Color Standards and Color Nomenclature by Robert Ridgway



Fifty-Three Colored Plates

Eleven Hundred and Fifteen Named Colors




Curator of the Division of Birds, United States
National Museum.

With Fifty-three Colored Plates
Eleven Hundred and Fifteen Named Colors.



Published by the Author.

Copyright, 1912
Robert Ridgway


San José, Costa Rica

True and steadfast friend for more than two-score years; host, guide, and companion on excursions among the glorious forests, magnificent mountains, and lovely plains of his native land; whose encouragement made possible the completion of a seemingly hopeless task, this book is affectionately and gratefully dedicated.



The terminology of Science, the Arts, and various Industries has been a most important factor in the development of their present high efficiency. Measurements, weights, mathematical and chemical formulæ, and terms which clearly designate practically every variation of form and structure have long been standardized; but the nomenclature of colors remains vague and, for practical purposes, meaningless, thereby seriously impeding progress in almost every branch of industry and research.

Many works on the subject of color have been published, but most of them are purely technical, and pertain to the physics of color, the painter’s needs, or to some particular art or industry alone, or in other ways are unsuited for the use of the zoologist, the botanist, the pathologist, or the mineralogist; and the comparatively few works on color intended specially for naturalists have all failed to meet the requirements, either because of an insufficient number of color samples, lack of names or other means of easy identification or designation, or faulty selection and classification of the colors chosen for illustration. More than twenty years ago the author of the present work attempted to supply the deficiency by the publication of a book[1] containing 186 samples of named [ii]colors, but the effort was successful only to the extent that it was an improvement on its predecessors; and, although still the standard of color nomenclature among zoologists and many other naturalists, it nevertheless is seriously defective in the altogether inadequate number of colors represented, and in their unscientific arrangement. Fully realizing his failure, the author, some two or three years later, began to devise plans, gather materials, and acquire special knowledge of the subject, in the hope that he might some day be able to prepare a new work which would fully meet the needs of all who have use for it. Unfortunately, his time has been so fully occupied with other matters that progress has necessarily been slow; but after more than twenty years of sporadic effort it has at last been completed.

Acknowledgments are due to so many friends for helpful suggestions that it is hardly possible to name them all, or to specify the extent or kind of help which each has rendered; but special mention should be made of Mr. Lewis E. Jewell, of Johns Hopkins University; Dr. R. M. Strong, of the University of Chicago; Prof. W. J. Spillman, of the U. S. Department of Agriculture; Mr. Williams Welch, of the U. S. Signal Service; Mr. Milton Bradley, of Springfield, Mass.; Dr. P. G. Nutting, of the U. S. Bureau of Standards; Mr. P. L. Ricker, of the Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture; and Mr. J. L. Ridgway, of the U. S. Geological Survey. The late Professor S. P. Langley, then Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, was good enough to take a kindly interest in this undertaking and gave the author assistance for which he is glad to make acknowledgment. More than to all others, however, is the author deeply indebted to Mr. John E. Thayer, of Lancaster, Mass., and Señor Don José C. Zeledón, of San José, Costa Rica, for aid so indispensible that without it the work could not have been completed.

To Dr. G. Grübler & Co., of Leipzig, Germany, the author is under obligations for the gift of a nearly complete set of their celebrated coal-tar dyes, which have proven quite necessary to the work, especially in the coloring of the Maxwell disks on which the color scheme is based.

The reproduction of the plates has been a difficult matter, involving not only expensive experimentation, but more than three [iii]years of unremitting labor. Vastly different from the ordinary lines of commercial color work, the correct copying of each one of the 1115 colors of the original plates developed many perplexing and often discouraging problems, which were finally solved through Mr. A. B. Hoen’s expert knowledge of chemistry and pigments; the skill, industry, and patience of the firm’s head colorist, Mr. Frank Portugal, and the personal interest of both these gentlemen. It is, therefore, with the greatest pleasure that the author’s grateful acknowledgment is made to the firm of A. Hoen & Company for the satisfactory manner in which they have fulfilled their contract.

As stated in the Preface, the purpose of this work is the standardization of colors and color nomenclature, so that naturalists or others who may have occasion to write or speak of colors may do so with the certainty that there need be no question as to what particular tint, shade, or degree of grayness, of any color or hue is meant. Therefore, it is unnecessary to treat of the subject from any other point of view; it will be sufficient to say that this work is based on a thorough study of the subject from every standpoint, and that practically all authoritative works on the subject of color have been carefully consulted.[2]

Plan.—The scientific arrangement of colors in this work is based essentially on the suggestions of Professor J. H. Pillsbury for a scheme of color standards,[3] which have also been the basis of several other efforts toward the same end, as the plates in Milton Bradley’s “Elementary Color” and educational colored papers, Prang’s charts of standard colors, Klinkseick and Valette’s “Code des Couleurs,” etc.; but while all these present a scientifically arranged color-scheme and more or less adequate [2]number of colors they all fail to supply a ready or convenient means of identifying and designating the colors—the principal utility of a work of this kind. It is in the latter respect that the present work is believed to meet, more nearly than any other at least, this essential requirement, and in this consists whatever originality may be claimed for it.

The “key” to the classification or arrangement herewith presented is, of course, the solar spectrum, with its six fundamental colors and intermediate hues, augmented by the series of hues connecting violet with red, which the spectrum fails to show. If, with the red-violets and violet-reds thus added to the spectrum hues, the band forming this scale be joined end to end a circle is formed in which there is continuously a gradual change of hue, step by step, from red through orange-red and red-orange to orange; orange through yellow-orange and orange-yellow to yellow; yellow through green-yellow and yellow-green to green; green through blue-green and green-blue to blue; blue through violet-blue and blue-violet to violet; and violet through red-violet and violet-red to red—the starting-point—with intermediate connecting hues. In the solar spectrum, both prismatic and grating, but especially the former, the spaces between the adjoining distinct colors are very unequal; therefore for the present purpose an ideal scale must be constructed, so that an approximately equal number of equally distinct connecting hues shall be shown. Distinctions of hue appreciable to the normal eye are so very numerous[4] that the criterion of convenience or practicability must determine the number of segments into which the ideal chromatic scale or circle may be divided in order to best serve the purpose in view. Careful experiment seems to have [3]demonstrated that thirty-six is the practicable limit, and accordingly that number has been adopted.[5] If the number of intermediate hues were equal in all cases there would, in this scheme, be five between each two adjacent fundamental colors of the spectrum; but a greater number of recognizably distinct hues is obviously necessary in some cases than in others; for example, spectrum orange is decidedly nearer in hue to red than to yellow, and therefore the number of intermediates required on each side of the orange is different, being in the proportion of four for the red-orange series to five for the orange-yellow, and similarly six are required for the violet-red series, while four suffice for the blue-violet hues.

