A History of the Philippines
David P. Barrows, Ph.D.
General Superintendent of Public Instruction for the Philippine Islands
New York · Cincinnati · Chicago
American Book Company
Copyright, 1905, by
David P. Barrows
Entered at Stationers’ Hall, London
W. P. I
This book has been prepared at the suggestion of the educational authorities for pupils in the public high schools of the Philippines, as an introduction to the history of their country. Its preparation occupied about two years, while the author was busily engaged in other duties,—much of it being written while he was traveling or exploring in different parts of the Archipelago. No pretensions are made to an exhaustive character for the book. For the writer, as well as for the pupil for whom it is intended, it is an introduction into the study of the history of Malaysia.
Considerable difficulty has been experienced in securing the necessary historical sources, but it is believed that the principal ones have been read. The author is greatly indebted to the Honorable Dr. Pardo de Tavera for the use of rare volumes from his library, and he wishes to acknowledge also the kindness of Mr. Manuel Yriarte, Chief of the Bureau of Archives, for permission to examine public documents. The occasional reprints of the old Philippine histories have, however, been used more frequently than the original editions. The splendid series of reprinted works on the Philippines, promised by Miss Blair and Mr. Robertson, was not begun in time to be used in the preparation of this book. The appearance of this series will make easy a path which the present writer has found comparatively difficult, and will open the way for an incomparably better History of the Philippines than has ever yet been made.
The drawings of ethnographic subjects, which partly illustrate this book, were made from objects in the Philippine Museum by Mr. Anselmo Espiritu, a teacher in the public schools of Manila. They are very accurate.
Above every one else, in writing this book, the author is under obligations to his wife, without whose constant help and encouragement it could not have been written.
David P. Barrows.
Manila, Philippine Islands,
March 1st, 1903.
I. The Philippines as a Subject for Historical Study 9
II. The Peoples of the Philippines 25
III. Europe and the Far East about 1400 A.D. 42
IV. The Great Geographical Discoveries 61
V. Filipino People Before the Arrival of the Spaniards 88
VI. The Spanish Soldier and the Spanish Missionary 108
VII. Period of Conquest and Settlement, 1565–1600 125
VIII. The Philippines Three Hundred Years Ago 156
IX. The Dutch and Moro Wars, 1600–1663 187
X. A Century of Obscurity and Decline, 1633–1762 212
XI. The Philippines During the Period of European Revolution, 1762–1837 231
XII. Progress and Revolution, 1837–1897 259
XIII. America and the Philippines 287
List of Maps.
Philippine Islands 6, 7
Countries and Peoples of Malaysia 26, 27
Races and Tribes of the Philippines 30
The Spread of Mohammedanism 39
Europe about 1400 AD. 44
Routes of Trade to the Far East 50
The Countries of the Far East 58
Restoration of Toscanelli’s Map 69
Early Spanish Discoveries in the Philippines 77
The New World and the Indies as divided between Spain and Portugal 85
Conquest and Settlement by the Spaniards in the Philippines, 1505–1590 124
Straits of Manila 133
The City of Manila 134
Luzon 158, 159
Mindanao, Visayas, and Paragua 288, 289
American Campaigns in Northern Luzon 302
History of the Philippines.
The Philippines as a Subject for Historical Study.
Purpose of this Book.—This book has been written for the young men and young women of the Philippines. It is intended to introduce them into the history of their own island country. The subject of Philippine history is much broader and more splendid than the size and character of this little book reveal. Many subjects have only been briefly touched upon, and there are many sources of information, old histories, letters and official documents, which the writer had not time and opportunity to study in the preparation of this work. It is not too soon, however, to present a history of the Philippines, even though imperfectly written, to the Philippine people themselves; and if this book serves to direct young men and young women to a study of the history of their own island country, it will have fulfilled its purpose.
The Development of the Philippines and of Japan.—In many ways the next decade of the history of the Philippine Islands may resemble the splendid development of the neighboring country of Japan. Both countries have in past times been isolated more or less from the life and thought of the modern world. Both are now open to the full current of human affairs. Both countries promise to play an important part in the politics and commerce of the Far East. Geographically, the Philippines occupy the more central and influential position, and the success of the institutions of the Philippines may react upon the countries of southeastern Asia and Malaysia, to an extent that we cannot appreciate or foresee, Japan, by reason of her larger population, the greater industry of her people, a more orderly social life, and devoted public spirit, is at the present time far in the lead.
The Philippines.—But the Philippines possess certain advantages which, in the course of some years, may tell strongly in her favor. There are greater natural resources, a richer soil, and more tillable ground. The population, while not large, is increasing rapidly, more rapidly, in fact, than the population of Japan or of Java. And in the character of her institutions the Philippines have certain advantages. The position of woman, while so unfortunate in Japan, as in China and nearly all eastern countries, in the Philippines is most fortunate, and is certain to tell effectually upon the advancement of the race in competition with other eastern civilizations. The fact that Christianity is the established religion of the people makes possible a sympathy and understanding between the Philippines and western countries.
Japan.—Yet there are many lessons which Japan can teach the Philippines, and one of these is of the advantages and rewards of fearless and thorough study. Fifty years ago, Japan, which had rigorously excluded all intercourse with foreign nations, was forced to open its doors by an American fleet under Commodore Perry. At that time the Japanese knew nothing of western history, and had no knowledge of modern science. Their contact with the Americans and other foreigners revealed to them the inferiority of their knowledge. The leaders of the country awoke to the necessity of a study of western countries and their great progress, especially in government and in the sciences.
Japan had at her service a special class of people known as the samurai, who, in the life of Old Japan, were the free soldiers of the feudal nobility, and who were not only the fighters of Japan, but the students and scholars as well. The young men of this samurai class threw themselves earnestly and devotedly into the study of the great fields of knowledge, which had previously been unknown to the Japanese. At great sacrifice many of them went abroad to other lands, in order to study in foreign universities. Numbers of them went to the United States, frequently working as servants in college towns in order to procure the means for the pursuit of their education.
The Japanese Government in every way began to adopt measures for the transformation of the knowledge of the people. Schools were opened, laboratories established, and great numbers of scientific and historical books were translated into Japanese. A public school system was organized, and finally a university was established. The Government sent abroad many young men to study in almost every branch of knowledge and to return to the service of the people. The manufacturers of Japan studied and adopted western machinery and modern methods of production. The government itself underwent revolution and reorganization upon lines more liberal to the people and more favorable to the national spirit of the country. The result has been the transformation, in less than fifty years, of what was formerly an isolated and ignorant country.
The Lesson for the Filipinos.—This is the great lesson which Japan teaches the Philippines. If there is to be transformation here, with a constant growth of knowledge and advancement, and an elevation of the character of the people as a whole, there must be a courageous and unfaltering search for the truth: and the young men and young women of the Philippines must seek the advantages of education, not for themselves, but for the benefit of their people and their land; not to gain for themselves a selfish position of social and economic advantage over the poor and less educated Filipinos, but in order that, having gained these advantages for themselves, they may in turn give them to their less fortunate countrymen. The young Filipino, man or woman, must learn the lessons of truthfulness, courage, and unselfishness, and in all of his gaining of knowledge, and in his use of it as well, he must practice these virtues, or his learning will be an evil to his land and not a blessing.#ENGLISH