Jr., Royal Phelps, deceased, Royal Phelps Carroll, Robert S. Minturn, estate of Gertrude L. Lowndes, deceased, William H. King, of Newport, R. I., and others too numerous to mention in detail. A feature of his career as a successful manager lies in the fact that the business associations and connections formed by him in the beginning are still held intact. Among the notable sales made by him are those from William H. Morris to John Jacob Astor in 1880, conveying 150 acres of lots in the twenty-third ward on and adjacent to Harlem River; the great sale of South Brooklyn lots at Gowanus Bay in 1884. Mr. Doyle represents today the same old and well-known families and estates represented by him fifty-four years ago. During his career Mr. Doyle has met and done business with some of the most notable men connected with the families notable in American History, such as three of the four sons of the first Alexander Hamilton, Admiral Farragut, Capt. Percival Drayton, Rawlins Lowndes, of South Carolina, William C. Rives, U. S. senator from Virginia, at one time minister to France, George L. Schuyler, grandson of Philip Schuyler and owner of the famous yacht America, Philip Schuyler, his son, Henry Grinnell of Arctic fame, Robert J. and Mortimer Livingston, Hon. John Lee Carroll, Commodore Wm. K. Vanderbilt, and scores of others equally well known, besides representing branches now of four lineal descendants of signers of the Declaration of Independence. His two sons, Col. John F. Doyle, Jr., and Alfred L. Doyle, have been with him in business for years past and all three enjoy an enviable reputation for integrity, ability and prudence in all their undertakings.

Doyle, Col. John F., Jr., of John F. Doyle & Sons, 45 William Street, New York City.

Doyle, Nathaniel, of James Doyle & Co., flour, etc.; 50 Front Street, New York City; member of the board of managers, New York Produce Exchange; member of the New York Club, 5th Avenue and 35th Street; member, Veteran Association, Seventh Regiment, N. G. S. N. Y.

Drummond, M. J., of M. J. Drummond & Co., 182 Broadway, New York City.

Duffy, P. P., Parsons, Labette County, Kansas.

Dunne, F. L., 328 Washington Street, Boston, Mass.

Dwyer, J. R., 732 Alpine St., Los Angeles, Cal.

Dyer, William H. (M. D.), Dover, N. H.

Editor of “The Rosary Magazine,” Somerset, O. (Life member of the Society.)

Egan, James T., of the law firm, Gorman, Egan & Gorman, Banigan Building, Providence, R. I.

Egan, Rev. M. H., rector, Church of the Sacred Heart, Lebanon, N. H.

Egan, Hon. Patrick, 18 Broadway, New York City; recently United States Minister to Chili.

128Ellard, George W., 180 Lisbon Street, Lewiston, Me.

Elliott, Dr. George W., Immigration Office, Ellis Island, N. Y. He is the duly accredited representative of the Canadian Government at the port of New York, co-operating with the public health and marine hospital service of the United States in connection with the medical examination of aliens passing through the United States immigration station, Ellis Island, destined for all points in the Dominion of Canada. Doctor Elliott is a native of Ireland.

Emmet, J. Duncan (M. D.), 103 Madison Avenue, New York City.

Emmet, Robert, The Priory, Warwick, England.

Emmet, Thomas Addis (M. D., LL. D.), 89 Madison Avenue, New York City (Life member of the Society); grand nephew of the Irish patriot, Robert Emmet.

Eustace, Hon. Alexander C., of the law firm A. C. & J. P. Eustace, 334 East Water Street, Elmira, N. Y.; during many years past identified as attorney or counsel, with many of the most important litigations before the courts in southern and western New York; was for three years, prior to 1893, president of the New York State Civil Service Commission.

Fallon, Hon. Joseph D. (LL. D.), 789 Broadway, South Boston, Mass.; justice of the South Boston Municipal Court; vice-president, Union Institution for Savings.

Fallon, Hon. Joseph P., 1900 Lexington Avenue, New York City; justice of the Ninth District Municipal Court.

Farley, Most Rev. John M. (D. D.), 452 Madison Ave., New York City.

Farrell, James P., superintendent of the Brooklyn Disciplinary Training School, 18th Avenue, between 56th and 58th streets, Brooklyn, N. Y.

Farrell, John F., Brander-Walsh Co., 89 Worth Street, New York City.

Farrell, John T. (M. D.), 16 Messer Street, Providence, R. I.

Farrelly, Frank T., Springfield News Co., Main Street, Springfield, Mass.

Farrelly, Stephen, American News Co., New York City. (Life member of the Society.)

Feeley, William J., treasurer of the W. J. Feeley Co., silversmiths and manufacturing jewelers, 185 Eddy Street, Providence, R. I.

Ferguson, Hugh, of Hugh Ferguson & Co., George Street, Charleston, S. C.

Finen, Rev. J. E., Tilton, N. H.

Finn, Rev. Thomas J., Box 242, Port Chester, N. Y.

Fitzgerald, Rev. D. W., 9 Pleasant Street, Penacook (Concord), N. H.

Fitzgerald, Hon. James, New York City; a justice of the New York Supreme Court.

Fitzpatrick, Edward, on the staff of the Louisville (Ky.) Times; a resident of New Albany, Ind.; member of the committee to select books for the New Albany Public Library; was, from 1878 to 1885, Indiana correspondent of the Louisville Courier-Journal, reporting the Legislature two terms, 1883–’85, for that paper, and at the same time was assistant to the chief clerk in the House of Representatives; was appointed a clerk in the U. S. Q. M. Depot at Jeffersonville, Ind., in 1885, but resigned to re-enter the employ of the Courier-Journal as political reporter in Louisville; 129was four years on the Louisville Post; returned to the Courier-Journal; was transferred to the Times (the afternoon edition of the Courier-Journal), and has been on that paper for many years past. He is a keen and forceful writer, and is one of the ablest men in American journalism.

Fitzpatrick, Thomas B., senior member of the firm Brown, Durrell & Co., importers and manufacturers, 104 Kingston Street, Boston, Mass.; Rand-McNally Building, Chicago, Ill., and 11–19 West 19th Street, New York City; president of the Union Institution for Savings, Boston, and a director in the United States Trust Co. of that city.

Fitzpatrick, Rev. William H., 2221 Dorchester Avenue, Dorchester Center, Mass.

Flannagan, Andrew J. (D. D. S.), Main Street, Springfield, Mass.

Flannery, Capt. John, Savannah, Ga.; of the John Flannery Co., cotton factors and commission merchants; was a non-commissioned officer of the Irish Jasper Greens in garrison at Fort Pulaski, 1861; was later lieutenant and captain, C. S. A., serving under Gen. Joe Johnston and General Hood; became a partner, in 1865, in the cotton firm, L. J. Guilmartin & Co., having a line of steamers from Charleston, S. C., to Palatka, Fla.; bought out the business in 1877; founded the house of John Flannery & Co.; became director and president of the Southern Bank of the State of Georgia; is ex-president of the Southern Cotton Exchange; captain, 1872–’98, of the Jasper Greens.

Fogarty, James A., 264 Blatchley Avenue, New Haven, Conn., recently a police commissioner of New Haven.

Fogarty, Jeremiah W., Registry of Deeds, Boston, Mass.

Fox, John J., 1908–1910 Bathgate Avenue, New York City.

Foy, Julius L., lawyer, Rialto Building, St. Louis, Mo.

Gaffney, Hon. T. St. John, lawyer; member of the French Legion of Honor; 41 Riverside Drive, New York City; is now U. S. Consul-General, Dresden, Germany.

Gallagher, Patrick, contractor and builder, 11 East 59th Street, New York City. (Life member of the Society.)

Gargan, Hon. Thomas J., of the law firm, Gargan, Keating & Brackett, Pemberton Building, Boston, Mass.; life member of the Society, and president-general of the same in 1899 and 1900; member of the Boston Transit Commission; director of the United States Trust Co.; director, the Columbian National Life Insurance Co.

Garrigan, Rt. Rev. Philip J., (D. D.), bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Sioux City, Iowa.

Garrity, P. H., 221 Bank Street, Waterbury, Conn.

Garvan, Francis P., assistant district attorney, 23 Fifth Avenue, New York City.

Garvan, Hon. Patrick, 236 Farmington Avenue, Hartford, Conn.; paper and paper stock. (Life member of the Society.)

Geoghegan, Charles A., 537–539 West Broadway, New York City.

130Geoghegan, Joseph, Salt Lake City, Utah (Life member of the Society); vice-president of the board of education, Salt Lake City; director of the Utah National Bank; director of the Utah Loan and Building Association; director of the Butler Liberal Manufacturing Co., all three concerns of Salt Lake City; also, director in many other corporations. He is general agent in Utah for Swift & Co. of Chicago; Borden’s Condensed Milk Co. of New York; the American Can Co. of New York, and the Pennsylvania Salt Mfg. Co. of Philadelphia. He is broker for the following: the Western Sugar Refining Co. of San Francisco, Cal.; the Utah Sugar Co. of Lehi, Utah; the Amalgamated Sugar Co. of Ogden, Utah; the Idaho Sugar Co. of Idaho Falls, Idaho, and the Fremont County Sugar Co. of Sugar City, Idaho.

Geoghegan, Joseph G., 20 East 73d Street, New York City. (Life member of the Society.)

Geoghegan, Walter F., 537–539 West Broadway, New York City.

Gibbons, John T., merchant, corner of Poydras and South Peters streets, New Orleans, La.; brother of Cardinal Gibbons. (Life member of the Society.)

Gillespie, George J., of the law firm Gillespie & O’Connor, 56 Pine Street, New York City; trustee, Catholic Summer School (Cliff Haven); member of the board of managers of the N. Y. Roman Catholic Orphan Asylum; vice-president of the Particular Council, Society of St. Vincent de Paul, New York City; member of the N. Y. Board of Education; recently tax commissioner of the City of New York. (Life member of the Society.)

Gilman, John E., 43 Hawkins Street, Boston, Mass.; has been adjutant-general on the staff of the national commander-in-chief, Grand Army of the Republic. In August, 1862, Mr. Gilman enlisted in Co. E, Twelfth Massachusetts Infantry (Webster Regiment), and participated in campaigns under Generals Pope, McClellan, Burnside, Hooker and Meade up to the battle of Gettysburg, Pa., where, on July 2, 1863, his right arm was shot off near the shoulder. Securing his discharge from the army on September 28, 1863, he returned to Boston. In 1864, he entered the service of the state and served in various departments until 1883, when he was made settlement clerk of the directors of Public Institutions of Boston. He was appointed soldiers’ relief commissioner, April 2, 1901. He has been a comrade of Posts 14, 7 and 26, G. A. R., since 1868, being commander of the latter post in 1888. He was department inspector of the Massachusetts G. A. R. in 1895; junior vice-commander in 1896; senior vice-commander in 1897; delegate-at-large in 1898; and department commander in 1899.

Goff, Hon. John W., recorder, New York City.

Gorman, Dennis J., assessors’ office, City Hall, Boston, Mass.

Gorman, John F., lawyer, Stephen Girard Building, Philadelphia, Pa.

Gorman, William, lawyer, Stephen Girard Building, Philadelphia, Pa.; member of the Pennsylvania Bar Association, the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, the American Academy of Social and Political Science; the Alumni Association of the University of Pennsylvania, and other organizations. 131He is officially connected with the Commonwealth Title Insurance and Trust Co. of Philadelphia. (Life member of the Society.)

Guilfoil, Francis P., lawyer, Waterbury, Conn.

Griffin, John F., insurance, Skowhegan, Me.

Griffin, Rt. Rev. Mgr. Thomas (D. D.), St. John’s presbytery, 44 Temple Street, Worcester, Mass.

Hagan, James H., treasurer of the Park Brewing Co., 1100 Elmwood Avenue, Providence, R. I.

Haggerty, J. Henry, of the Haggerty Refining Co., oils, 50 South Street, New York City.

Haigney, John, 439 58th Street, Brooklyn, N. Y.

Halley, Charles V., 1014 East 175th Street, New York City.

Hannan, Hon. John, mayor of Ogdensburg, N. Y.; president of the Ogdensburg Coal and Towing Co.

Hanrahan, John D. (M. D.), Rutland, Vt., a native of County Limerick, Ireland; was graduated in medicine from the University of the City of New York, 1867; in June, 1861, he was, on examination (not having graduated), appointed surgeon in the United States Navy, and served through the entire Civil War. The vessels on which he served did duty mostly on the rivers of Virginia and North Carolina, where he served with the army as well as the navy, thereby having the benefit and experience of both branches of the service, especially in the surgical line. In August, 1863, the vessel on which he was serving was captured at the mouth of the Rappahannock River and all on board made prisoners. They were taken overland to Richmond where they were confined in Libby Prison. At that time the Confederates were very short of surgeons and medical supplies, and he was asked if he would go over to Belle Island and attend the Union prisoners. After consulting his fellow-prisoners he consented, and for six weeks he attended the sick and wounded Union prisoners faithfully, under very great disadvantages, as the appliances were very limited. After that he was paroled. While a prisoner of war he was treated with the greatest courtesy and consideration by the medical staff and officers of the Confederacy. After the close of the war he was settled in New York City, but for nearly forty years has been a resident of Rutland, Vt. He was town and city physician of Rutland for many years. He was appointed surgeon of the Third Vermont Regiment, 1871, by Governor Stewart; was the first president of the Rutland County Medical and Surgical Society; has been a director and consulting surgeon of the Rutland (Vt.) Hospital; consulting surgeon to the Fanny Allen Hospital, Winooski, Vt.; a member of the Vermont Sanitary Association, and a member of the Vermont Society for the Prevention of Tuberculosis; president of Rutland Village two years and trustee eight years; county commissioner one year; president, United States pension examining board four years under President Cleveland, and president of the same board four years under President Harrison. He was postmaster of Rutland during the second term of President Cleveland. He has since its organization been an active member of the G. A. R.; surgeon of Roberts Post, the 132largest in Vermont; has served three terms as medical director of the Department; served on the staffs of three commanders-in-chief—Veasy, Palmer and Weissert; a member of Commander-in-Chief Stewart’s staff. Doctor Hanrahan is the author of several medical papers, has performed many surgical operations, and has served through several epidemics of smallpox and diphtheria. He was a delegate to the Democratic National conventions of 1884, 1888, and chairman of the Vermont delegation to the National Convention of 1892. Also a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in St. Louis, 1904, and to the Ancient Order of Hibernians convention in St. Louis, July 19, 1904.