There is no known means by which we can measure the proportion of two or more pigments in any given mixture, “because color-effect cannot be measured by the pint of mixed paint or the ounce of dry pigment;”[6] but, fortunately, we have a very exact method, in the color-wheel and Maxwell disks, by which the relative proportions of two or more colors in any mixture may be precisely measured. This method has been used in the painting of every one of the 1115 colors of the present work, by means of one disk to represent each one of the thirty-six colors (both pure and “broken”), together with a black, a white, and a neutral gray disk, the last being a match in color to the gray resulting from the mixture of red, green and violet on the color-wheel;[7] the neutral gray disk, however, being used only for the making of disks for the broken series of colors (′, ′′, ′′′, ′′′′, and ′′′′′) and for the scale of neutral grays (Plate [4]LIII.) These colored disks are slit on one side from center to circumference, and therefore by interlocking two or more they may be adjusted so that either occupies any desired percentage of the whole area, which may be very precisely determined by a scale of 100 segments shown on the outer edge of a larger disk on which the colored disks are superimposed. When connected with the color-wheel and adjusted as may be desired, and then rapidly revolved, the two or more distinct colors resolve themselves into a single uniform composite color, whose elements are shown, in their relative proportion, by the scale surrounding the disks.[8]

The scales (both horizontal and vertical) of the present work are all prepared directly from definite color-wheel formulæ, based on carefully calculated curves; the thirty-six pure spectrum hues, represented [5]by the middle horizontal line of color-squares on Plates I-XII (together with an equal number of intermediates represented by blank spaces), requiring a separate curve and consequently different relative proportions of the two component colors for each series of hues—that is, the series from red to orange, orange to yellow, yellow to green, green to blue, blue to violet, and violet to red, respectively; but the progressive increments of white in the scales of tints, black in those of shades, and neutral gray in the several series of broken colors are exactly the same in every case. The first series of Plates (I-XII) shows the pure, full spectrum colors and intermediate hues (middle horizontal line, nos. 1-72),[9] each with its vertical scale of tints (upward, a-g) and shades (downward, h-n), the increments of white for the tints being 9.5, 22.5, and 45 per cent., respectively, those of black in the shades being 45, 70.5, and 87.5 per cent. The remaining Plates show these same thirty-six colors or hues in exactly the same order and similarly modified (vertically) by precisely the same progressive increments of white (upward) and black (downward), but all the colors are dulled by admixture of neutral gray; the first series (1′-72′, Plates XIII-XXVI) containing 32 per cent. of neutral gray, the second (1′′-72′′, Plates XXVII-XXXVIII) 58 per cent., the third (1′′′-72′′′, Plates XXXIX-XLIV) 77 per cent., and the fourth (1′′′′-72′′′′, Plates XLV-L) 90 per cent. The last three Plates (LI-LIII) show the six spectrum colors[10] (also purple, the intermediate between violet and red) still further dulled by admixture of 95.5 per cent. of neutral [6]gray, these being in reality colored grays; to which are added a scale of neutral gray and one of carbon gray, the former being the gray resulting from mixture of the three primary colors (red 32, green 42, violet 26 per cent., which in relative darkness equals black 79.5, white 20.5 per cent.); the latter being the gray produced by mixture of lamp black and Chinese white, and the scale a reproduction of that in the author’s first “Nomenclature of Colors” (1886, Plate II, nos. 2-10). It should be emphasized that in all cases except the scale of carbon grays, only the disks representing the middle horizontal series of colors (both pure and broken) have been used, in combination with a black and a white disk, respectively, to make the colors of the vertical scales of tints and shades.

The coloring of a satisfactory set of disks to represent the thirty-six pure spectrum colors and hues was a matter of extreme difficulty, many hundreds having been painted and discarded before the desired result was achieved. Several serious problems were involved, the matter of change of hue through chemical reaction of the combined pigments or dyes[11] (especially the latter) being almost as troublesome as that of securing the proper degree of difference between each adjoining pair of hues. The method by which satisfactory results were finally secured was as follows: First, six disks were colored to represent each of the fundamental spectrum colors, [7]according to the author’s conception of them.[12] These six disks were then placed against a suitable background (a neutral gray), in spectrum sequence, with wide intervals for the accommodation of connecting series of disks, which were then colored so as to represent an apparently even transition from one to the other. When this very difficult task had been done as well as the eye alone could judge, each intermediate was then measured on the color-wheel and the relative proportions (in percentages) of its two component colors recorded. After this had been done for all the intermediate hues each series (the red-orange, orange-yellow, yellow-green, green-blue, blue-violet, and violet-red) was taken separately and a curve constructed on cross-section paper from the recorded ratios. These curves were found to be in all cases more or less irregular or unsymmetrical, but nevertheless were sufficiently near correct to serve as a basis for a symmetrical curve; and after the points out of [8]proper line were suitably relocated the two component colors were correspondingly readjusted on the color-wheel and each faulty disk corrected (or a new one painted) until it exactly matched the required combination. The scales representing the tints and shades of each color, and also the gray or broken colors were similarly determined by corrected curves.[13]

By the method adopted of running each of the thirty-six spectrum hues through a scale of tints and shades, and repeating the combination through several series modified by increasing increments of neutral gray, practically the entire possible range of color variation is covered,[14] rendering it an easy matter to locate in the plates, either among the colors actually shown or in an intermediate space, any color which it is desired to match; and where short distinctive names have not been found (their place being, tentatively, supplied by compound names), as, necessarily, must often be the case, any color or intermediate between any two colors, either as to hue, tint, or shade, may be readily designated by the very simple system of symbols (numerals and letters) employed.[15]

In order to designate any color for which a satisfactory name cannot be found, or one not represented on the plates, it is only necessary to proceed as follows: Suppose the color in question is nearest 1 on Plate I; say, for example, is intermediate in hue between 1 (spectrum red) and 3 (scarlet-red), or in other words if represented in color its position would be in the uncolored [9]space designated as no. 2; and in tone between the full color (middle horizontal line) and tint b. Its designation, therefore, is 2a. Exactly the same method applies to any of the other blank spaces, as well as to the colors themselves, except that in case of the broken colors the “primes” (′, ′′, ′′′, ′′′′, or ′′′′′) are to be affixed to the hue number. First locate the hue, designated by number, then the tone, designated by lower case letter, the full, pure colors of the middle horizontal row being designated by number alone.

Color Names.—While it is true that the naming of colors as usually employed has so little to do with the purely technical aspects of chromatology or color-physics that, as Von Bezold remarks[16] “we are in reality dealing with the peculiarities of language,” it is equally true that a collection of color standards designed expressly for the purpose of identifying and designating particular colors can best attain this object by the use of a carefully selected nomenclature. In other words, the prime necessity is to standardize both colors and color names, by elimination of the element of “personal equation” in the matter. In no other way can agreement be reached as to the distinction between “violet” and “purple,” two color names quite generally used interchangeably or synonymously but in reality belonging to quite distinct hues, or that any other color name can be definitely fixed. Various methods of handling the matter of color in zoological and botanical descriptions, etc., by the avoidance of color names and substitution therefor of symbols, numerals, or mechanical contrivances (as color-wheel and spectrum analyses, color-spheres, etc.) have been devised but all have been found impracticable or unsatisfactory. The author has taken the trouble to get an expression of opinion in this matter from many [10]naturalists and others, and the preference for color-names very greatly predominates; consequently, whenever it has been possible to find a name which seems suitable for any color in this work it has been done, leaving as few as possible unnamed, and for these some other means must be devised for their designation. (See page 8). The selection of appropriate names for the colors depicted on the Plates has been in some cases a matter of considerable difficulty. With regard to certain ones it may appear that the names adopted are not entirely satisfactory; but, to forestall such criticism, it may be explained that the purpose of these Plates is not to show the color of the particular objects or substances which the names suggest, but to provide appropriate, or at least approximately appropriate, names for the colors which it has seemed desirable to represent. In other words, certain colors are selected for illustration, for which names must be provided; and when names that are exclusively pertinent or otherwise entirely satisfactory are not at hand, they must be looked up or invented. It should also be borne in mind that almost any object or substance varies more or less in color; and that therefore if the “orange,” “lemon,” “chestnut” or “lilac” of the Plates does not exactly match in color the particular orange, lemon, chestnut or lilac which one may compare it with, it may (in fact does) correspond with other specimens. Without standardization, even if arbitrary, color nomenclature must, necessarily, remain in its present condition of absolute chaos. Even the standard pigments are not constant in color, practically every one of them being subject to more or less variation in hue or tone, different samples from the same manufacturer sometimes varying to the extent of several tones or hues of the present work; indeed, in every case where two or more samples of the same color have been compared [11]it has been found that no two are exactly alike, the difference often being very great. For example: Of five samples of “vandyke brown” only two are approximately similar, each of the other three being widely different, not only from one another but from the other two, one being a blackish brown, another reddish brown, the third a yellowish orange-brown. Of eleven samples of “olive” no two are closely similar, the color ranging from a shade of dull (grayish) blue-green to orange-brown, dark brownish gray, and light yellowish olive; and the same or nearly the same degree of variation is seen in absolutely every color examined, showing very clearly the utter worthlessness of color names unless fixed or standardized.

In order to obtain as many color names as possible for standardization it has been necessary to draw from all available sources. Several thousand samples of named colors have therefore been collected, and for convenience of reference and comparison gummed to card catalogue cards, with the name, source, and other data thereon. These include the colors from many standard works, among them Werner’s “Nomenclature of Colours” (Syme’s edition, 1821), Hay’s “Nomenclature of Colours” (1846), Ridgway’s “Nomenclature of Colors” (1886), Saccardo’s “Chromataxia” (1891), Mathews’ “Chart of Correct Colors of Flowers” (American Florist, 1891), Willson and Calkins’ “Familiar Colors,” Oberthur and Dauthenay’s “Repertoire des Couleurs” (1905), Leidel’s “Hints on Tints” (1893), “Lefévré’s Matieres Colorantes Artificiales” (1896), the Standard Dictionary chart of “typical colors,” the educational colored papers of Milton Bradley and Prang, and many others; and besides these practically all of the artists’ oil, water, and dry colors, manufactured by Winsor and Newton, F. Schoenfeld and Co., Charles Roberson and Co., [12]George Rowney and Co., Madderton and Co., R. Ackermann and Co., Bourgeois, Binant, Chenal, Le Franc, Devoe, Raynolds, Osborne, Bradley, Hatfield and others; also the coal-tar or aniline dyes of Dr. G. Grübler & Co., Continental Color and Chemical Co., and Henry Heil Chemical Co., and the well known Diamond Dyes; chromo-lithographic inks, embroidery silks, etc., etc.

The material from which to select suitable color names was greatly augmented, almost at the last moment, from two sources, as follows: (1) A very large collection of color-samples (unfortunately mostly unnamed) collected and mounted on cards by Mr. Frederick A. Wampole, a talented young artist, to whom was delegated, by a Committee of the American Mycological Society, the task of preparing a nomenclature of colors based upon spectroscopic determinations, but which, unfortunately, the untimely death of Mr. Wampole prevented from progressing beyond the accumulation of this collection. For the use of this material I am indebted to the courtesy of Dr. Frederick V. Coville, Botanist of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and Mr. P. L. Ricker, Assistant Botanist, Bureau of Plant Industry, in the same Department. (2) A splendid collection of colored Japanese silks, taffetas, velvets, and other dress goods, kindly sent me by Mr. C. H. Hospital, of the silk department of the firm of Woodward and Lothrop, Washington, D. C. The very large number of colors represented in this collection are all named and have afforded a considerable number of the names adopted in the present work.

For obvious reasons it has, of course, been necessary to ignore many trade names, through which the popular nomenclature of colors has become involved in really chaotic confusion rendered more confounded by the continual coinage of new names, many of them synonymous [13]and most of them vague and variable in their application. Most of them are invented, apparently without care or judgment, by the dyer or manufacturer of fabrics, and are as capricious in their meaning as in their origin; for example: Such fanciful names as “zulu,” “serpent green,” “baby blue,” “new old rose,” “London smoke,” etc., and such nonsensical names as “ashes of roses” and “elephant’s breath.” An inspection of the sample books of manufacturers of fancy goods (such as embroidery silks and crewels, ribbons, velvets, and other dress- and upholstery-goods) is sufficient not only to illustrate the above observations, but to show also the absolute want of system or classification and the general unavailability of these trade names for adoption in a practical color nomenclature. This is very unfortunate, since many of these trade names have the merit of brevity and euphony and lack only the quality of stability.