Hanlon, Marcus, P. O. Box 1920, New York City.

Harbison, Hon. Alexander, Hartford, Conn., recently mayor of Hartford.

Harrington, Rev. J. C., rector of St. Joseph’s Church, Lynn, Mass.

Harrington, Rev. John M., Orono, Me.

Harris, Charles N., Tryon Row, New York City.

Harson, M. Joseph, Catholic Club, 120 Central Park South, New York City.

Hayes, John F. (M. D.), 15 South Elm Street, Waterbury, Conn.

Hayes, Hon. Nicholas J., sheriff, County of New York, 299 Broadway, New York City.

Hayes, Col. Patrick E., Pawtucket, R. I.

Hayes, Timothy J., 688 Lafayette Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y.

Healy, David, 70 Jane Street, New York City; U. S. Immigration service.

Healy, John F., general superintendent of the Davis Coal and Coke Co., Thomas, Tucker County, W. Va.

Healy, Richard, cloaks, suits, furs, etc., 512 Main Street, Worcester, Mass.

Hennessy, Michael E., on the staff of the Daily Globe, Boston, Mass.; a newspaper man of wide experience and exceptional ability.

Henry, Charles T., 120 Liberty Street, New York City.

Hickey, James G., manager of the United States Hotel, Boston, Mass. (Life member of the Society.)

Hickey, John J., plumbing contractor, 8 East 129th Street, New York City.

Hickey, Rev. William A., Clinton, Mass.

Higgins, James J., 85 Court Street, Elizabeth, N. J.

Hoban, Rt. Rev. M. J. (D. D.), Scranton, Pa., bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Scranton.

Hogan, John W., lawyer, 4 Weybosset Street, Providence, R. I.; recently a candidate for Congress.

Holland, John P., 95 Nelson Place, Newark, N. J.; inventor of the submarine torpedo boat.

Horigan, Cornelius, 229 and 231 Main Street, Biddeford, Me.; is treasurer of the Andrews & Horigan Co.; has been a member of the state Legislature of Maine.

Howes, Osborne, secretary and treasurer of the Board of Fire Underwriters, 55 Kilby Street, Boston, Mass. He is a descendant of David O’Killa (O’Kelly), who settled on Cape Cod as early as 1657, and who is mentioned in the old Yarmouth, Mass., records as “the Irishman.” The 133records show that at the close of King Philip’s War, O’Killia was assessed his proportionate part toward defraying the expenses of that struggle.

Hughes, Rev. Christopher, Fall River, Mass.

Hurley, James H., Union Trust Co. Building, Providence, R. I.; manager of the real estate department, G. L. & H. J. Gross.

Hurley, John E., 63 Washington Street, Providence, R. I.; vice-president and superintendent of the Remington Printing Co.; president, in 1904, of the Rhode Island Master Printers’ Association.

Jameson, W. R., 1786 Bathgate Avenue, borough of the Bronx, New York City.

Jenkinson, Richard C., 678 High Street, Newark, N. J.; of R. C. Jenkinson & Co., manufacturers of metal goods; candidate for mayor of Newark in 1901; was president of the Newark Board of Trade in 1898–’99 and 1900; has been a director in the Newark Gas Co.; was president of the New Jersey Commission to the Pan-American Exposition, and one of the vice-presidents of the Exposition, representing the state of New Jersey by appointment of Governor Voorhees.

Jennings, Michael J., 753 Third Avenue, New York City.

Johnson, James G., of James G. Johnson & Co., 649, 651, 653 and 655 Broadway, New York City.

Jordan, Michael J., lawyer, 42 Court Street, Boston, Mass.

Joyce, Bernard J., salesman, Board of Trade Building, Boston, Mass.

Joyce, John Jay, 47 Macdougal Street, New York City.

Kane, John H. (M. D.), Lexington, Mass.

Keane, Most Rev. John J. (D. D.), Dubuque, Ia.; archbishop of the Roman Catholic archdiocese of Dubuque.

Kearney, James, lawyer, 220 Broadway, New York City.

Keating, Patrick M., of the law firm Gargan, Keating & Brackett, Pemberton Building, Boston, Mass.

Keenan, John J., Public Library, Copley Square, Boston, Mass.

Kehoe, John F., 26 Broadway, New York City; officially connected with many corporations. (Life member of the Society.)

Kelly, Eugene, Templecourt Building, New York City.

Kelly, John Forrest (Ph. D.), Pittsfield, Mass.; born near Carrick-on-Suir, Ireland. He was educated in Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J., received the degree of B. L. in 1878, and that of Ph. D. in 1881. His first occupation was as assistant to Thomas A. Edison, in Menlo Park laboratory, his work then principally relating to the chemistry of rare earths. Late in 1879 Mr. Kelly became electrical engineer of the New York branch of the Western Electric Company. This was the time when the telephone was being generally introduced, and when dynamos were being first applied to telegraphic purposes. In the construction and installment of instruments for telegraphy and telephones and of such measuring instruments as were then known, Mr. Kelly received a thorough training. In 1882 he became laboratory assistant to Edward Weston, then chief electrician of the United States Electric Lighting Company, and, with the exception of a year which he spent in connection with the Remingtons, 134Mr. Kelly continued his association with Mr. Weston until July, 1886. Some of the most important work, such as the research which ended in the discovery of high resistance alloys of very low or even negative temperature co-efficients, were substantially carried out by Mr. Kelly under general directions from Mr. Weston, whom Mr. Kelly succeeded as chief electrician of the United States Electric Lighting Company, which, in 1889, passed to the Westinghouse interests; but Mr. Kelly retained his position as chief electrician until January, 1892, when he resigned to join William Stanley in experimental work. The work done by Mr. Kelly, in this connection, gave a great impetus to the alternating current business. Mr. Kelly’s inventive work is partially represented by eighty patents. The art of building transformers and generators of alternating currents was revolutionized, and Mr. Kelly and his colleagues were the first to put polyphase motors into actual commercial service. That success naturally led to long-distance transmission work, and the first long-distance transmission plants in California (indeed the first in the world), were undertaken on Mr. Kelly’s recommendation and advice. He was the first to make an hysteretically stable steel, a matter of vastly more importance than the comparatively spectacular transmission work. Mr. Kelly at present occupies the position of president of the John F. Kelly Engineering Company, president of the Cokel Company and president of the Telelectric Company, as well as president of the Conchas River Power Company and director of the Southwestern Exploration Company. The Cokel Company is organized to exploit the invention of Mr. E. W. Cooke, by means of which foodstuffs may be perfectly dehydrated, losing on the average ninety per cent. in weight. Foods dehydrated by this process, although free from all chemical preservatives, are entirely stable, and yet preserve their pristine freshness through extremes of temperature, and when served are indistinguishable from fresh foods of the ordinary type. The Telelectric Company is organized for the manufacture of electric piano players, which are either entirely automatic or entirely controllable at will. Mr. Kelly was married to Miss Helen Fischer, in New York City, in 1892, and they have two children—Eoghan and Domnall. Mr. Kelly is a thorough and unswerving Irish Nationalist, and his splendid generosity to the cause is well known.

Kelly, Michael F. (M. D.), Fall River, Mass.

Kelly, T. P., 544 West 22d Street, New York City; of T. P. Kelly & Co., manufacturers of black leads, foundry facings, supplies, etc.

Kelly, William J., 9 Dove Street, Newburyport, Mass.

Kelly, William J., insurance, Portsmouth, N. H.

Kenah, John F., city clerk, Elizabeth, N. J.

Kennedy, Charles F., Brewer, Me.

Kennedy, Daniel, of the Kennedy Valve Manufacturing Co., Coxsackie, N. Y.

Kenney, James W., Park Brewery, Terrace Street, Roxbury (Boston), Mass.; vice-president and director, Federal Trust Co., Boston.

Kenney, Thomas, 143 Summer Street, Worcester, Mass.

135Kenney, Thomas F. (M. D.), Vienna, Austria.

Kerby, John E., architect, 481 Fifth Avenue, New York City.

Kiernan, Patrick, 265 West 43d Street, New York City.

Kilmartin, Thomas J. (M. D.), Waterbury, Conn.

Kilroy, Philip (M. D.), Springfield, Mass.

Kinsela, John F., 509 Gorham Street, Lowell, Mass.

Kivel, Hon. John, Dover, N. H.

Knights of St. Patrick, San Francisco, Cal. (Life membership.) Care of John Mulhern, 124 Market Street, San Francisco.

Lamb, Matthew B., 516 Main Street, Worcester, Mass.

Lamson, Col. Daniel S., Weston, Mass.; Lieutenant-Colonel commanding Sixteenth Regiment (Mass.), 1861; A. A. G., Norfolk, 1862; served on staff of General Hooker; is a member of the Society of Colonial Wars, Sons of the American Revolution, and Military Order of the Loyal Legion; one of his ancestors landed at Ipswich, Mass., in 1632, and received a grant of 350 acres; another ancestor, Samuel, of Reading, Mass., participated in King Philip’s War and had a son in the expedition of 1711. Another member of the family, Samuel of Weston, commanded a company at Concord, Mass., April 19, 1775, and was major and colonel of the Third Middlesex Regiment for many years, dying in 1795.

Lappin, J. J., 7 Grant Street, Portland, Me.

Lavelle, John, Inquiry Division, Post Office, Cleveland, O.

Lawler, Joseph A., 308 West 14th Street, New York City.

Lawler, Thomas B., 70 Fifth Avenue, New York City; of Ginn & Company, publishers; member of the American Oriental Society and of the Archæological Society of America.

Lawless, Hon. Joseph T., lawyer, Norfolk, Va.; recently secretary of state, Virginia; now a colonel on the staff of the governor of Virginia.

Lawlor, P. J., 417 East Main Street, Waterbury, Conn.

Lawlor, Thomas F., lawyer, 65 Bank Street, Waterbury, Conn.

Leahy, Matthew W., 257 Franklin Street, New Haven, Conn.

Lee, Hon. Thomas Z., of the law firm Barney & Lee, Industrial Trust Building, Providence, R. I.

Lembeck, Gustav W., of Lembeck & Betz, Eagle Brewing Co., 173 Ninth Street, Jersey City, N. J.

Lenehan, John J., of the law firm Lenehan & Dowley, 71 Nassau Street, New York City. (Life member of the Society.)

Lenehan, Rev. B. C. (V. G.), Fort Dodge, Iowa.

Lenihan, Rt. Rev. M. C., bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Great Falls, Mont.

Lennox, George W., manufacturer, Haverhill, Mass.

Leonard, Peter F., 343 Harvard Street, Cambridge, Mass.

Linehan, John J., Linehan Corset Co., Worcester, Mass.

Linehan, Rev. T. P., Biddeford, Me.

Lonergan, Thomas S., journalist, 658 East 149th Street, New York City.

Loughlin, Peter J., 150 Nassau Street, New York City.

Lovell, David B. (M. D.), 32 Pearl Street, Worcester, Mass.

136Luddy, Timothy F., Waterbury, Conn.

Lyman, William, 51 East 122d Street, New York City.

Lynch, Eugene, 24 India Street, Boston, Mass.

Lynch, J.H., Dyker Heights, Brooklyn, N. Y.

Lynch, John E., school principal, Worcester, Mass.

Lynch, Thomas J., lawyer, Augusta, Me.; was city clerk of Augusta, 1884 and 1885; postmaster of Augusta from 1894 to 1898; and trustee of the Public Library; one of the water commissioners; a director of the Granite National Bank; trustee of the Kennebec Savings Bank; trustee of the Augusta Trust Company; president of the Augusta Loan & Building Association; director of the Augusta, Winthrop & Gardiner Railway; director of the Augusta Real Estate Association; and trustee of many estates.

Lynn, John, 48 Bond Street, New York City.

Lynn, Hon. Wauhope, 257 Broadway, New York City; a judge of one of the New York courts.

MacDonnell, John T. F., paper manufacturer, Holyoke, Mass.

MacDwyer, Patrick S., 248 East 23d Street, New York City.

McAdoo, Hon. William, recently police commissioner of the City of New York; ex-member of Congress; ex-assistant secretary of the navy.

McAleenan, Arthur, 131 West 69th Street, New York City.

McAleer, George (M. D.), Worcester, Mass.

McAleevy, John F., salesman, 26–50 North Main Street, Pawtucket, R. I.

McAuliffe, John F., engraver, with the Livermore & Knight Co., Westminster Street, Providence, R. I.; born in New York City, November 4, 1856; educated in that city; learned the art of bank note engraving. His father’s father was a parishioner and intimate friend, in Ireland, of Rev. Theobald Mathew.

McBride, D. H., 10 Barclay Street, New York City.

McCaffrey, Hugh, manufacturer, Fifth and Berks streets, Philadelphia, Pa. (Life member of the Society.)

McCanna, Francis I., lawyer, Industrial Trust Building, Providence, R. I.

McCarrick, James W., general southern agent, Clyde Steamship Co., Norfolk, Va. Mr. McCarrick is a veteran of the Civil War. He was transferred, 1861, from Twelfth Virginia Regiment to North Carolina gunboat Winslow, and appointed master’s mate. Transferred to Confederate navy with that steamer, and ordered to Confederate steamer Seabird, at Norfolk navy yard. Attached to Seabird until latter was sunk. Taken prisoner, Elizabeth City, N. C. Paroled February, 1862. Exchanged for officer of similar rank captured from United States ship Congress. Promoted to master and ordered to navy yard, Selma, Ala. Served later on Confederate steamships Tuscaloosa, Baltic and Tennessee at Mobile, and in Mobile Bay, and on steamer Macon, at Savannah, and on Savannah River. Detailed to command water battery at Shell Bluff, below Augusta, after surrender of Savannah. Paroled from steamship Macon at Augusta, Ga., after Johnson’s surrender. Mr. McCarrick is president of the Virginia State Board of Pilot Commissioners; president of the Board of Trade of 137Norfolk, Va.; first vice-president of the Virginia Navigation Co.; commissioner representing the state of Virginia in the management of the proposed Jamestown Exposition to be held in 1907; and was president of the Suburban & City Railway and chairman of the executive committee of the Norfolk Street Railway until these two properties were consolidated and sold to outside parties.