It has been difficult for the author to decide whether the standards of his original “Nomenclature of Colors” (1886) should be retained in the present work. Some of them are admittedly wrong (indeed, certain ones are not as they were intended to be); besides, owing to the method of reproducing the originals (hand stenciling) there is considerable variation in different copies of the book, one or more reprints, necessitating new mixtures of pigments, adding to this lack of uniformity.[17] Many persons, however, have urged the retention of the old standards, on the ground that they have been used by so many zoologists and botanists in their writings during the last twenty-five years that they have become established [14]through common usage. This very important consideration has induced the author to retain such of the old standards as can be matched in the present work, even though some of them do not agree strictly with either his own or the usual conception of the colors in question. An asterisk (*) preceding a color name indicates that the name in question is adopted from the older work, the variation between different copies of the work requiring the selection, in the new one, of a color representing as nearly as possible an average of the former.

In any systematically arranged scheme, unless the number of colors shown is practically unlimited, it will, necessarily, be impossible to find represented thereon a certain proportion of colors comprised among even a very limited number selected at random, or only roughly classified. Hence many (thirty-six, or more than five per cent.) of the colors shown in the old “Nomenclature of Colors” fall into the blank intervals of the present work, being intermediate either in hue or tone, or chroma, sometimes all. It is necessary of course to provide some means for the correlation of these with the present scheme, which is done by the list on page 41, where the position of each is shown.

The question of giving representations of metallic colors in this work was at one time considered; but the idea was abandoned for the reason that these are in reality only ordinary colors reflected from a metallic or burnished surface, or appearing as if so reflected; the actual hue is precisely the same, though often changeable according to angle of impact of the light rays, and relative position of the eye, this changeableness being sometimes due to interference.[18] Colors again vary, without actual difference of hue, in regard to quality of texture or surface; that is to say, the color may be quite [15]lustreless, appearing on a dull, sometimes velvety surface, while again it may be more or less glossy, even to the degree of appearing as if varnished. To deal with these variations, however, requires simply the use of suitable adjectives. For example: To indicate a color which has no lustre or brightness, the adjective matt (or mat) may be used, in preference to dull, which implies reduction in purity or chroma; other adjectives, appropriate in special cases, being velvety, glossy, burnished metallic, matt-metallic, etc.

Color Terms.—No other person has presented so forcibly the urgent need for reform in popular nomenclature nor stated so clearly and concisely its shortcomings and the simple remedy, as Mr. Milton Bradley, from one of whose educational pamphlets on the subject[19] the following is quoted: “The list of words now employed to express qualities or degrees of color is very small, in fact a half dozen comprise the more common terms, and these are pressed into service on all occasions, and in such varied relations that they not only fail to express anything definite but constantly contradict themselves…. Tint, Hue and Shade are employed so loosely by the public generally, even by those people who claim to use English correctly, that neither word has a very definite meaning, although each is capable of being as accurately used as any other word in our every day vocabulary”….

Certainly one would expect that men of learning, at least, would employ the broader color terms correctly; but some of the highest authorities on color-physics habitually use them interchangeably, as if they were quite synonymous; and even the dictionaries, with few exceptions, give incorrect or “hazy” definitions of these [16]terms. It is not strictly correct to say a “dark tint” or “light shade” of any color, because a tint implies a color paler than the full color, while a shade means exactly the opposite; and to say an “orange shade (or tint) of red,” a “greenish shade (or tint) of blue,” a “bluish shade (or tint) of violet,” etc., is an absurdity, for the term hue, which specifically and alone refers to relative position in the spectrum scale, without reference to lightness or darkness, is the only one which can correctly be used in such cases.

Indeed the standardization of color terms is almost if not quite as important, in the interest of educational progress, as that of the colors themselves and their names; therefore, to make easy a clear understanding of the specific meaning of each, the following definitions are given:—

Color.—The term of widest application, being the only one which can be used to cover the entire range of chromatic manifestation; that is to say, the spectrum colors (together with those between violet and red, not shown in the spectrum) with all their innumerable variations of luminosity, mixture, etc. In a more restricted sense, applied to the six distinct spectrum colors (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet), which are sometimes distinguished as fundamental colors or spectrum colors.

Hue.—While often used interchangeably or synonymously with color, the term hue is more properly restricted by special application to those lying between any contiguous pair of spectrum colors (also between violet and purple and between purple and red); as an orange hue (not shade or tint, as so often incorrectly said) of red; a yellow hue of orange; a greenish hue of yellow; a bluish hue of green; a violet hue of blue, etc.

Tint.—Any color (pure or broken) weakened by high illumination or (in the case of pigments) by [17]admixture of white, or (in the case of dyes or washes) by excess of aqueous or other liquid medium; as, a deep, medium, light, pale or delicate (pallid) tint of red. The term cannot correctly be used in any other sense.

Shade.—Any color (pure or broken) darkened by shadow or (in the case of pigments) by admixture of black; exactly the opposite of tint; as a medium, dark, or very dark (dusky) shade of red.

Tone.—”Each step in a color scale is a tone of that color.”[20] The term tone cannot, however, be properly applied to a step in the spectrum scale, in which each contiguous pair of the six distinct spectrum or “fundamental” colors are connected by hues. Hence tone[21] is exclusively applicable to the steps in a scale of a single color or hue, comprising the full color (in the center) and graduated tints and shades leading off therefrom in opposite directions; or of neutral gray similarly graduated in tone from the darkest shade to the palest tint. Each one of the colored blocks in the vertical scales of the plates in this work represents a separate tone of that color.

Scale.—A linear series of colors showing a gradual transition from one to another, or a similar series of tones of one color. The first is a chromatic scale[22] (or scale of colors and hues) and in the plates of this work is represented by each horizontal series; the second is a [18]tone scale, on the plates running vertically, growing from the full color, in the center, to a pale tint (at the top) and a dark shade (at the bottom). For clearer comprehension of these two distinct scales, each plate of this work may be compared to a sheet of woven fabric; the chromatic scale (horizontal) representing the warp, the luminosity or tone scale (vertical) the woof. A third kind of color scale is represented by adding progressive increments of neutral gray to any color. This is shown by the several series of Plates, of which the first (Plates I-XII, with colors numbered 1-71) represents each step in the spectrum scale unmixed with gray, followed by five other series in which the same colors[23] are shown dulled by gradually increasing increments of neutral gray, the first (Plates XIII-XXVI, colors 1′-71′) containing 32 per cent., the second (Plates XXVII-XXXVIII, colors 1′′-71′′) 58 per cent., the third (Plates XXXIX-XLIV, colors 1′′′-69′′′) 77 per cent., the fourth (Plates XLV-L, colors 1′′′′-69′′′′) 90 per cent., and the fifth (Plates LI-LIII, colors 1′′′′′, 15′′′′′, 23′′′′′, 35′′′′′, 49′′′′′, 59′′′′′ and 67′′′′′) 95.5 per cent. of gray, the last being in reality colored grays. Finally scales are shown (on Plate LIII) of neutral gray (in which all trace of color is wanting), and of carbon gray, a simple mixture of lamp-black and chinese white. It is not easy to find a suitable name for these scales of reduced or “broken” colors, but they may, for present convenience, be termed reduced or broken scales.

Full Color.—A color corresponding in intensity with its manifestation in the solar spectrum.

[19]Pure Color.—A color corresponding in purity with (or, in the case of material colors, closely approximating to) one of the spectrum colors.

Broken Color.—Any one of the spectrum colors or hues dulled or reduced in purity by admixture (in any proportion) of neutral gray, or varying relative proportions of both black and white; also produced by admixture of certain spectrum colors, as red with green, orange with blue, yellow with violet, etc. These broken colors are far more numerous in Nature than the pure spectrum colors, and include the almost infinite variations of brown, russet, citrine, olive, drab, etc. They are often called dull or neutral colors.

Fundamental Colors.—The six psychologically distinct colors of the solar spectrum; Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, and Violet.

Primary Colors.—Theoretically, any of the spectrum colors which cannot be made by mixture of two other colors. According to the generally accepted Young-Helmholtz theory, the primary colors are red, green, and violet: orange and yellow resulting from a mixture of red and green, and blue from a mixture of green and violet. There is considerable difference of opinion, however, as to this question, and further investigation of the subject seems to be required; at any rate, authorities fail to explain why red may be exactly reproduced (except as to the degree of luminosity) by a mixture of orange and violet, exactly as yellow results from mixture of red and green or blue from green or violet, green being, in fact, the only spectrum color that cannot be made by mixture of other colors.[24]

[20]Chroma.—Degree of freedom from white light; purity, intensity or fullness of color.

Luminosity.—Degree of brightness or clearness. The relative luminosity of the spectrum colors is as follows: [Yellow (brightest)?], orange yellow; orange; greenish-yellow, yellow-green, and green; orange-red; red and blue (equal); violet-blue, blue-violet, violet.[25]

Warm Colors.—The colors nearer the red end of the spectrum or those of longer wave-lengths (red, orange, and yellow, and connecting hues) “and combinations in which they predominate.”[26]

Cool, or Cold, Colors.—The colors nearer the violet end of the spectrum or those of shorter wave-length, especially blue and green-blue. “But it is, perhaps, questionable whether green and violet may be termed either warm or cool.”

Complementary Color.—”As white light is the sum of all color, if we take from white light a given color the remaining color is the complement of the given color.” When any two colors or hues which when combined in proper proportion on the color-wheel produce, by rotation, neutral gray, these two colors each represent the complementary of the other.

Constants of Color.—The constants of color are numbers which measure (1) the wave-length, (2) the chroma, and (3) the luminosity.

In addition to the terms defined above there are many others, for which the reader is referred to the chapter on “Color Definitions” on pages 23-30 of Milton Bradley’s excellent and most useful book “Elementary Color.”

The following table shows the relative percentages, in color-wheel measurement, of the two components in each of the hues connecting adjacent pairs of the six spectrum colors as represented on the original Plates of this work; together with an equal number of exact intermediates (not shown on the Plates), the latter in lower-case type and not indicated by symbols.

Number. Color. Red. Orange. Yellow. Green. Blue. Violet. Wavelength.[27]
1 Red 100 644
2 90 10
3 O-R 80 20
4 70 30
5 OO-R 60 40
6 50 50
7 R-O 40 60
8 30 70
9 OR-O 20 80
10 10 90
11 Orange 100 598
12 96 4
13 OY-O 91 9
14 86 14
15 Y-O 80 20
16 73.5 26.5
17 O-Y 65 35
18 56.5 43.5
19 YO-Y 47 53
20 36.5 63.5
21 O-YY 25 75
22 13.5 86.5
23 Yellow 100 577
24 87 13
25 YG-Y 75 25
26 64 36
27 G-Y 55 45
28 46 54
29 GG-Y 39 61
30 31 69
[22]31 Y-G 24 76
32 17 83
33 GY-G 11 89
34 6 94
35 Green 100 520
36 96.5 3.5
37 GB-G 93 7
38 90 10
39 B-G 85 15
40 81 19
41 BB-G 75 25
42 69 31
43 G-B 61 39
44 54 46
45 BG-B 45 55
46 36 64
47 G-BB 25 75
48 13 87
49 Blue 100 473
50 84 16
51 BV-B 72 28
52 64 36
53 V-B 54 46
54 47 53
55 B-V 40 60
56 32 68
57 VB-V 22 78
58 12 88
59 Violet 100 410
60 3 97
61 VR-V 7 93
62 11 89
63 R-V 18 82
64 24 76
65 RR-V 33 67
66 41 59
67 V-R 52 48
68 64 36
69 RV-R 74 26
70 83 17
71 V-RR 90 10
72 95.5 4.5
All of the vertical scales in the original Plates of this work (the scale of carbon grays alone excepted) contain the following percentages by color-wheel measurement:

Tone. Percentages.
White. Color. Black.
(White) 100
(g) 70 30
f 45 55
(e) 32 68
d 22.5 77.5
(c) 15 85
b 9.5 90.5
(a) 5 95
(Full Color) 100
(h) 64 26
i 55 45
(j) 41 59
k 29.5 70.5
(l) 20 80
m 12.5 87.5
(n) 6 94
(Black) 100
One of the most serious difficulties encountered in the preparation of the Plates of this work was the apparent impracticability of reproducing satisfactory shades of pure colors. This originated in the fact that there seems to be no substance (pigment, dye, or fabric) which represents a true black, all reflecting more or less of white light, and consequently producing shades which are dull [24]or broken. The difficulty is increased by the additional fact that any black pigment mixed with almost any color falls short of even the color-wheel mixture in purity of hue in the resulting shades, owing to the very considerable amount of gray in all black pigments. Chromolithography can be made to produce clearer and better shades of the pure colors, but is distinctly objectionable for the purpose of a work of this kind owing to eventual oxidation of the oil or varnish with which the pigments are combined in lithographic inks, causing a change of hue; reds becoming more orange, blues more greenish, etc., in course of time.

While the absence (in large part) of pure chromatic shades is much to be regretted, the defect is not so serious, from the standpoint of utility, as might appear at first sight; for while saturated or darkened pure colors are not uncommon in the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms, more or less broken dark colors are infinitely more so; and since the latter are greatly increased in number by the defect mentioned the actual result is rather an advantage than otherwise.