McCarthy, Charles, Jr., Portland, Me.

McCarthy, George W., of Dennett & McCarthy, dry goods, Portsmouth, N. H.

McCarthy, M. R. F., 82 Court Street, Binghamton, N. Y.; a commissioner of the department of Public Instruction.

McCarthy, Patrick J., lawyer, Industrial Trust Building, Providence, R. I.; has been a member of the General Assembly of Rhode Island.

McCaughan, Rev. John P., St. Paul’s Church, Warren, Mass.

McCaughey, Bernard, of Bernard McCaughey & Co., house furnishers, Pawtucket, R. I.

McClean, Rev. Peter H., Milford, Conn.

McClure, David, lawyer, 22 William Street, New York City.

McConway, William, of the McConway & Torley Co., Pittsburg, Pa. (Life member of the Society.)

McCormick, Edward R., 15 West 38th Street, New York City.

McCoy, Rev. John J. (LL. D.), rector, St. Ann’s Church, Worcester, Mass.

McCready, Rt. Rev. Mgr. Charles, 329 West 42d Street, New York City.

McCreery, Robert, room 427, Produce Exchange, New York City.

McCullough, John, 55 Maxfield Street, New Bedford, Mass.

McDonald, Capt. Mitchell C., a pay director in the navy; is at present stationed at the Naval Home, Philadelphia, Pa.

McDonnell, Peter, 2 Battery Place, New York City; general railroad, steamship and banking business; agent, New York, Ontario & Western Railway.

McDonnell, Robert E., lawyer, 38 Park Row, New York City.

McDonough, Hon. John J., Fall River, Mass.; justice of the second district court of Bristol County, Mass.

McElroy, Rev. Charles J., rector, St. Augustine’s Church, Bridgeport, Conn.

McGann, James E., real estate, 902 Chapel Street, New Haven, Conn.

McGann, Col. James H., Providence, R. I.

McGauran, Michael S. (M. D.), 285 Broadway, Lawrence, Mass.

McGillicuddy, Hon. D. J., of the law firm McGillicuddy & Morey, Lewiston, Me.; ex-mayor of Lewiston.

McGinn, P. F., 79 Friendship Street, Providence, R. I.

McGinness, Brig.-Gen. John R. (U. S. A.), retired, Virginia Club, Norfolk, Va.; born in Ireland; cadet at United States Military Academy, July 1, 1859; first lieutenant of ordnance, June 11, 1863; captain, February 10, 1869; major, June 1, 1881; lieutenant-colonel, July 7, 1898; colonel, June 14, 1892; retired with the rank of brigadier-general, September 17, 1904.

McGolrick, Rev. E. J., 84 Herbert Street, Brooklyn, N. Y.

138McGolrick, Rt. Rev. James (D. D.), bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Duluth, Minn. (Life member of the Society.)

McGovern, James, 6 Wall Street, New York City; of Benedict, Drysdale & Co. (Life member of the Society.)

McGovern, Joseph P., of J. P. McGovern & Bro., fur brokers, 193 Greene Street, New York City.

McGowan, Rear Admiral John, U. S. N. (retired), 1739 N. Street, N. W., Washington, D. C. (Life member of the Society.) He was born at Port Penn, Del., August 4, 1843. He is a son of John and Catherine (Caldwell) McGowan. He was educated in the public schools of Philadelphia, Pa., 1848–’53, and in private schools in Elizabeth, N. J., 1854–’59. Entering the navy, he was appointed acting master’s mate, March 8, 1862; was promoted to acting master May 8, 1862, and ordered to command the U. S. S. Wyandank in the Potomac flotilla. He served on the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers until February, 1863, when he was detached from the Wyandank and ordered to the Florida as navigator. He served on the Florida in the blockade off Wilmington, N. C., until October, 1864, when the ship went to New York for repairs. In November, of the same year, he was detached from the Florida and ordered to the U. S. S. State of Georgia as navigator; arrived off Wilmington, N. C., the day after the capture of Fort Fisher, his ship being then ordered to reinforce the fleet off Charleston, S. C. While there he took part in the Bulls Bay Expedition, which was one of the causes of the evacuation of Charleston by the Confederates. Soon after the evacuation, the State of Georgia was ordered to Aspinwall (Colon) to protect American interests on the Isthmus of Panama. Before sailing for Aspinwall, McGowan succeeded Lieutenant Manly as executive officer of the ship. In November, 1865, he was ordered to the U. S. S. Monongahela as watch and division officer; served on the Monongahela in the West Indies until January, 1867, when he was detached and, a few days later, joined the U. S. S. Tacony, Commander Roe, fitting out for duty in the Gulf Squadron. He was at Vera Cruz nearly all the summer of 1867, which witnessed the fall of Maximilian’s empire. After the death of Maximilian, and the surrender of Vera Cruz to the Liberals, the Tacony returned to Pensacola, Fla., but yellow fever breaking out aboard the ship, went to Portsmouth, N. H., where, after undergoing quarantine, the officers were detached and ordered to their homes the latter part of September, 1867. In October of the same year, McGowan was ordered to duty on board the receiving ship at the Philadelphia navy yard. He commanded the U. S. S. Constellation there, and was afterward executive officer of the frigate Potomac, also a receiving ship, at Philadelphia. In March, 1868, while on the Potomac, he received a commission as master in the regular navy, and in October, 1868, was ordered to duty with the Asiatic fleet. On reporting to the admiral, he was ordered to duty as executive officer of the U. S. S. Unadilla; succeeded to the command of the Unadilla in June, 1869, and in November of that year was detached from the Unadilla and ordered to the U. S. S. Iroquois; returned in her to the United States, the ship going out of commission 139in April, 1870. In April, 1870, he was promoted to be lieutenant-commander and while in that grade served on the double-turreted monitor Terror, the Wachusetts, Juniata and Marion as executive officer, and at the League Island, Philadelphia and Brooklyn navy yards. In January, 1887, he was promoted to commander; commanded the Swatara, St. Mary’s, Portsmouth and Alliance, and was also commandant of the naval training station at Newport, R. I., from December, 1896, to July, 1899. He was promoted captain, February, 1899, and in August took command of the U. S. S. Monadnock at Manila. In November, 1900, he was ordered to duty as commandant of the naval station at Key West, Fla. In April, 1901, he was detached and ordered before the retiring board. He was retired, with the rank of rear admiral, in April, 1901. He resides in Washington, D. C., and is held in very high regard. In October, 1871, he wedded Evelyn Manderson of Philadelphia. Admiral McGowan is a member of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion, of the Order of Foreign Wars, the Sons of the Revolution, and of the Society of Marine Engineers and Naval Architects. He is also a member of the following clubs: the Metropolitan and Chevy Chase of Washington, D. C.; the Rittenhouse of Philadelphia, the Union of New York, and the New York Yacht Club. Admiral McGowan’s father, Capt. John McGowan, was appointed a lieutenant in the revenue cutter service by President Andrew Jackson. He was at Charleston, S. C., during the nullification period, served in the Seminole War, in the War with Mexico, and in the Civil War. He commanded the steamer Star of the West in the attempt to reinforce Fort Sumter in 1861. He died in January, 1891, aged 85 years.

McGowan, P. F., manufacturer, 224 East 12th Street, New York City. (Life member of the Society); president of the board of aldermen. Born in Lebanon, Conn., in 1852; went to New York City in 1877 and subsequently engaged in the manufacturing business, in which he is still interested. On January 1, 1900, was appointed by Mayor Van Wyck as a commissioner of education for a term of three years; appointed by Mayor McClellan as a commissioner of education, July 12, 1904, to fill the unexpired term of President H. A. Rogers, and while serving in that capacity was, in 1905, elected president of the board of aldermen for the term expiring January 1, 1910. Mr. McGowan is active in a number of benevolent and fraternal societies. He was a supreme representative of the Royal Arcanum and supreme councilor of the Loyal Association. He is a member of the Manhattan Club, of the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick and of the Pensacola Club, of the Fourteenth Assembly District, where he resides. He is a trustee in St. Ann’s Roman Catholic Church, New York Polyclinic Hospital and the West Side Savings Bank.

McGuire, Edward J., lawyer, 52 Wall Street, New York City.

McGurrin, F. E., of F. E. McGurrin & Co., investment bankers, Security Trust Building, Salt Lake City, Utah; president of the Salt Lake Security & Trust Co.

McIntyre, John F., of the law firm Cantor, Adams & McIntyre, 25 Broad Street, New York City.

140McKelleget, George F., of the law firm R. J. & G. F. McKelleget, Pemberton Building, Boston, Mass.

McKelleget, Richard J., of the law firm R. J. & G. F. McKelleget, Pemberton Building, Boston, Mass.

McLaughlin, Henry V. (M. D.), 40 Kent Street, Brookline, Mass.

McLaughlin, John, builder, 348 East 81st Street, New York City.

McLaughlin, Marcus J., 250 West 25th Street, New York City.

McLaughlin, Thomas F., 19 East 87th Street, New York City.

McMahon, James, 87 McDonough Street, Brooklyn, N. Y.

McMahon, Rev. John W. (D. D.), rector of St. Mary’s Church, Charlestown (Boston), Mass.

McManus, Col. John, 87 Dorrance Street, Providence, R. I.; was appointed colonel of the Rhode Island Guards Regiment by Governor Van Zandt, in 1887; was one of the commissioners to revise the militia laws of the state; aide-de-camp, with the rank of colonel, on the staff of Governor Davis of Rhode Island; has been prominently identified with all movements for the betterment of Ireland—his native land; is of the firm John McManus & Co., prominent merchant tailors of Providence.

McManus, Michael, of McManus & Co., Fall River, Mass.

McManus, Rev. Michael T., rector of St. Mary’s Church of the Assumption, Brookline, Mass.

McOwen, Anthony, 515 Wales Avenue, Borough of the Bronx, New York City.

McPartland, John E., Park Street, New Haven, Conn.

McQuade, E. A., 75–77 Market Street, Lowell, Mass.

McQuaid, Rev. William P., rector of St. James’ Church, Harrison Avenue, Boston, Mass.

McSweeney, Edward F., Evening Traveler, Summer Street, Boston, Mass.

McTighe, P. J., McTighe Grocery Co., wholesale grocers, Fayette Street, Binghamton, N. Y.

McWalters, John P., 141 Broadway, New York City.

Magrane, P. B., dry goods merchant, Lynn, Mass.; and of the James A. Houston Co., Boston.

Magrath, Patrick F., 244 Front Street, Binghamton, N. Y. (Life member of the Society.)

Maguire, P. J., 204 Madison Street, New York City.

Maher, Stephen J. (M. D.), 212 Orange Street, New Haven, Conn.

Mahony, William H., dry goods, 844 Eighth Avenue, New York City. (Life member of the Society.)

Malloy, Gen. A. G., El Paso, Texas; a veteran of the Mexican and Civil wars; during the latter conflict he was successively major, colonel and brigadier-general; has been collector of the port of Galveston.

Maloney, Cornelius, publisher of the Daily Democrat, Waterbury, Conn.

Maloney, Thomas E. (M. D.), North Main Street, Fall River, Mass.

Marshall, Rev. George F., rector of St. Paul’s Church, Milford, N. H.

Martin, James, recently managing editor, New York Tribune, New York City; now editor of the Newark (N. J.) Advertiser.

141Martin, Hon. John B., penal institutions commissioner, 762 Fourth Street, South Boston, Mass.

Meade, Richard W., 125 East 24th Street, New York City; son of the first president-general of the Society.

Milholland, John E., Witherspoon Building, Philadelphia, Pa.; president of the Batcheller Pneumatic Tube Co., of Philadelphia; president of the Pneumatic Dispatch Manufacturing Co., of Pennsylvania; director in the Pearsall Pneumatic Tube and Power Co., of New York, and a director in the Pneumatic Transit Co., of New Jersey. Under him the successful pneumatic tube of the large diameter has been constructed, and it is largely due to his energy and effort that the U. S. post-office department now considers a part of its general delivery system the pneumatic tube service. He is a member of the Transportation Club of New York, the New York Press Club, the Republican Club, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the American Museum of Natural History, and a number of other organizations.

Moloney, Fred G., Ottawa, Ill.

Moloney, Hon. Maurice T., lawyer, rooms 513–515 Moloney Building, Ottawa, Ill. He is a native of County Kerry, Ireland; came to the United States in 1867; graduated in law from the University of Virginia, class of 1871; admitted to the Virginia bar; removed to Illinois and was admitted to the bar of that state; served as city attorney of Ottawa, Ill., in 1879–’80 and 1881; was elected state’s attorney in 1884 and served four years; was elected attorney-general of Illinois and while in this position vigorously prosecuted illegal trusts and made a national reputation through his work; became mayor of Ottawa.

Molony, Henry A., of Molony & Carter, 16 New Street, Charleston, S. C.

Monaghan, Hon. James Charles, U. S. Department of Commerce and Labor, Washington, D. C.; formerly U. S. consul at Mannheim and at Chemnitz; recently professor of commerce, University of Wisconsin.

Montfort, Richard, Louisville, Ky.; chief engineer of the Louisville & Nashville R. R.

Montgomery, Gen. Phelps, 39 Church Street, New Haven, Conn.

Moran, Col. James, Providence, R. I.; a veteran of the Civil War. He was appointed second lieutenant in the Third Regiment, Rhode Island Volunteers, by Special Orders 53, A. G. O., R. I., August 27, 1861; was commissioned second lieutenant, Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, November 5, 1861; mustered in December 16, 1861; in command of Company A, from August 8, 1862, until September 20, 1862; assumed command of Company D, September 26, 1862; was commissioned captain and mustered in as such February 14, 1863; on general court martial, July, 1863; in command of Fort Amory, at Newberne, N. C., from September 1, 1863, until October 15, 1863; assumed command of post at Hatteras Inlet, N. C., April 21, 1864; in command of forts Foster and Parks, at Roanoke Island, from May 2, 1864, until January, 1865; mustered out January 17, 1865. In May, 1873, he was commissioned colonel of the Rhode Island Guards Regiment, and in June, 1887, became colonel of the Second Regiment, Brigade of Rhode Island Militia.

142Moran, James (M. D.), 345 West 58th Street, New York City.

Morgan, John, 44 West 46th Street, New York City.

Morkan, Michael J., P. O. Box 543, Hartford, Conn.

Moriarty, John, Broadway, Waterbury, Conn.

Morrissey, Very Rev. Andrew (C. S. C., D. D., LL. D.), University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind.

Morrissy, Thomas, 48–50 West 14th Street, New York City.

Moseley, Edward A., Washington, D. C., president-general of the Society in 1897 and 1898. He succeeded to the position, in the former year, on the death of Admiral Meade, who was the first president-general of the organization. Mr. Moseley is secretary of the U. S. Interstate Commerce Commission. He is ninth in descent from Lieut. Thaddeus Clark, who came from Ireland, and died in Portland, Me., May 16, 1690. Clark was lieutenant of a company of men engaged in the defence of Falmouth, now Portland, during the Indian War. He fell into ambuscade with his company while making a reconnoitre, and was killed with twelve of his men. Mr. Moseley is also a descendant of Deputy-Governor Cleeves (or Cleaves), a founder of Portland, formerly Falmouth, and is sixth in descent from Lieut. John Brown of Belfast, Me., who came with his father from Londonderry, Ire., and was one of the settlers of Londonderry, N. H.; Brown was chairman of the first board of selectmen of Belfast, Me., chosen November 11, 1773, ’74 and ’75; he removed from Londonderry, N. H. While residing there he had been a commissioned officer in the Provincial Army, and had served in the French War. Mr. Moseley is also of patriotic Revolutionary stock, and is a member of the Cincinnati.

Moynahan, Bartholomew, lawyer, 120 Broadway, New York City; official stenographer to the New York Supreme Court.

Mullen, John F., 26 Trask Street, Providence, R. I.

Murphy, D. P., Jr., 31 Barclay Street, New York City.

Murphy, Edward J., of the Edward J. Murphy Co., real estate brokers, Springfield, Mass.

Murphy, Frank J., Lincoln Hotel, Ballston Spa, N. Y.

Murphy, Fred C., of the Edward J. Murphy Co., Springfield, Mass.

Murphy, James, 42 Westminster Street, Providence, R. I.

Murphy, James R., lawyer, 27 School Street, Boston, Mass.

Murray, John F., captain of police, Cambridge, Mass.; residence, 9 Avon Street.

Murray, Hon. Lawrence O. (LL. D.), assistant secretary, U. S. Department of Commerce and Labor, Washington, D. C. He is a lawyer by profession. He first went to Washington as secretary to William Edmund Curtis, assistant secretary of the treasury. Subsequently, he held other positions in the treasury, including that of chief of division, and, from September 1, 1898, to June 27, 1899, that of deputy comptroller of the currency. He left the government employment to become the trust officer of the American Trust Company, continuing in that place for three years. He then went to Chicago as secretary of the Central Trust Company of Illinois and served there for two years before becoming assistant secretary of commerce and labor.

143Murray, Patrick, insurance, 318 West 52d Street, New York City.

Murray, Thomas Hamilton, 36 Newbury Street, Boston, Mass.; secretary-general of the Society; a newspaper man of many years’ experience, during which he has been editorially connected with journals in Boston and Lawrence, Mass., Providence, R. I., and Bridgeport and Meriden, Conn.; has devoted much attention to historical research, particularly in relation to the Irish element in American history, and has delivered addresses on the subject before the New England Historic Genealogical Society; the Rhode Island Historical Society; the Phi Kappa Sigma of Brown University; the Boston Charitable Irish Society (founded 1737), and other organizations; is the author of a number of papers, pamphlets and books.

Neagle, Rev. Richard, Malden, Mass.

Noonan, Daniel A., 725 Broadway, New York City.

O’Brien, Hon. C. D., lawyer, Globe Building, St. Paul, Minn.; prosecuting attorney of Ramsey County, Minn., from 1874–’78; assistant U. S. district attorney from 1870–’73; mayor of St. Paul from 1883–’85.

O’Brien, Dennis F., of the law firm Sheahan & O’Brien, Banigan Building, Providence, R. I.

O’Brien, Rev. James J., 185 Summer Street, Somerville, Mass.; a son of the late Mayor Hugh O’Brien of Boston, Mass.

O’Brien, John D., Bank of Minnesota Building, St. Paul, Minn.; of the law firm Stevens, O’Brien, Cole & Albrecht.

O’Brien, Hon. Morgan J. (LL. D.), 729 Park Avenue, New York City; a justice of the New York Supreme Court; trustee of the New York Public Library.

O’Brien, Patrick, of Driscoll & O’Brien, contractors, 399 South Broadway, Lawrence, Mass.

O’Byrne, M. A., 370 West 118th Street, New York City.

O’Callaghan, Rt. Rev. Mgr. Denis (D. D.), rector of St. Augustine’s Church, South Boston, Mass.

O’Connell, Rt. Rev. Mgr. Denis Joseph (S. T. D.), rector of the Catholic University, Washington, D. C.

O’Connell, John, 302 West End Avenue, New York City.

O’Connell, John F., 306 Broadway, Providence, R. I.

O’Connell, Joseph F., lawyer, 53 State Street, Boston, Mass.

O’Connell, P. A., of the James A. Houston Co., Boston, Mass.

O’Connor, Edward, 302 Broadway, New York City.

O’Connor, Hon. J. J., 414–416 Carroll Street, Elmira, N. Y. (Life member of the Society.)

O’Connor, J. L., Ogdensburg, N. Y.

O’Connor, M. P., Binghamton, N. Y. (Life member of the Society.)

O’Connor, Thomas, 920 East 156th Street, New York City.

O’Doherty, Rev. James, Haverhill, Mass. (Life member of the Society.)

O’Doherty, Hon. Matt., Louisville, Ky.; a judge of the Circuit Court.

O’Donovan, Jeremiah (Rossa), New York City.

O’Donnell, Rev. James H., rector, St. Mary’s Church, Norwalk, Conn.

O’Donnell, Hon. John B., lawyer, Northampton, Mass.; ex-mayor of Northampton.

144O’Dwyer, Hon. E. F., 37 West 76th Street, New York City; chief justice of the City Court of New York.

O’Farrell, P. A., Waldorf-Astoria, New York City. (Life member of the Society.)

O’Flaherty, James, advertising, 22 North William Street, New York City.

O’Gorman, Hon. J. A., 318 West 108th Street, New York City; a justice of the New York Supreme Court.

O’Gorman, Thomas A., the O’Gorman Co., Providence, R. I.

O’Hagan, W. J., of W. J. O’Hagan & Son, colonial antiques, Charleston, S. C.

O’Herin, William, Parsons, Labette County, Kan.; superintendent of machinery and equipment, Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway. (Life member of the Society.)

O’Keefe, Edmund, 174 Middle Street, New Bedford, Mass.

O’Keefe, J. A. (M. D.), Broadway, Providence, R. I., lieutenant-colonel, Second Regiment, B. R. I. M.

O’Keefe, John A., 25 Exchange Street, Lynn, Mass.; a native of Rockport, Mass.; was graduated from Harvard College, class of 1880; member of the Phi Beta Kappa; taught school in Housatonic, Mass.; was elected sub-master of the Lynn (Mass.) High School in 1881 and headmaster of the same in 1885; became a member of the teaching staff of the English High School, Boston, Mass.; studied law; was admitted to the bar of Essex County, Mass., and has since practiced law in Lynn. In 1897 he was the Democratic candidate for attorney-general of Massachusetts. Member of the Lynn Board of Associated Charities; member of the New England Association of Colleges and Preparatory Schools; of the Essex Institute, and of the executive board of the Civic League of Lynn. Among Mr. O’Keefe’s classmates at Harvard were: Hon. Theodore Roosevelt, president of the United States; Hon. William S. Andrews, justice of the New York Supreme Court; Robert Bacon, partner of J. P. Morgan; Harold N. Fowler, professor of Latin; Hon. Josiah Quincy, mayor of Boston, Mass.; Albert Bushnell Hart, historian and professor, and many other people of note.

O’Leary, Jeremiah, 275 58th Street, Brooklyn, N. Y.

O’Leary, P. J., 161 West 13th Street, New York City.

O’Loughlin, Patrick, lawyer, 18 Tremont Street, Boston, Mass.

O’Meara, Maurice, president of the Maurice O’Meara Co., paper manufacturers, 448 Pearl Street, New York City.

O’Neil, Frank S., lawyer, O’Neil Building, Binghamton, N. Y.

O’Neil, Hon. George F., capitalist, Binghamton, N. Y. (Life member of the Society.)

O’Neil, Hon. Joseph H., president of the Federal Trust Co., Boston, Mass.; formerly a member of Congress; was later U. S. treasurer at Boston.

O’Neil, Rev. John P., Peterborough, N. H.

O’Neill, Rev. Daniel H., 935 Main Street, Worcester, Mass.

O’Neill, Rev. D. P., Westchester, N. Y.

145O’Neill, Eugene M., Pittsburg, Pa. (Life member of the Society.)

O’Neill, James L., 220 Franklin Street, Elizabeth, N. J.; connected with the Elizabeth post-office for many years past; he has been president of the Young Men’s Father Mathew T. A. Society, and treasurer of St. Patrick’s Alliance, Elizabeth. He was one of the prime movers in the projection and completion of a monument to the late Mayor Mack of Elizabeth.

O’Rourke, Hon. Jeremiah, of J. O’Rourke & Sons, architects, 756 Broad Street, Newark, N. J.; U. S. supervising architect under President Cleveland. (Life member of the Society.)

O’Sullivan, Humphrey, treasurer of the O’Sullivan Rubber Co., Lowell, Mass.

O’Sullivan, James, president of the O’Sullivan Rubber Co., Lowell, Mass.

O’Sullivan, John, with the H. B. Claflin Co., Church Street, New York City.

O’Sullivan, Sylvester J., 66 Liberty Street, New York City, manager of the New York office of the United States Fidelity and Guaranty Co., of Baltimore, Md.

Owens, Joseph E., of the law firm Ketcham & Owens, 189 Montague Street, Brooklyn, N. Y.

Patterson, Rev. George J., rector of St. Vincent’s Church, South Boston, Mass.

Phelan, Hon. James D., Phelan Building, San Francisco, Cal.; recently mayor of San Francisco.

Phelan, James J., 16 Exchange Place, New York City; treasurer of the King’s County Refrigerating Co.; director in the Stuyvesant Insurance Co.; director in the Cosmopolitan Fire Insurance Co. When Ferdinand de Lesseps contracted to build the Panama Canal, Mr. Phelan became treasurer and manager of the American Contracting and Dredging Co., in which he was associated with the late Eugene Kelly, George Bliss, H. B. Slaven and others. This company contracted for and built fifteen miles of the canal. In 1891 Mr. Phelan was appointed treasurer of the department of docks of the City of New York, which office he held for five years.

Phelan, John J., lawyer, 7 Wall Street, New York City; graduate of Manhattan College and of the Columbia Law School; member of the Xavier Alumni Sodality, the N. Y. Catholic Club, and the Manhattan Alumni Society.

Phelan, Rev. J., Marcus, Ia.

Philbin, Eugene A., of the law firm Philbin, Beekman & Menken, 111 Broadway, New York City.

Piggott, Michael, 1634 Vermont Street, Quincy, Ill.; a veteran of the Civil War. He was made second lieutenant of Company F, Western Sharpshooters, in 1861, while at Camp Benton, St. Louis, Mo.; was promoted first lieutenant, and while at Fort Donaldson, in the spring of 1862, was made captain; lost a leg at Resaca, Ga., in May, 1864; was subsequently connected with the U. S. revenue service; messenger in the national House of Representatives, Washington, D. C.; was made postmaster of Quincy, 146Ill., during President Grant’s first term, and held the position for over sixteen years; was appointed special Indian agent by President Harrison, and in that, as in every position held, displayed eminent ability.

Pigott, William, iron and steel, Alaska Building, Seattle, Wash. (Life member of the Society.)

Plunkett, Thomas, 257 Sixth Street, East Liverpool, O.

Power, Rev. James W., 47 East 129th Street, New York City.

Powers, Patrick H., president of the Emerson Piano Co., 120 Boylston Street, Boston, Mass.

Prendergast, W. A., 20 Nassau Street, New York City.

Quinlan, Francis J. (M. D., LL. D.), 33 West 38th Street, New York City; was for a number of years surgeon in the U. S. Indian service; recently president of the New York Celtic Medical Society; president of the County Medical Association of New York; member of the State Medical Association, of the American Medical Association, and of the Academy of Medicine. Besides holding these positions of honor and responsibility, he is visiting surgeon to St. Vincent’s Hospital, New York City, to the New York City Hospital, to the Foundling Hospital and St. Joseph’s Hospital, Yonkers, N. Y. He is professor of Laryngology and Rhinology in New York Polyclinic and Laryngologist and Otologist to St. John’s Hospital, Long Island City.

Quinlan, John J., secretary, McNab & Harlin Mfg. Co., 50–56 John Street, New York City.

Quinn, John, lawyer, 120 Broadway, New York City.

Quinn, W. Johnson, manager of the Hotel Empire, New York City.

Regan, John H., lawyer, 422 55th Street, Brooklyn, N. Y.

Regan, W. P., architect, Lawrence, Mass.

Reilly, Robert J., Cedar Street, Bangor, Me.

Richardson, Stephen J., 1785 Madison Avenue, New York City.

Roach, James F., 5822 Fifth Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y.

Rogan, John H., lawyer, 145 Nassau Street, New York City.

Rohan, John D., 49 Wall Street, New York City.

Rooney, John Jerome, of Rooney & Spence, customs and insurance brokers, forwarding agents, 66, 68 and 70 Beaver Street, New York City.

Roosevelt, Hon. Theodore, president of the United States, White House, Washington, D. C.

Rorke, James, 40 Barclay Street, New York City.

Ryan, Charles V., Springfield, Mass.

Ryan, Christopher S., Lexington, Mass.

Ryan, James T., 68 William Street, New York City.

Ryan, John J., 171 East 94th Street, New York City.

Ryan, Michael, 377 Broadway, New York City.

Ryan, Michael J., Waterbury, Conn.

Ryan, Nicholas W., 1444 Boston Road, Borough of the Bronx, New York City.

Ryan, Hon. Patrick J., mayor-elect of Elizabeth, N. J.; is of the firm P. J. & W. H. Ryan, real estate and fire insurance, 205 Broad Street, Elizabeth.