It will doubtless be noticed that there is a conspicuous difference in relative darkness between shades of yellow and contiguous hues on the one hand and corresponding ones of violet and adjacent hues on the other, as if the percentage of black in each were very different. This, however, is entirely the result of difference of luminosity of the two sets of colors, that of yellow being between 7000 and 8000 while that of violet is only about 13;[28] for the percentage of black in corresponding tones of the vertical scales is precisely the same for each color throughout the chromatic scale of this work.

Every Plate in each series of broken colors (′ to ′′′′′) contains exactly the same percentage of neutral gray in each color, the relative amount increasing progressively in the several series, as shown in the following table. The percentages of white in the tints and of black in the shades of the tone scales are in all cases exactly the same as in the tone scales of pure colors.

Series. Percentages.
Color. Neutral Gray.
Pure Colors 100
(′) 68 32
(′′) 42 58
(′′′) 23 77
(′′′′) 10 90
(′′′′′) 4.5 95.5
Neutral Gray 100
Tone Number. Percentages.
Black. White.
1 100
2 98 2
3 94.5 5.5
4 89.5 10.5
5 83 17
6 75 25
7 67.5 32.5
8 58.5 41.5
9 47 53
10 30 70
Note.—The percentages given in the preceding tables may not in all cases be precisely those actually contained in the colors on the Plates, since absolute precision in reproduction is hardly possible. All that can be claimed is a reasonably close approximation to the ideal.

Red.—Devoe’s geranium lake (dry), its orange hue neutralized by a wash of rhodamin b. (Crocein scarlet b. washed with rhodamin b. produces practically the same fine red.)

Hues between red and orange.—Crocein scarlet b. with gold orange.

Orange.—Gold orange with orange g.

Hues between orange and yellow.—Orange g. with auramin.

Yellow.—Auramin, rather dilute. (The best substitute among pigments is a fine quality of zinc yellow, as Hatfield’s.)

Hues between yellow and green.—Auramin washed with light green.

Green.—Auramin (very dilute) washed with light green. (The auramin should be applied first, because it “sets” or becomes fast quickly, while the light green does not, but is largely removed by overwashes of the yellow, thus rendering it very difficult to get the desired hue.)

Hues between green and blue.—Methyl green; the same washed with light blue (Diamond Dye); for the hues nearer blue, light blue washed with Winsor and Newton’s permanent blue or new blue (the least violet-hued of the artificial ultramarines).

Blue.—Light blue washed with permanent blue or new blue. (Although the color is nearer that of the artificial ultramarines named, it is useless to apply the latter first, [27]for overwashes of the light blue merely sink through and darken the color without improving the hue. A moderately saturated solution of the light blue should be applied first, and when this is dry covered with one or more rather thin washes of the permanent blue or new blue).

Hues between blue and violet.—Winsor and Newton’s permanent blue and some of the more violet-hued artificial ultramarines, the hues nearer violet washed with crystal violet or gentian violet.

Violet.—Crystal violet.

Hues between violet and red.—Methyl violet 1b. washed with rhodamin b.; for hues nearer red, rhodamin b. with Devoe’s geranium red (dry) or crocein scarlet b.

While more or less similar in hue to rhodamin b., several other aniline dyes, as acid fuchsin, rubin s., rosein, magenta, etc., do not combine satisfactorily with the violets, the mixture soon becoming dark or dull and none of them are quite as pure a purple or red-violet.

It is most important to remember that disks thus colored must be carefully protected from light when not in actual use and never exposed to direct sunlight. The artificial ultramarines are, of course, permanent, and so, practically, are crocein scarlet, gold orange, orange g., and auramin—that is to say, are not materially affected by the action of light except after very prolonged exposure, though the last named undergoes a change of hue; but the green and violet aniline dyes are all very evanescent, rapidly fading and eventually disappearing; light blue and rhodamin, while sensitive to light, are far less so than the greens and violets.

Bradley, Milton, author of “Color in the Schoolroom” and “Color in the Kindergarden.”—Elementary Color. With an Introduction by Henry Lafavour, Ph. D., Professor of Physics, Williams College. Milton Bradley and Co., Springfield, Mass. [1895]. Small 8vo., pp. [i]-iv, [1]-128; colored frontispiece (“miniature color charts made from the Bradley educational colored papers,” showing 126 unnamed colors) and numerous figures in text.

The present writer frankly and gratefully acknowledges that he has learned more, and learned it more easily, from this little book, which is a model of conciseness and perspicuity, than from careful study of more elaborate and authoritative works on the subject. It is therefore most heartily recommended to the student as a preliminary, at least, to the study of more technical works on color.

Bradley, Milton.—The Evolution of a Practical System of Color Education based on Spectrum Standards. Milton Bradley Co., Springfield, Mass. Pamphlet, 8vo., pp. 8.

Bradley, Milton.—A Few Practical Suggestions relating to Color Standards and the Present Status of Elementary Color Instruction in the United States. Milton Bradley Co., Springfield, Mass. Pamphlet, small 8vo., pp. 16.

Bradley, Milton.—Some Criticisms of Popular Color Definitions, and Suggestions for a Better Color Nomenclature. Milton Bradley Co., Springfield, Mass., 1898. Pamphlet, 12mo., pp. 15.

Bradley, Milton.—The Bradley Color Scheme, with Suggestions to Teachers. Milton Bradley Co., Springfield, Mass. Pamphlet, 12mo., pp. 45.

Church, A. H., F. R. S., etc., Professor of Chemistry in the Royal Academy of Arts in London.—The Chemistry of Paints and Painting. Third edition, revised and enlarged. London: Seeley and Co. Small 8vo., pp. [i-vii] viii-xx, 1-355. An invaluable work which should be consulted by every painter.

Hurst, George H., F. C. S., etc.—Colour: A Handbook of the Theory of Colour. With ten coloured plates and seventy-two illustrations. London: Scott, Greenwood & Co., 1900., 8vo., 160 pp.

[43]Rood, Ogden N.—Students’ Text-book of Color; or Modern Chromatics, with applications to Art and Industry. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1903. Small 8vo., pp. [i-v] vi-viii, [9] 10-329; 1 colored plate (frontispiece) and 130 original illustrations.

(One of the best technical works on the physics of color.)

Vanderpoel, Emily Noyes.—Color Problems. A Practical Manual for the Lay Student of Color. With one hundred and seventeen colored plates. Longmans, Green and Co., New York, London and Bombay. 1903. Small 8vo., pp., [i-vi] vii-xv, [1-2] 3-137.

The colored plates of this excellent work illustrate the physics and psychology of color, color harmonies, and kindred subjects, but have no relation to color nomenclature.

Jorgensen, Charles Julius.—The Mastery of Color. A simple and perfect color system, based upon the spectral colors, for educational and practical use in the Arts and Crafts. Published by the Author. Milwaukee, 1906. 8vo., 2 vols., one of text, the other of 22 loose colored plates contained in double box.

An exceedingly useful work for artists and decorators, but not adapted to the needs of science. The technical execution of the plates is exquisite and the colors very fine.

[1]A | Nomenclature of Colors | for Naturalists, | and | Compendium of Useful Knowledge | for Ornithologists. | By | Robert Ridgway, | Curator, Department of Birds, United States National Museum. | With ten colored plates and seven plates | of outline illustrations. | Boston: | Little, Brown, and Company. | 1886. | (12mo., pp. 129, pls. 17.)

The subject of color and color nomenclature discussed on pages 15-58. Plates i-x, inclusive, represent 186 named colors, hand-painted (stencilled).

[2]Titles of several books on the subject which are especially recommended to the lay student of chromatology are given at the end of this text.

[3]See Science, June 9, 1893, and Nature, Vol. LII, No. 1347, Aug. 22, 1895, pp. 390-392.

[4]According to Aubert more than 1000 hues are distinguishable in the spectrum, though among them all the hues between violet and red are wanting.

[5]That is to say, the practical limit for pictorial representation of the colors in their various modifications.

[6]Milton Bradley: Elementary Color, p. 18.

[7]See colored figure on frontispiece.

[8]See the colored figure on the frontispiece of this work, which clearly illustrates this method of color measurement. Larger disks of spectrum red, green, and violet are interlocked and adjusted so that they present, respectively, 32, 42, and 26 per cent. of the circumference; superimposed on these is a single smaller disk of neutral gray, and on this two still smaller disks of black and white, the former occupying 79, the latter 21, per cent. of the area. The result of this combination of colors, when the disks are rapidly revolved, is that the entire surface becomes a uniform neutral gray precisely like the middle disk, which blends so completely with the color inside and outside its limits that no trace of division can be detected. Hence, neutral gray equals a combination of red 32, green 42, and violet 26 per cent., and also equals a combination of black 79 and white 21 per cent. As further illustrating the point, it may be mentioned that not only does the above-mentioned combination of the three primary colors equal neutral gray but so also does the combination of any color (“secondary” or “tertiary” as well as primary) with its complementary, though the darkness or lightness of the gray varies somewhat, as the following table shows:

Spectrum Color. Complementary Color. Equivalent Gray.
Name. Per Cent. Per Cent. Composition. Black. White.
Red 44 56 Blue 41 + Green 59. 72.5 27.5
Orange 28.5 71.5 Blue 51.5 + Green 48.5. 69 31
Yellow 33 67 Blue 60.5 + Violet 39.5. 64 36
Green 51 49 Red 57.5 + Violet 42.5. 73 27
Blue 64 36 Yellow 82 + Orange 18. 62 37
Violet 62.5 37.5 Yellow 69 + Green 31. 61.5 38.5
[9]The number is doubled so that every other one represents an intermediate hue not shown in color.

[10]Owing to the circumstance that spectrum orange does not, at least when mixed with gray, fairly represent a medium hue between red and orange, being much nearer the former, a hue much near to yellow (yellow-orange, No. 15) has been selected.

[11]For satisfactory color-wheel work it is necessary to discard practically all the so-called artists’ colors, as being much too dull to even approximately represent the colors of the spectrum, and to substitute carefully selected aniline or coal-tar dyes, of which, fortunately, there is a very large number of remarkable purity of hue. Indeed, the work of most color-physicists is vitiated by their use of such crude colors as vermilion, carmine, scarlet-lake, chrome yellow, emerald green, Prussian blue, etc. (For a list of dyes and pigments used in preparing the Maxwell disks representing the thirty-six colors of the chromatic scale, see pages 26, 27.)

[12]In fixing the exact position or wave-length of the spectrum colors considerable latitude is allowable, the element of “personal equation”—that is, difference in the conception of different persons as to just where the reddest red, greenest green, etc., are located, accounting for the considerable disagreement among chromatologists as to the wave-lengths. The following table, showing the average, mean, and extreme wave-length of each of the spectrum colors as given by nine or more authorities together with those of the present work (as determined by Dr. P. G. Nutting, Associate Physicist of the U. S. Bureau of Standards) is of interest in this connection:

This work. Average of 9-12 authorities. Extremes of 9-12 authorities. Mean of 9-12 authorities.
Red 644 6770 6440-7028 6734 (10)
Orange 598 ± 2 6074 5892-6300 6096 (9)
Yellow 577 ± 1 5786 5640-5850 5745 (10)
Green 520 ± 10 5235 5050-5335 5193 (11)
Blue 473 ± 3 4738 4520-4861 4680 (12)
Violet 410 4176 4050-4330 4190 (10)
From this table it will be seen that the red of this work is appreciably more orange than that of others, the orange slightly more yellowish, and the violet a little less bluish than the average; but the author is assured by Dr. Nutting that these standards are exceptionally accurate.

[13]The percentages are given in tables on pages 23 and 25.

[14]That is to say, theoretically. Unfortunately it seems to be beyond the colorists’ skill to reproduce true shades of the pure colors, all showing a more or less decided admixture of gray, resulting in a series of broken or dull shades. (See pages 23 and 24.)

[15]Although only 1115 different colors are actually shown on the plates the system is really equivalent to the presentation of considerably more than 4000 distinguishable and designatable colors.

[16]The Theory of Color (American edition, 1876), p. 99.

[17]In the present work the possibility of variation between different copies is wholly eliminated by a very different process of reproduction. Each color, for the entire edition, is painted uniformly on large sheets of paper from a single mixture of pigments, these sheets being then cut into the small squares which represent the colors on the plates.

[18]See Rood: Modern Chromatics, pages 50-52.

[19]Some criticisms of Popular Color Definitions and Suggestions for a better Color Nomenclature. Milton Bradley Co., Springfield, Mass. (Small pamphlet of 15 pages).

[20]Milton Bradley: Elementary Color, p. 25.

[21]Exception has been taken in a recent work (“A Color Notation,” by A. H. Munsell) to the use of the term tone in this connection, on the ground that its proper use belongs to music, and the term value is substituted. The same line of reasoning would, however, certainly require the discarding of chromatic scale as a term of music nomenclature, since its derivation is clearly from color (chroma). Furthermore, the word “value” is even more elastic in its application than tone, and, all things considered, the present writer, at least, fails to see that any improvement is made by the proposed change.