147Ryan, Most Rev. Patrick J. (D. D.), archbishop of Philadelphia, Pa.; the Cathedral, Philadelphia.

Ryan, Richard, Rutland, Vt.

Ryan, Timothy M. (M. D.), Torrington, Conn.

Ryan, Hon. William, of Wm. Ryan & Co., grocers, Port Chester, N. Y.

Sanders, Col. C. C., Gainesville, Ga.; president of the State Banking Co. of Gainesville; alternate commissioner to World’s Fair, Chicago, Ill., 1893; vice-president for Georgia, American Bankers’ Association. Colonel Sanders is of Irish and English ancestry. On the maternal side he is descended from Thomas and Theodosia M. Smyth, who emigrated from Ireland in 1793, landing in Charleston, S. C. They settled in Jones County, Ga. Thomas died November 28, 1799. On the paternal side Colonel Sanders is a descendant of Rev. Moses Sanders, who emigrated from England, with two brothers, John and David, and arrived in Petersburg, Va., 1765. They embraced the patriotic cause in the Revolution and were active in operations against the British. Colonel Sanders, the subject of this sketch, graduated from the Georgia Military Institute, in June, 1861; entered the Confederate service; was made lieutenant-colonel of the Twenty-fourth Regiment of Infantry, Georgia Volunteers, August, 1861; served under General Lee in the Peninsular campaign, in the seven days’ battles around Richmond, Va., and was among the bravest of the brave; commanded his regiment at Malvern Hill and at Marye’s Heights, Fredericksburg, where the Twenty-fourth was a part of the Confederate forces that received the valorous charges of Meagher’s Irish Brigade. He also commanded the regiment at the battles of Chancellorsville and Antietam, at which latter conflict he was placed in command of Wofford’s Brigade. While in this position he met a bayonet charge from the Federals by a counter bayonet charge, and in the desperate fighting that ensued, fifty-eight per cent. of Sanders’ heroic force was swept away. Colonel Sanders also led the Twenty-fourth at Cedar Creek, Chickamauga, Knoxville, the Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court House, and Sailor’s Creek. On April 6, 1865, Ewell’s Corps, to which Colonel Sanders’ regiment was then attached, was captured, and Colonel Sanders was sent as a prisoner of war to Washington, D. C. Writing of Meagher’s Irish Brigade, Colonel Sanders says: “I was in command of the Twenty-fourth Georgia Regiment, with other troops, at the foot of Marye’s Heights, receiving the five heroic and gallant charges of the Irish Brigade, whose prodigies of valor have filled the country with admiration. I saw the devoted Irish charge up to our breastworks, to be mowed down by a line of Confederate fire that no soldiers could withstand. I saw the Irish battalions cut down like grain before the reaper, yet the survivors would magnificently close up their ranks only to have huge gaps again cut through them. When forced back they rallied and came bravely on again, only to be riddled with bullets and torn by artillery. Their fifth charge was made with greatly decimated ranks that slowly recoiled like the waves of a tempestuous sea. When twilight descended upon the scene, a spectacle was presented unequaled in warfare. At least three fourths of my command was composed of men of Irish descent and 148knew that the gallant dead in our front were our kindred of the land beyond the sea. When, one by one, the stars came out that night, many tears were shed by Southern Confederate eyes for the heroic Federal Irish dead.” During the war Colonel Sanders was offered the rank of brigadier-general but declined the same.

Sasseen, Robert A., 50 Pine Street, New York City; insurance investments. (Life member of the Society.)

Scott, Joseph, lawyer, Bradbury Building, Los Angeles, Cal.

Shahan, Very Rev. Thomas J. (S. T. D., J. U. L.), professor of church history, Catholic University, Washington, D. C.; S. T. D., Propaganda, Rome, 1882; J. U. L., Roman Seminary, 1889.

Shanahan, Very Rev. Edmund T. (Ph. D., S. T. D., J. C. L.), professor of dogmatic theology, Catholic University, Washington, D. C.; A. B., Boston College, 1888; S. T. D., Propaganda, Rome, 1893; J. C. L., Roman Seminary, Rome, 1895; Ph. D., Roman Academy, 1895. Instructor in philosophy and dogmatic theology, American College, Rome, 1894–’95; lecturer in philosophy, University of Pennsylvania, 1898–’99; associate professor of philosophy, the Catholic University of America, 1895–1901.

Shanley, John F., 17 Washington Street, Newark, N. J.

Shanley, Thomas J., 344 West 87th Street, New York City.

Shea, Daniel W. (Ph. D.), professor of physics, Catholic University, Washington, D. C.; A. B., Harvard University, 1886; A. M., Harvard University, 1888; Ph. D., Berlin, 1892. Assistant in physics, Harvard University, 1889 and 1892; assistant professor of physics in the University of Illinois, 1892–’93; professor of physics in the University of Illinois, 1893–’95.

Shea, John B., 19 Maiden Lane, New York City.

Sheedy, Bryan DeF. (M. D.), 162 West 73d Street, New York City.

Sheran, Hugh F., 46 Woodbine Street, Roxbury (Boston), Mass.

Sherman, P. Tecumseh, of the law firm Taft & Sherman, 15 William Street, New York City; member of the Union League Club and of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion; son of the late Gen. William T. Sherman.

Shuman, A., merchant clothier, 440 Washington Street, Boston, Mass.

Slattery, John J., president Todd-Donigan Iron Co., Louisville, Ky.

Sligo Social Club, Roxbury (Boston), Mass. (M. J. Mulroy, secretary, 24 Faxon Street, Roxbury.)

Sloane, Charles W., lawyer, 54 William Street, New York City.

Smith, Hon. Andrew C. (M. D.), Dekum Building, Portland, Oregon; president of the State Board of Health; president of the Hibernia Savings Bank; member of the state Senate from 1900 to 1904; has served on the staff of St. Vincent’s Hospital for fourteen years; has been president of the State and City Medical societies; represented Oregon for two years in the House of Delegates of the American Medical Association.

Smith, James, 26 Broadway, New York City.

Smith, Rev. James J., 88 Central Street, Norwich, Conn.

Smith, Joseph, Lowell, Mass.

Smith, Thomas F., clerk of the city court, 32 Chambers Street, New York City.

149Smyth, Rev. Hugh P., rector of St. John’s Church, Lawrence Avenue, Roxbury (Boston), Mass.

Smyth, Rev. Thomas, Springfield, Mass.

Smyth, Rev. Thomas M., East Liverpool, O.

Somers, P. E., manufacturer of tacks and nails, Worcester, Mass. (Life member of the Society.)

Spellacy, Thomas J., lawyer, 26 State Street, Hartford, Conn.

Spillane, J. B., managing editor Music Trade Review, Metropolitan Life Building, 1 Madison Avenue, New York City.

Stang, Rt. Rev. William (D. D.), Fall River, Mass., bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Fall River.

Steele, Hon. John H., Phenix Building, Minneapolis, Minn.

Storen, William J., 232 Calhoun Street, Charleston, S. C.

Sullivan, James E. (M. D.), Providence, R. I.; was graduated from Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York, 1879; also studied medicine in Dublin, London and Paris; was city physician of Fall River, Mass., for seven years; married, in 1885, Alice, daughter of the late Joseph Banigan of Providence; retired from practice in 1891; member of the Rhode Island, Massachusetts and Providence Medical societies; vice-president of the University Club, Providence; a director of the Rhode Island Hospital Trust Co.; president and treasurer of the Sullivan Investment Co., Providence.

Sullivan, John B., contractor, New Bedford, Mass.

Sullivan, John J., 61–63 Quincy Market, Boston, Mass.; of Doe, Sullivan & Co.

Sullivan, John J., lawyer, 203 Broadway, New York City.

Sullivan, M. B. (M. D.), Dover, N. H., formerly a state senator.

Sullivan, M. F. (M. D.), Oak Street, Lawrence, Mass.

Sullivan, Michael X. (Ph. D.), instructor, Brown University, Providence, R. I.

Sullivan, Roger G., cigar manufacturer, 803 Elm Street, Manchester, N. H.

Sullivan, T. P. (M. D.), 318 South Main Street, Fall River, Mass.

Sullivan, Timothy P., Concord, N. H.; furnished granite from his New Hampshire quarries for the new national Library Building, Washington, D. C.

Sullivan, William B., lawyer, Tremont Building, Boston, Mass.

Supple, Rev. James N., rector of St. Francis de Sales Church, Charlestown (Boston), Mass.

Sweeney, John F., the Sweeney Co., 256 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. (Life member of the Society.)

Sweeney, Rev. Timothy P., St. Patrick’s Church, Fall River, Mass.

Sweeney, William Montgomery, 120 Franklin Street, Astoria, L. I., N. Y.

Swords, Joseph F., superintendent, Platt National Park, Sulphur, Indian Territory. He is a descendant of Cornet George Swords, one of the A. D. 1649 officers in the service of Kings Charles I and Charles II in Ireland. Joseph F. Swords is a member of the Sons of the American Revolution. He is of the fourth American generation from Francis Dawson Swords, 150graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, 1750, who was exiled from Ireland, 1760, and who served in the Patriot Army throughout the War of the Revolution.

Tack, Theodore E., 52 Broadway, New York City.

Taggart, Hon. Thomas, Indianapolis, Ind.; proprietor of the Grand Hotel there; was elected auditor of Marion County, 1886; re-elected, 1890; has been mayor of Indianapolis; chairman of the Democratic state committee, 1892 and 1894; district chairman of the Seventh Congressional District; member from Indiana of the Democratic national committee. Is a native of Ireland.

Teeling, Rt. Rev. Arthur J. (D. D.), rector of St. Mary’s Church, Lynn, Mass.

Thompson, Frank, 257 West 129th Street, New York City.

Thompson, Frank V., 116 Princeton Street, East Boston, Mass.

Thompson, James, of James Thompson & Bro., Louisville, Ky.

Tierney, Dennis H., real estate and insurance, Tierney’s Block, Bank Street, Waterbury, Conn.

Tierney, Edward M., Hotel Marlborough, Broadway, New York City.

Tierney, Henry S., Torrington, Conn.

Tierney, Myles, 317 Riverside Drive, New York City. (Life member of the Society.) President, Hudson Trust Co., Hoboken, N. J.

Toale, Patrick P., Toale P. O., Aiken County, S. C.

Travers, Vincent P., of the Travers Brothers Co., 41 Worth Street, New York City.

Tully, Hon. William J., Corning, N. Y.; a state senator.

Twohy, George J., trust officer, the Citizens’ Bank of Norfolk, Va.

Vincent, John, lawyer, 45 Cedar Street, New York City; was first assistant district attorney under the late Hon. John McKeon for two years, and on his death was appointed by the court as his successor ad interim.

Vredenburgh, Watson, Jr., civil engineer, 32 Broadway, New York City.

Waldron, E. M., of E. M. Waldron & Co., building contractors, 84 South Sixth Street, Newark, N. J.

Walker, William O’Brien, 90 Wall Street, New York City, a descendant of the Revolutionary O’Briens of Machias, Me.

Wallace, Rev. T. H., Lewiston, Me.

Waller, Hon. Thomas M., New London, Conn.; lawyer; member of the Connecticut Legislature, 1867, 1868, 1872, 1876; (speaker, 1876); secretary of state of Connecticut, 1870; mayor of New London, 1873; state’s attorney, 1876–’83; governor of Connecticut, 1882–’84; United States consul-general to London, England, 1885–’89; commissioner to World’s Columbian Exposition.

Walsh, Frank, secretary and credit manager, Wilkinson, Gaddis & Co., wholesale grocers, 866–868 Broad Street, Newark, N. J.

Walsh, P. J., 503 Fifth Avenue, New York City.

Walsh, Philip C., 260 Washington Street, Newark, N. J.; of Walsh’s Sons & Co., dealers in irons and metals.

Walsh, Philip C., Jr., 260 Washington Street, Newark, N. J.

151Walsh, Wm. P., 247 Water Street, Augusta, Me.

Ward, Edward, of Ward Bros., contractors, Kennebunk, Me.

Ward, John T., Kennebunk, Me.

Ward, Michael J., Brookline, Mass.

Wilhere, Hon. M. F., 31st and Master streets, Philadelphia, Pa.

Wright, Henry, enameled wall tile, vitrified and glazed ceramics, aseptic floors, encaustic and embossed tiles, 584 East 148th Street, New York City.

Zabriskie, George A., 123 Produce Exchange, New York City.

Rear-Admiral George W. Meade, U. S. N. (retired), Philadelphia, Pa. Died May 4, 1897.
Hon. Edward A. Moseley, secretary of the Interstate Commerce Commission, Washington, D. C.; was elected president-general on death of Admiral Meade.
Hon. Edward A. Moseley, Washington, D. C.
Hon. Thomas J. Gargan, Boston, Mass.; a prominent lawyer of that city; ex-member of the Police Commission; member of the Boston Transit Commission.
Hon. Thomas J. Gargan, Boston, Mass.
Hon. John D. Crimmins, New York City; prominent capitalist; official in banks, trust companies and other corporations.
Hon. John D. Crimmins, New York City.
Hon. William McAdoo, New York City; assistant secretary of the U. S. Navy under President Cleveland; prominent lawyer; ex-member of Congress; police commissioner of the City of New York.
Hon. William McAdoo, New York City.
Hon. John D. Crimmins, New York City.
Rear-Admiral John McGowan, U. S. N. (retired), Washington, D. C.
The Society was organized on January 20, 1897, in Boston, Mass., and now has members in many states, the District of Columbia, one territory and three foreign countries.

Briefly stated, the object of the organization is to make better known the Irish chapter in American history.

There are two classes of members in the organization,—Life and Annual. The life membership fee is $50 (paid once). The fee for annual members is $5, paid yearly. In the case of new annual members, the initiation fee, $5, also pays the membership dues for the first year.

The board of government comprises a president-general, a vicepresident-general, a secretary-general, a treasurer-general, a librarian and archivist, and an executive council. There are also state vice-presidents.

The Society has already issued several bound volumes and a number of other publications. These have been distributed to the members and to public libraries; also to historical organizations and to universities. Each member of the Society is entitled, free of charge, to a copy of every publication issued from the time of his admittance. These publications are of great interest and value, and are more than an equivalent for the membership fee.

The Society draws no lines of creed or politics. Being an American organization in spirit and principle, it welcomes to its ranks Americans of whatever race descent, and of whatever creed, who take an interest in the objects for which the Society is organized. Membership application blanks will be furnished on request.

The membership includes many people of prominence, and has been addressed by many distinguished men. It occupies a position in the front rank of American historical organizations.

Volume V of the Society’s Journal, covering the year 1905, was greeted with sentiments of high commendation as the preceding volumes had been. The following extracts are reproduced from a mass of acknowledgments, received by Secretary T. H. Murray, relative to the volume:

From the Rev. Richard Neagle, Malden, Mass.: “Dear Sir, I acknowledge, with thanks, the receipt of the Journal, Volume V.”

From Mr. James H. Devlin, Jr., Boston, Mass.: “I have just received the Journal of the Historical Society, for which please accept my thanks.”

From Mr. M. H. Cox, Boston, Mass.: “I beg to acknowledge receipt of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, and am much pleased with it.”

From M. S. McGauran, M. D., Lawrence, Mass.: “Volume V of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society is received. I am well pleased with the work.”

From Mr. W. H. Mahony, New York City: “I have received the fifth volume of the Journal of the A. I. H. S., and look forward with great pleasure to its perusal.”

From the Watertown (Mass.) Free Public Library: “The Trustees gratefully acknowledge your gift of Volume V of the Journal of your Society. S. F. Whitney, Librarian.”

From the Boston Athenæum: “The library committee gratefully acknowledge the gift of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V. Chas. K. Bolton, Librarian.”

From Mr. Laurence Clancy, Oswego, N. Y.: “I gladly acknowledge receipt of Volume V of the Journal of the American Irish Historical Society. I wish you health, happiness and success.”

From Mr. Alfred L. Doyle, New York City: “In behalf of my father, brother and myself, I wish to acknowledge receipt of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society for 1905.”

From Yale University: “The president and fellows of Yale University gratefully acknowledge the receipt of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V. J. C. Schwab, Librarian.”

155From Mr. James L. O’Neill, Elizabeth, N. J.: “Am delighted with Volume V of the Journal of our Society just received. It is a credit to the organization and worthy of the volumes that have preceded it.”

From Mr. Henry Stoddard Ruggles, Wakefield, Mass.: “Accept my thanks for the fifth volume of the Society’s admirable Journal, which I had the pleasure to receive through your thoughtful courtesy.”

From the Hon. P. T. Barry, Chicago, Ill.: “The Society’s latest volume has been received, and I am sure I shall very much enjoy reading it. It makes a fitting companion for the other volumes of the Society.”

From Capt. James Connolly, Coronado, Cal.: “Volume V of the Journal of our Historical Society has reached me. I am delighted with it and compliment you and the Society upon the excellence of the book.”

From the Medford (Mass.) Public Library: “The library has received the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, for which the trustees return grateful acknowledgment. Mary E. Sargent, Librarian.”

From the Portland (Me.) Public Library: “The library has received your gift, Journal of the American-Irish Society, Volume V, which is hereby gratefully acknowledged for the trustees. Alice C. Furbish, Librarian.”

From the Elizabeth (N. J.) Public Library and Reading Room: “The board of trustees acknowledge with thanks your recent contribution of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, to the library.”

From the University of Chicago: “I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of Volume V of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society as a gift to the library. Very truly, Zella Allen Dixson, Librarian.”

From the Duluth (Minn.) Public Library: “The directors gratefully acknowledge the receipt of Volume V of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society. A gift to the library. Lydia M. Poirier, Librarian.”

From the Nashua (N. H.) Public Library: “The library has received the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, for which the trustees return a grateful acknowledgment. Harriet Crombie, Librarian.”

From the Public Library, Toledo, Ohio: “The receipt of your gift to this library of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society is hereby gratefully acknowledged. Very respectfully, Willis F. Sewall, Librarian.”

From the Hartford (Conn.) Public Library: “The officers of the Hartford Public Library acknowledge with thanks the receipt of the Journal, Volume V, a gift from the American-Irish Historical Society. C. M. Hewins, Librarian.”

From the Public Library, Denver, Col.: “The Public Library of the City and County of Denver acknowledges with thanks the receipt of Volume V, Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society. Respectfully, C. R. Dudley.”

156From the Most Rev. John J. Keane, D. D., archbishop of Dubuque, Ia.: “I return thanks for the splendid volume of the Proceedings of the American-Irish Historical Society, and wish the Society continued prosperity and usefulness.”

From the Public Library, Holyoke, Mass.: “Please accept the thanks of this library for a copy of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, recently received. Very truly yours, Frank G. Willcox, librarian.”

From the Public Library of Cincinnati, Ohio: “The library has received the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, for which the board of trustees returns a grateful acknowledgment. N. D. C. Hodges, Librarian.”

From the Public Library, Cleveland, Ohio: “We are in receipt of Volume V of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, for which please accept the thanks of myself and the library board. Yours truly, W. H. Brett, Librarian.”

From the Robbins Library, Arlington, Mass.: “The trustees return their grateful acknowledgments to the American-Irish Historical Society for the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V. E. J. Newton, Librarian.”

From the Harris Institute Library, Woonsocket, R. I.: “Harris Institute Library acknowledges with thanks the receipt of a copy of Volume V of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society. Very truly, A. H. Ward, Librarian.”

From the University of Pennsylvania: “I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of Volume V of the Journal of the American-Irish Society, 1905, and beg to return thanks for the same. Very respectfully, Morris Jastrow, Jr., Librarian.”

From the Ferguson Library, Stamford, Conn.: “Please accept our thanks for the copy of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, which we have recently received. Yours very truly, E. Van Howenberg, Librarian.”

From the Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore, Md.: “The trustees acknowledge with thanks the gift of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, from the American-Irish Historical Society. Bernard C. Steiner, Librarian.”

From Clark University, Worcester, Mass.: “Please accept the thanks of the University for your gift of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, the receipt of which is hereby acknowledged. Louis N. Wilson, Librarian.”

From the People’s Library, Newport, R. I.: “On behalf of the People’s Library of Newport, I beg to thank you for your gift of Volume V of the 157Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society. Very truly yours, J. E. Gardner, Librarian.”

From the Library of Leland Stanford Junior University, California: “The library acknowledges, with thanks, the receipt of your gift of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V. Respectfully yours, Melvin G. Dodge, Librarian.”

From the Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston: “This society wishes to acknowledge the receipt of a copy of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, for which it returns grateful thanks. Samuel A. Green, Librarian.”

From the Providence (R. I.) Public Library: “The trustees of the Providence Public Library have received from the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V of the Journal, for which they return their thanks. William E. Foster, Librarian.”

From the Rev. Austin Dowling, Providence, R. I.: “I have received Volume V of the Journal of the American Irish Historical Society—as usual, extremely interesting and valuable. With best wishes to yourself and congratulations on your splendid work.”

From the Public Library, Brookline, Mass.: “In behalf of the trustees I return a grateful acknowledgment of the work mentioned below, a gift to the library. Louisa M. Hooper, Librarian. (Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V.)”

From the University of Maine: “In behalf of the university, it gives me pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of the following book which has been added to the library through your courtesy: Journal, Vol. 5. Yours truly, Ralph K. Jones, Librarian.”

From the U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md.: “I have the pleasure of acknowledging the receipt of the following gift to this library: The Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V. Very respectfully, A. N. Brown, Professor, Librarian.”

From Cornell University: “I beg to acknowledge with best thanks the receipt of your gift to the library: The Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, by Thomas Hamilton Murray, Volume V. Very truly yours, Geo. Wm. Harris, Librarian.”

From Miss Helen Prendergast, Mayville, Chautauqua County, N. Y.: “I am desirous of extending my sincere thanks for a copy of Volume V of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society. I have read most of it and find it very interesting and instructive.”

From the librarian of the George Washington University, Washington, D. C.: “On behalf of the George Washington University, I wish to acknowledge 158gratefully the receipt of a copy of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society for 1905, Volume V.”

From the Reynolds Library, Rochester, N. Y.: “The trustees of the Reynolds Library acknowledge with thanks the receipt of your gift, named below. Alfred S. Collins, Librarian. (Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V. 8vo. Boston, 1905.)”

From Tufts College, Medford, Mass.: “The trustees of Tufts College have received from Mr. Thomas Hamilton Murray, secretary, the following gift to the library: Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, for which they return thanks. H. L. Mellen, Librarian.”

From Trinity College, Washington, D. C.: “We have received a copy of the fifth volume of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society and we thank you for your courtesy in sending it to the library. It seems even more interesting and valuable than its predecessors.”

From the City Library, Springfield, Mass.: “The City Library gratefully acknowledges the receipt of the article—noted below—which you have kindly given to it. Yours very truly, Hiller C. Wellman, Librarian. (The Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V.)”

From Mr. John Lavelle, Cleveland, Ohio: “I wish to acknowledge the receipt of the annual Journal, and other literature, of the Society. I know of nothing better calculated to promote the interests and to elevate our race than the labors of the A. I. H. S. Keep up the good work.”

From Dartmouth College: “I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, 1905, and am instructed to tender to you the thanks of the Trustees of this College for the same. Very respectfully, M. D. Bisbee, Librarian.”

From Timothy M. Ryan, M. D., Torrington, Conn.: “I have received Volume V of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, and beg to return thanks. I am very anxious to secure the four previous volumes, but do not know whether or not it is possible to obtain them.”

From the Public Library, Detroit, Mich.: “The library has received from you the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, a gift to the library, for which, on behalf of the board of commissioners, I beg to return grateful acknowledgment and thanks. Henry M. Utley, Librarian.”

From the Public Library, Los Angeles, Cal.: “The Los Angeles Public Library presents its acknowledgments and thanks to the American-Irish Historical Society for the gift of the Journal of the Society, Volume V. By order of the board of directors. Chas. F. Lummis, Librarian.”

From the Oswego (N. Y.) City Library: “The trustees of the Oswego City Library desire to thank the American-Irish Historical Society for the Journal 159of the American-Irish Historical Society, which has been received and placed in the library. Yours respectfully, Robert S. Kelsey, Librarian.”

From the Library of the University of Washington, Seattle, Wash.: “On behalf of the University of Washington, I acknowledge with best thanks the receipt of the undermentioned gift. Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V. Very respectfully, H. C. Coffman, Librarian.”

From the Redwood Library, Newport, R. I.: “The directors of the Redwood Library take pleasure in acknowledging the receipt of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, presented by you to the library, for which they return their sincere thanks. Richard Bliss, Librarian.”

From the Columbia University Library in the City of New York: “The trustees acknowledge with thanks the receipt of the Journal, Volume V, from the American-Irish Historical Society, which has been placed to the credit of that institution, on our exchange account. James H. Canfield, Librarian.”

From Mr. Charles W. Sloane, New York City: “Volume V of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society has reached me this morning. Of course I have had an opportunity to only glance at the contents, but I have looked far enough into the volume to feel sure that it is most interesting.”

From the Public Library, Minneapolis, Minn.: “The library board of the city of Minneapolis has received your gift, consisting of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, for which I am instructed to return a grateful acknowledgment. Very respectfully, Gratia Countryman, Librarian.”

From the American Antiquarian Society: “The American Antiquarian Society has received your donation of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, for which I have the honor, on behalf of the council, to return a grateful acknowledgment. Edmund M. Barton, Librarian.”

From the Public Library, Newburyport, Mass.: “The directors of the Newburyport Public Library acknowledge, with thanks, the receipt of the Journal, Volume V, which will be placed with works of like nature and made available to the public. By order of the board, John D. Parsons, Librarian and Secretary.”

From the Public Library, Buffalo, N. Y.: “The board of directors of the Buffalo Public Library take pleasure in thanking you for your valued gift of a copy of the publication named below, which will be carefully preserved and made useful to the public. H. L. Elmendorf, Librarian. (Journal, Volume V.)”

From the Cooper Union, New York City: “The trustees have received one bound volume of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, a gift to the institution from the American-Irish Historical Society, for which they return their grateful acknowledgment. L. C. L. Jordan, Assistant Secretary.”

160From the librarian of Johns Hopkins University: “The Johns Hopkins University has received from the American-Irish Historical Society a copy of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, by Thomas Hamilton Murray, Volume V, and gratefully acknowledges this contribution to its library.”

From Harvard University: “The president and fellows have received the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, a gift to the library of the university, from the Society, for which they return a grateful acknowledgment. William C. Lane, Librarian, Cambridge, Mass., January 12, 1906.”

From the New York Historical Society: “The New York Historical Society has received the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, 8vo. Boston, 1905, a gift from the American-Irish Historical Society, for which I am instructed to return a grateful acknowledgment. Robert H. Kelby, Librarian.”

From Mr. Michael J. Ward, Brookline, Mass.: “Your latest volume of the Society excels the previous ones, in my opinion. It is fine in every respect and I have loaned it to several of my acquaintances with the request that they become members of the Society. You certainly deserve the highest praise for its production.”

From the University of Vermont: “The faculty of the University acknowledge with thanks the gift of the American-Irish Historical Society Journal, Volume V, 1905, from the American-Irish Historical Society. M. H. Buckham, President. Billings Library, Burlington, Vt., February 13, 1906. Edith E. Clarke, Librarian.”

From the Rt. Rev. Mgr. Dennis J. O’Connell, M. A., S. T. D., rector of the Catholic University, Washington, D. C.: “I desire to acknowledge with many thanks the receipt of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, and to add my gratification of possessing such a neat and interesting historical production.”

From the Narragansett Library Association, Peace Dale, R. I.: “In behalf of the trustees of the Narragansett Library Association, I beg to acknowledge the receipt of Volume V of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, for which a grateful acknowledgment is tendered. Very respectfully, Rose Sherman, Librarian.”

From the Rhode Island Historical Society: “I have the honor to return to you the thanks of the Historical Society for your courteous gift, noted below, which has been received and placed in the library. Very respectfully, Clarence S. Brigham, Librarian. (Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, 1905.)”

From the Newberry Library, Chicago, Ill.: “The trustees of the Newberry Library have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the Journal of the 161American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, by Thomas Hamilton Murray, presented by you to the library, and respectfully tender their thanks for the same. J. V. Cheney, Librarian.”

From the Public Library, Dover, N. H.: “The trustees have directed me to express to you their thanks for your gift, entitled Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V. They are very glad to have these valuable historical papers for permanent preservation in the Library. Very truly yours, C. H. Garland, Librarian.”

From the Free Library of Philadelphia, Pa.: “The board of trustees have received from you as a gift to the library one copy of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, 1905, Volume V, for which they return their grateful acknowledgments. J. G. Rosengarten, President of Board of Trustees. John Thomson, Librarian.”

From the Free Public Library, New Bedford, Mass.: “The trustees of the New Bedford Free Public Library have received a copy of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, 1905, presented by you to the library, for which they return a grateful acknowledgment. William L. Sayer, Clerk of the Board of Trustees.”

From the Free Public Library, Worcester, Mass.: “The directors have received from you as a gift to the library the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, by Thomas H. Murray, for which they return their grateful acknowledgments. Thomas J. Barrett, President of the Board. Placed in the library. Samuel S. Green, Librarian.”

From the Utica (N. Y.) Public Library: “The trustees acknowledge with thanks the gift of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, from the American-Irish Historical Society. The same has been officially entered in the records of the library. Nicholas E. Devereux, President; Caroline M. Underhill, Librarian.”

From the City Library, Manchester, N. H.: “The trustees have received the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, a gift to the library from the American-Irish Historical Society, for which they return a grateful acknowledgment. Eugene E. Reed, Mayor, and ex-officio president of the Board. F. Mabel Winchell, Librarian.”

From the Riggs Memorial Library, Georgetown University, Washington, D. C.: “On behalf of the University I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your courteous gift: Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, 1905, for which I am directed to return cordial thanks. Yours with much esteem, J. H. Ramspacher, Assistant Librarian.”

From the Public Library, Boston, Mass.: “I am directed to return to you the thanks of the City of Boston for your courteous gift, noted below, which has been received, accepted and placed in the Public Library. Very respectfully, Horace G. Wadlin, Librarian. (The Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, by Thomas H. Murray.)”

162From Brown University, Providence, R. I.: “The Corporation of Brown University in Providence, R. I., have received the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, a gift to the University Library, from the Society, for which the corporation return a grateful acknowledgment on the part of the university. H. L. Koopman, Librarian.”

From the New Hampshire State Library: “In behalf of the trustees I beg to acknowledge the receipt of the following volume sent this library through your kindness: Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, 1905. It will be their pleasure to give the book a fitting place upon the shelves. Yours very truly, Arthur Chase, State Librarian.”

From the Bangor (Me.) Public Library: “The managers have received the publication named on the other side [Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V] from the American-Irish Historical Society, for which they return a grateful acknowledgment. William B. Peirce, President of the Board. Placed in the library. Mary H. Curran, Librarian.”

From Bowdoin College: “The president and trustees of Bowdoin College have received the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, a gift to the library, from Thomas Hamilton Murray, Esq., secretary, for which they return a grateful acknowledgment. Wm. DeW. Hyde, President. Placed in the library January 13, 1906. Geo. T. Little, Librarian.”

From the University of California: “The regents of the University of California acknowledge the receipt of the gift named below, for which I am instructed to return their grateful thanks. Very respectfully yours, N. A. Henderson, Acting Secretary. Placed in the library, J. C. Rowell, Librarian. (Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, 1905.)”

From the Free Public Library, Lynn, Mass.: “The trustees have received the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, by Thomas Hamilton Murray, secretary-general, a gift to the library, from the Society, for which they return a grateful acknowledgment. John W. Berry, President of the Board. Placed in the library. Harriet L. Matthews, Librarian.”

From Mr. Sylvester J. O’Sullivan, New York City: “I trust you will pardon me for not acknowledging sooner the copy of the annual book of the Society, which I received from you a few weeks ago. Before acknowledging it, I desired to take a look into it and I had not an opportunity to do so until last evening. I cannot compliment you too highly upon the creditable result.”

From the New York Public Library: “I am instructed by the trustees to acknowledge, with thanks, the receipt of the volume mentioned on the following page, which you have been so kind as to present to this library. Very respectfully, Wilberforce Eames, Lenox Librarian, for the director. (The Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society. Boston, Mass., 1905.)”

From the Library of Congress, Washington, D. C.: “In behalf of the joint committee of both houses of Congress on the library, I have the honor to 163acknowledge the receipt of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, presented by the Society to the Library of Congress. Very respectfully your obedient servant, Herbert Putnam, Librarian of Congress.”

From the Peabody Institute, Peabody, Mass.: “The government have received the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, a gift to the library from Thomas Hamilton Murray, secretary-general, for which they return a grateful acknowledgment. Thomas Carroll, Chairman of Lyceum and Library Committee. Placed in the library. Lyman P. Osborn, Librarian.”

From Mr. Dennis H. Tierney, Waterbury, Conn.: “I have received Volume V, Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society. I find it replete with historical sketches which I am sure will be appreciated by our race. The classification of the subject-matter is admirable and prompts me, an officer of the Society, to thank you for the painstaking research and neatness exhibited in its issue.”

From Miss Marcella A. Fitzgerald, Gilroy, Cal.: “Please accept my thanks for the interesting volume of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society which I received recently. All that concerns the Green Isle has a charm born of the magic power Erin wields over the hearts of her children, and I pray that success will crown your efforts to preserve the records of our race in America.”

From the New England Historic Genealogical Society: “The New England Historic Genealogical Society has received the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V, 1905, a gift from the American-Irish Historical Society, for which I am instructed to return a grateful acknowledgment. William Prescott Greenlaw, Librarian. Society’s House, 18 Somerset Street, Boston, January 17, 1906.”

From the library of the U. S. Military Academy, West Point: “I have the honor to acknowledge, with many thanks, the receipt of the following-named publication presented to this library: Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, Volume V. To the secretary American-Irish Historical Society, 36 Newbury Street, Boston, Mass. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, Edward S. Holden, Librarian.”

From the Thomas Crane Public Library, Quincy, Mass.: “The Thomas Crane Public Library of the City of Quincy has received from the American-Irish Historical Society, as a gift to the library, the book mentioned in the following schedule, for which the board of trustees return their sincere thanks. H. H. Keith, Secretary. (The Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society.) A. L. Bumpus, Librarian.”

From the Very Rev. Edmund T. Shanahan, Ph. D., S. T. D., J. U. L., Catholic University, Washington, D. C.: “Many thanks for Volume V of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, the receipt of which I hereby acknowledge. It is a genuine pleasure to read the growing list of the resurrected 164dead of our race who are made to live again in the warmth of affectionate recollection. I congratulate you.”

From the University of Michigan: “I beg leave to acknowledge with best thanks the receipt of Volume V of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, which we are much pleased to add to our shelves. We now have Volumes 1, 3, 4 and 5. Would it be possible for us to secure a copy of Volume 2? Assuring you of our sincere appreciation of any help you may give us in the matter, I am, very sincerely yours, Theo. W. Koch, Librarian.”

From Prof. Daniel W. Shea, Ph. D., Catholic University, Washington, D. C.: “The fifth volume of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society reached me safely. Several of the articles have interested me very much. In the details which they contain there is more that appeals to our human interests than there is in the great national events of any country. I am glad that such details are finding in this Journal a repository for permanent preservation.”

From Mr. John Mulhern, San Francisco, Cal., for the Knights of St. Patrick, that city: “The copy of the Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society, No. 5, which you mailed me for the Knights of St. Patrick has been received and I was very much pleased with its appearance. I haven’t had an opportunity of examining it carefully yet, but I can see there is much interesting matter in it. Mr. O’Connor, I am sure, will be pleased to see the sketch of the life of Martin Murphy, Sr., in print.”

Abbe Bartholome Omahony (O’Mahony), 53.
Abbe Dowd (“Irlandais”), 53.
“A certain green isle in a northerly sea,” 85.
Address by President-General McGowan, 12.
Adjutant-General of New York state, 103.
Adjutant-General of the Sixth Corps, M. T. McMahon, 102.
“A land here once known as Great Ireland,” 15.
Almost pathless woods, The then, 72.
American Academy of Social and Political Science, 130.
American army in Montreal, The, 101.
American Bankers’ Association, 147.
American Geographical Society, 113.
American Historical Association, 110.
American Medical Association, 146, 148.
American Oriental Society, 135.
American prisoners put to death by the bayonet, 21.
American revolution, Some Irish-French officers in the, 51.
“Among the hardiest pioneers of the Cumberland Valley,” 92.
Among the pathfinders, Sons of Ireland, 97.
An aged man comes from Ireland to Newton, Mass., 55.
An amazing record of Celtic leadership, 85.
“A native of Cork,” Roger Connor, 40.
“And 104 veterans of the Revolution acted as pall-bearers,” 30.
A New York settlement called “Vinegar Hill,” 22.
Annual meeting and dinner of the Society, 7.
An interesting pioneer family, 55.
Antietam, Battle of, 113, 147.
Anti-Slavery movement, 114.
Antrim, Ireland, 45.
A prisoner aboard the Jersey, William Burke, 21, 22.
A prominent Irish Catholic settler, 38.
A remarkable Irishman—Jeremiah Conners, 48.
A Rhode Island vessel is stranded on the Irish coast, 33.
Armagh, Ireland, 101.
Army of the Potomac, 102.
“At the bloody angle of Gettysburg,” 96.
At the head spring of the Opequan, 72.
At the storming of Port Hudson, 113.
A vessel from Ireland is wrecked on Block Island, 32, 33.
Austria, General McGuire of, 41.
Baker, Miss Virginia, of Warren, R. I., Paper by, 59, 60, 61.
Banbridge, Ireland, Immigrants from, 72, 73.
Barry, Commodore John, 8.
Barry, Richard, a lieutenant in the Irish-French regiment of Walsh, 52.
Baton Rouge, Siege of, 113.
Belfast, Ireland, 32, 33, 35, 36, 45, 61, 62, 72, 78, 85, 89.
Belfast Lough, Ireland, 72.
Bellefontaine, Old Fort, 48.
Berkeley, Bishop, 93.
Border wars against the Indians, 40.
Boston and vicinity, Irish pioneers in, 75.
Boston massacre, The, 40, 106, 107.
Boston, Ships from Ireland for Pennsylvania or Virginia put into, from stress of weather, etc., 77.
Bradford, Governor of Plymouth, 15.
Brady’s, Cyrus Townsend, new work, 20.
“Brendan and his voyages,” 15.
Brig Orient arrives at New York from Dublin, 36.
Brilliant Chattanooga campaign, 44.
Bull Run, Second battle of, 112, 114.
Burke, William, a prisoner aboard the Jersey, 21, 22.
Bunker Hill Monument Association, 120.
“But they went to work with a laugh and an ‘Irish hurrah,’” 96.
Calhoun, John C., 96.
Carrick-on-Suir, Ireland, 133.
166Carr, Patrick, a victim of the Boston massacre, 107.
Carroll, Charles, of Carrollton, 95.
Casson, Herbert N., Paper by, 85.
Cavan, Ireland, 122.
Celtic leadership. An amazing record of, 85.
Celtic Medical Society, New York, 119, 146.
Chancellorsville, Battle of, 96, 147.
Chantilly, Battle of, 112.
Charitable Irish Society, of Boston, 78, 80.
Chattanooga campaign, 44.
Chevalier McCarthy, 46.
Cincinnati, Society of the, 142.
Clark, Gen. George Rogers, 46, 47, 48, 68, 70.
Clary Reunion Family, 121.
Cleburne, Gen. Patrick R., 96.
Collins, Patrick A., mayor of Boston, 92, 108.
“Colonial hero of the Catskills,” Timothy Murphy, 94.
“Color sergeant of this green flag,” 112.
Connolly, Volume of poems by Capt. James, 99.
Commodore John Barry, 8.
Commodore Perry, 71.
Commerce between Ireland and Rhode Island, 31.
Concerning “Thomas the Irishman,” 54.
Congressional Medal of Honor, 102, 117.
Connor, Roger, “a native of Cork,” 40.
Corcoran Legion, The, 103.
Cork, Ireland, 32, 35, 36, 40, 57, 58, 76, 78, 117.
Cork, Ireland, a great butter mart, 76.
Cork names, McCarthy one of the great, 76.
Cork, The brig Lydia arrives at Providence, R. I., from, 35.
Council of the Society, Executive, 5, 6.
Crimmins, Exercises at the home of Hon. John D., New York City, 17.
Crimmins, Irish-American Historical Miscellany by Hon. John D., 20, 21.
Crimson field of Chancellorsville, 96.
Croghan, George, and the defence of Fort Stephenson, 66.
Croghan, William, 67.
Cromwell transports Irish to New England and the West Indies, 75, 77.
Defence of Fort Stephenson on the Sandusky, 66.
De Fitzmaurice, Capt. Thomas, of the Regiment of Walsh, 52.
De Macdermott, Bernard, a lieutenant in the Irish-French regiment of Dillon, 51.
DeNagle, Jacques, a lieutenant in the Irish-French regiment of Walsh, 52.
De Roo’s History of America Before Columbus, 15, 125.
De Walsh, The Chevalier Charles, a captain in the regiment of Walsh, 52.
Dillon, Barthélemy, of the Regiment of Dillon, 51.
Dillon, Count Arthur, of the Regiment of Dillon, 51.
Dillon, Lieut. Thomas, of the Regiment of Dillon, 51.
Dillon, Regiment de, 51, 52.
Dillon, The Chevalier Théobald, of the Regiment of Dillon, 51.
Dinner of the Society, Annual, 8.
Donahoe, Patrick, founder of the Boston Pilot, 91, 112.
Donegal, Ireland, 37, 40, 43, 44.
Donegal (Pennsylvania) Presbytery, 72.
Dollard, Patrick, an Irish redemptioner, 40.
Dongan, Governor, 55, 93.
Dowd, Abbe (“Irlandais”), 53.
Dowd, Cornelius, “who came to this country about 1750,” 126.
Dowd, Mention of paper by Willis B., 10, 11.
Down, Ireland, 48, 72, 73, 114.
Dring, Capt. Thomas, a prisoner aboard the Jersey, 27.
Dublin, Ireland, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 41, 67, 85, 91, 124, 150.
Dublin, A Providence, R. I., brig is lost near, 35.
Early Irish in St. Louis, Mo., 46.
“Early Irish Settlers of North Carolina,” 10, 11.
Eighty-eighth New York Volunteers, 117.
Emmet rising, The, 48.
Executive Council of the Society, 5, 6.
Extract from a letter by Andrew Jackson, 19.
Faithful Stewart, The ship, 34.
Fermoy, Ireland, 117.
Field, Darby, of New Hampshire, 80.
Foreign Wars, Military Order of, 120, 139.
“For you know my parents were Irish,” 19.
Frazers, The, of Pennsylvania, 39.
“From Derry to Rhode Island,” 93.
Frontispiece—the Hon. Theodore Roosevelt.
167General information regarding the Society, 153.
“General Jackson, another Irishman’s son,” 70.
Gettysburg, Battle of, 44, 96, 112, 130.
Gilmore, Patrick Sarsfield, 91.
Golden Grove, Wreck of the, 33.
Good words for Vol. V of the Journal of the Society, 154.
Gorman, John, “came to Pennsylvania from Ireland in 1784,” 108.
Haleys, The, of the Isles of Shoals, 57.
“He must have gone to Holland from Ireland some time previous to 1657,” 54.
Hibernian Society of Philadelphia, 44, 45.
Historical fragments, Two interesting, 58.
Historical Papers, Some, 21.
History of America Before Columbus, De Roo’s, 15, 125.
History of the Slocums, 64.
Holland Society, The, 54.
Horrors of the Jersey prison ship, 21, 22, 27, 28, 29, 30.
“How the Irish Came as Builders of the Nation,” 75.
Hughes, Felix, a Pennsylvania settler, 37, 38.
Hughes, Thomas, an Irish immigrant to Virginia, 37.
Illinois campaign, Clark’s, 46, 47.
Illinois National Guard, 126.
Importation of Irish butter, 57, 58.
Information regarding the Society, General, 153.
Ipswich, Mass., Early Irish in, 79.
Ireland, a brig arrives at Newport, R. I., from Waterford, 33.
Ireland and Barbadoes, The people of, “are warm in the cause of America,” 33.
Ireland and Rhode Island, Commerce between, 31.
Ireland, A Providence, R. I., brig is lost near Dublin, 35.
Ireland, A ship is advertised to sail from Newport, R. I., for Belfast, 33.
Ireland, A tragic voyage from, 61.
Ireland, A vessel from, is wrecked on Block Island, 32, 33.
Ireland, Belfast Lough, 72.
Ireland, Rhode Island vessels mentioned as arrived in, 34.
Ireland, “So many were coming from,” 78.
Ireland, The ship Neptune departs from Providence for, 36.
Ireland to Rhode Island, Articles imported from, 32.
Ireland, Voyages of the ship Tristram between Providence, R. I., and, 34, 35.
Irish Academy, Royal, 121.
Irish-American Historical Miscellany, a new book by Hon. John D. Crimmins, 20.
“Irish blankets and Kilkenny rugs,” 76.
Irish boys and girls transported, 75.
Irish Brigade, Meagher’s, 112, 113, 117, 147.
Irish butter imported, 57, 58.
Irish coast, A Rhode Island vessel is stranded on the, 33.
Irish, Early, in St. Louis, Mo., 46.
Irish fatherland, The, 13.
Irish-French officers in the American Revolution, Some, 51.
Irish have been structural in the making of America, 85.
Irish imprisoned aboard the Jersey, Many, 22.
Irish in America, The, 85.
Irish in the Plymouth colony, 15.
Irish in the war against the Indian King Philip, 15.
Irish Jasper Greens, The, 129.
Irish manufacturers of paper, 80.
Irish names borne by prisoners aboard the Jersey, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26.
Irish names in the Old Dominion, 15.
Irish pioneers in Boston and vicinity, 75.
Irish poplins, cambrics, lawns, silks, hosiery, sheetings, butter, beef, pork, etc., imported, 32, 33.
Irish ports, Voyages to and from, 32.
Irish Race in the Past and the Present, Thebaud’s, 64.
Irish in Virginia, Early, 15.
Irish refugees locate in New York and Brooklyn, 22.
Irish settlements, 58.
Irish settlers in Pennsylvania, 37.
Irish settlers on the Opequan, 71.
Irish school teachers in Pennsylvania, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45.
“Irish soldiers for discovery,” 80.
Irish Society of Boston, Charitable, 78, 80.
Irish trade, Rhode Island vessels in the, 32.
Irish Tract, The district known as, 58.
Irish women of Boston present a flag to the Twenty-eighth Massachusetts Regiment, 112.
Irish youths captured by a French privateer, 78.
168“I saw the devoted Irish charge up to our breastworks,” 147.
Isles of Shoals, The Haleys of the, 57.
“Iveagh,” Paper by, 71.
Jackson, Andrew, Extract from a letter by, 19.
Jackson, Andrew, 19, 70, 95, 100, 139.
Jefferson Barracks, 48.
Jersey prison ship, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30.
Kaskaskia, Clark’s surprise of, 47.
“Kelly and Burke and Shea,” 86.
Kerry, Ireland, 41, 112, 117.
Kilkenny, Ireland, 76, 88.
“King of the Shoals,” 57.
King Philip, Irish in the war against, 15.
Kinsale, Ireland, 124.
Lake Erie, Battle of, 71.
Lawless, Mention of paper by Hon. Joseph T., 10.
“Les Combattants Francais de la Guerre Americaine,” 51.
Limerick, Ireland, 58, 78, 131.
Linehan, Hon. John C., Paper by, 75.
Lodewicksen, Thomas (“Thomas the Irishman”), 54.
Londonderry, Ireland, 32, 34, 36, 78, 142.
Lookout Mountain, 44.
McCarthy, Chevalier, 46.
McCarthy, Florence, an early resident of Boston, 75.
Mac-Carthy, Lieut. Eugène, of the Regiment of Walsh, 52.
“McCarthy is one of the great Cork names,” 76.
Maccarty, Dennis, of Warren, R. I., 59, 60, 61.
Macdermott, Capt. Thomas, of the Regiment of Dillon, 51.
McGowan, Address by President-General, 12.
McGowan, Reception to President-General, 17.
McGowan, Rear Admiral John (U. S. N.), Sketch of, 138, 139.
McGuire, Edward, comes to Philadelphia in 1751, 41.
McGuire, General, of Austria, 41.
Maclosky, Sous-Lieut. Jacques, of the Regiment of Dillon, 52.
McMahon, Gen. M. T., 101, 102.
Mahony, Sous-Lieut. Denis, of the Regiment of Dillon, 52.
McManus, John and Charles, 38, 39.
MacSheehy, Sous-Lieut. Patrice, of the Regiment of Dillon, 52.
Many Irish imprisoned aboard the Jersey, 22.
Marye’s Heights, 112, 113, 147.
Massacre, The Boston, 40, 106, 107.
Massacre, Wyoming Valley, 42.
“Matthew Thornton, James Smith and George Taylor,” 95.
Mayflower, The, 15, 93.
Meagher’s Irish Brigade, 112, 113, 117, 147.
Medal of Honor, Congressional, 102, 117.
Membership roll of the Society, 119.
Members of the Society who have died during the year, 112.
Military Order of Foreign Wars, 120, 139.
Miss Fitzgerald, The Story of, 64.
Missouri, Early Irish in St. Louis, 46.
Monaghan, Ireland, 39.
Montgomery, General, 94, 101.
“Monmouth, Brandywine and Germantown,” 67.
Morgan, Daniel, of the Revolution, Mention of paper on, 10.
Munster, Ireland, 81.
Murphy, Sous-Lieut. Patrice, of the Regiment of Dillon, 52.
Murphy, Timothy, “colonial hero of the Catskills,” 94.
Murray, Paper by Thomas Hamilton, 31.
Necrology of the Society, 112.
New Hampshire, General Court of, 58.
Newport, R. I., A brig arrives at, from Waterford, Ireland, 33.
Newport, R. I., a ship from Cork, Ireland, touches at, 35.
Newry, Ireland, The brig Recovery of Newport, R. I., at, 34.
Newry, Ireland, 32, 34, 35.
Newton, Mass., An aged settler from Ireland, in, 55.
New York, Brig Orient arrives at, from Dublin, 36.
New York Historical Society, 22.
“No-Linn-Hill,” Kentucky, 74.
North Carolina, Early Irish Settlers of, 10, 11.
Notorious British prison ships, 56.
O’Brien, Capt. Jean, of the Regiment of Walsh, 52.
O’Brien, FitzJames, 90.
“O’Brien, MacCarty and Sullivan,” 81.
O’Brien, Maj. Thadée, of the Regiment of Walsh, 52.
O’Brien, M. J., Paper by, 37.
O’Brien, William Desmond, 91.
O’Briens of Machias, Me., The, 150.
169O’Brien’s School Dictionary, 56.
O’Cahill, Sous-Lieut. Louis, of the Regiment of Walsh, 52.
O’Connor, The Chevalier Armand, of the Regiment of Walsh, 52.
O’Croly, Capt. Charles, of the Regiment of Walsh, 52.
O’Conor, Charles, 92.
O’Crowly, Sous-Lieut. Felix, of the Regiment of Walsh, 52.
O’Driscol, Capt. Jacques, of the Regiment of Walsh, 52.
O’Farel, Lieut. Claude, of the Regiment of Dillon, 51.
O’Farell, Lieut. Jacques, of the Regiment of Dillon, 52.
O’Flyn, Sous-Lieut. Jacques, of the Regiment of Walsh, 52.
O’Gorman, Lieut. Charles, of the Regiment of Walsh, 52.
O’Keeffe, Lieut. Patrice, of the Regiment of Dillon, 51.
O’Killia, David, “the Irishman,” 132.
Omahony (O’Mahony), Abbe Bartholome, 53.
O’Meara, Lieut. Jean-Baptiste, of the Regiment of Walsh, 52.
O’Meara, Sous-Lieut. Daniel, of the Regiment of Dillon, 52.
O’Moran, Maj. Jacques, of the Regiment of Dillon, 51.
O’Moran, Sous-Lieut. Charles, of the Regiment of Dillon, 52.
O’Neill, Capt. Bernard, of the Regiment of Dillon, 51.
O’Neil, Capt. Jean, of the Regiment of Walsh, 52.
O’Reilly, Capt. Jean, of the Regiment of Dillon, 51.
O’Reilly, Count, commandant of the Louisiana Territory, 46.
O’Reilly, John Boyle, 90.
O’Reilly, Sous-Lieut. Charles, of the Regiment of Dillon, 52.
O’Riordan, Lieut. Jacques, of the Regiment of Walsh, 52.
O’Sheil, Lieut. Jacques, of the Regiment of Walsh, 52.
Officers of the Society, 5, 6.
Old Brooklynites, Society of, 22.
“Old Hickory,” 95.
Patriots bearing Irish names who were confined aboard the Jersey prison ship, 21.
Peach Orchard, Battle of, 122.
Pennsylvania, Irish settlers in, 37.
Pennsylvania, The Frazers of, 39.
Perry, Commodore, 71.
Phipps, Charles, “from Dublin,” 41.
Pioneer Family, An Interesting, 55.
Plymouth colony, Irish in the, 15.
Pollock, Oliver, borrows $70,000 from Count O’Reilly, 46, 47.
Port Hudson, At the storming of, 113.
Potomac Flotilla, The, 138.
Presidents-General of the Society, 152.
Providence, R. I., The ship Neptune departs from, for Ireland, 36.
Queen’s County, Ireland, 115.
Reception to President-General McGowan, 17.
Regiment de Dillon, 51, 52.
Regiment de Walsh, 52.
Review of the year, 99.
Revolutionary cavalry, Moylan the Murat of the, 95.
Rhode Island, Commerce between Ireland and, 31.
Roll of the Society, Membership, 119.
Rutledge, Edward, 95, 110.
School teachers in Pennsylvania, Early Irish, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45.
Seaflower, Voyage of the, 61.
Seminole War, The, 139.
Shenandoah Valley, The, 72.
Ships from Ireland for Pennsylvania or Virginia put into Boston from stress of weather, etc., 77.
Sheridan, “Little Phil,” 96.
Shields, Gen. James, 96.
Six Nations, The, 38, 40.
Sixth Corps, The, 102.
“So many were coming from Ireland,” 78.
Some historical papers, 21.
“Sons of Old Hibernia,” 15.
South County Neighbors, 66.
South Mountain, 112.
South of Ireland families, 81.
Spottsylvania Court House, 147.
State vice-presidents of the Society, 6.
Stevenson, James, a, patriot of the Revolution, 56.
Storming of Port Hudson, 113.
Story of Miss Fitzgerald, 64.
Sullivan, Governor James, of Massachusetts, 124.
Sullivan, Maj.-Gen. John, proposed tablet in Providence, R. I., to the memory of, 16.
Tammany patriotically honors the prison-ship victims, 30.
“The old Prendergrass homestead,” 38.
“The ship Tristram, Captain Crawford, sails this day for Dublin,” 34.
170Thickets of the Wilderness, 96.
Thirteen coffins filled with bones of the dead, 30.
“Thomas the Irishman,” Concerning, 54.
Thompson, Charles, secretary of Congress, 95, 110.
Three monuments in front of a New York church, 94.
Tippecanoe, Battle of, 68.
Tragic voyage from Ireland, 61.
Twenty-eighth Massachusetts Regiment, Irish women of Boston present a flag to the, 112.
Tyrone, Ireland, 88.
Ulster, Ireland, 37, 87, 94, 95, 71.
United Irishmen, Society of, 45.
Unsuccessful attempts to recruit the British army in Ireland for America, 35.
“Until he fell mortally wounded,” 112.
Valley Forge, 67.
Virginia, Paper by Hon. Joseph T. Lawless of, 10.
Volume dedicated to Hon. John D. Crimmins and the American-Irish Historical Society by Cyrus Townsend Brady, LL. D., 20.
Vol. V of the Journal of the Society, Good words for, 154.
Wallabout, The, 21, 22, 29.
Walsh, Patrick, United States senator, 90.
Walsh, Regiment de, 52.
Ward, Paper by Francis J., 46.
“Was a noted hunter,” 37.
Washington “was a frequent guest,” 95.
Waterford, Ireland, 32, 33.
Wayne, Anthony, 39.
“We Americans are all more Irish than we realize,” 85.
Westmeath, Ireland, 48.
West Point military academy, 13, 124, 137.
White Oak Swamp, Battle of, 102.
“Without fee or reward,” 44.
Workmen find an interesting coin, 59.
Wyoming Valley massacre, 42.