[22]The term chromatic scale has unfortunately been appropriated for a very different use (in music); nevertheless it is strictly correct in the present sense while in the other it is not, though firmly established by long usage. The term spectrum scale is not adequate, as a substitute, because the spectrum series of colors is incomplete through absence of the hues connecting violet with red, which are necessary to show the full scale of pure colors and hues.

[23]The distinctions of color or hue diminishing in proportion to the increased admixture of gray, each alternate color or hue, with its scale (vertical) of tones, is omitted from the third and fourth series; while in the fifth the color differentiation is so greatly reduced that only the six spectrum colors (dulled by admixture of 95.5 per cent. of neutral gray), together with purple (the intermediate between violet and red) are given; a yellow orange hue being substituted for spectrum orange because it is more exactly intermediate in hue between red and yellow.

[24]J. J. Müller found that a mixture of the orange and violet rays of the spectrum produced a whitish red (Rood, “Modern Chromatics,” p. 129). The author of the present work, without being at the time aware of this, produced an absolutely pure red (but of reduced intensity) by mixture of either orange and violet (orange 63.5, violet 36.5 per cent. = red 85 + white 15 per cent.), or from orange and the violet-red which is complementary to green (violet-red 51, orange 49 per cent.), the latter equaling red 89 + white 11 per cent; the mixtures being made on a color-wheel with Maxwell disks representing the pure colors of the present work. The red resulting from either of these mixtures on the color-wheel is far purer than the blue resulting from mixture of green and violet, and incomparably more so than the yellow resulting from mixture of either red and green or orange and green. Consequently, if the same results would come from mixing orange and violet light, it is difficult to understand how red can be a primary color according to the accepted definition.

[25]Rood: Modern Chromatics, p. 34.

With the single exception of Vanderpoel (Color Problems, p. 28, plates 3, 4, where yellow is given first in order of luminosity) all authorities on color-physics that I have been able to consult very singularly ignore yellow entirely in their treatment of the subject of luminosity.

[26]All quotations here are from Milton Bradley’s “Elementary Color,” except where otherwise noted.

[27]As determined by Dr. P. G. Nutting, Associate Physicist, U. S. Bureau of Standards.

[28]See Rood, Modern Chromatics, pages 34, 35.

[29]The aniline or coal-tar dyes named are all of the manufacture of Dr. G. Grübler and Co., Leipzig, Germany, unless otherwise stated. (See Preface, page ii.)

Do Not Expose These Plates to the Light for a Longer Time Than Is Necessary.

The pigments used in the preparation of these Plates are the most durable known, those which have been proven unstable having been, as far as possible, discarded. The latter include carmine and other cochineal lakes, colors of vegetable origin (as gamboge, violet carmine, indigo, etc.), and most of the aniline or coal tar dyes, though among the last are a considerable number which are really more permanent than several colors habitually used by artists. Certain colors in this work could not, however, possibly be reproduced except by the employment of pigments which are more or less sensitive to prolonged exposure to light, and hence this caution not to expose the plates unnecessarily.

(See Church: “The Chemistry of Paints and Painting,” third edition, pages 257-263.)

COLOR NAME. Plate. Color
or hue
Number. Tone.
Absinthe Green XXXI 29′′ —
Acajou Red XIII 1′ i
Acetin Blue XXXV 49′′ k
Ackermann’s Green XVIII 35′ k
Aconite Violet XXXVII 63′′ —
Ageratum Violet XXXVII 63′′ b
Alice Blue XXXIV 45′′ b
Alizarine Blue XXI 51′ m
Alizarine Pink XIII 1′ d
Amaranth Pink XII 69 d
Amaranth Purple XII 69 i
Amber Brown III 13 k
Amber Yellow XVI 21′ b
American Green XLI 33′′′ i
Amethyst Violet XI 61 —
Amparo Blue IX 51 b
Amparo Purple XI 63 b
Andover Green XLVII 25′′′′ i
Aniline Black L 69′′′′ m
Aniline Lilac XXXV 53′′ d
Aniline Yellow IV 19 i
Anthracene Green VII 39 m
Anthracene Purple XLIV 69′′′ k
Anthracene Violet XXV 61′ k
Antimony Yellow XV 17′ b
Antique Brown III 17 k
Antique Green VI 35 m
*Antwerp Blue VIII 45 k
*Apple Green XVII 29′ —
Apricot Buff XIV 11′ b
Apricot Orange XIV 11′ —
Apricot Yellow IV 19 b
Argus Brown III 13 m
Argyle Purple XXXVII 65′′ b
Army Brown XL 13′′′ i
Artemisia Green XLVII 33′′′′ —
Asphodel Green XLI 29′′′ —
*Aster Purple XII 67 i
Auburn II 11 m
*Auricula Purple XXVI 69′ k
Avellaneous XL 17′′′ b
Azurite Blue IX 53 m
Barium Yellow XVI 23′ d
Baryta Yellow IV 21 f
*Bay II 7 m
Begonia Rose I 1 b
Benzo Brown XLVI 13′′′′ i
Benzol Green VII 41 —
*Berlin Blue VIII 47 m
Beryl Blue VIII 43 f
*Beryl Green XIX 41′ b
*Bice Green XVII 29′ k
Biscay Green XVII 27′ i
Bishop’s Purple XXXVII 65′′ —
*Bister XXIX 15′′ m
Bittersweet Orange II 9 b
Bittersweet Pink II 9 d
*Black LIII 73 (1)
Blackish Brown (1) XLV 1′′′′ m
Blackish Brown (2) XLV 5′′′′ m
Blackish Brown (3) XLV 9′′′′ m
Blackish Green-Blue VIII 43 m
Blackish Green-Gray LII 35′′′′′ m
Blackish Mouse Gray LI 15′′′′′ m
Blackish Plumbeous LII 49′′′′′ k
Blackish Purple XI 65 m
Blackish Red-Purple XII 67 m
*Blackish Slate LIII 75 (3)
Blackish Violet X 59 m
Blackish Violet-Gray LII 59′′′′′ m
Blanc’s Blue XX 47′ k
Blanc’s Violet XXIII 59′ k
Blue-Violet X 55 —
Blue-Violet Black XLIX 57′′′′ m
Bluish Black XLIX 49′′′′ m
Bluish Glaucous XLII 37′′′ f
Bluish Gray-Green XLII 41′′′ —
Bluish Lavender XXXVI 57′′ d
Bluish Slate-Black XLVIII 45′′′′ m
Bluish Violet X 57 —
Bone Brown XL 13′′′ m
Bordeaux XII 71 k
*Bottle Green XIX 37′ m
Bradley’s Blue IX 51 —
Bradley’s Violet XXIII 59′ —
Brazil Red I 5 i
Bremen Blue XX 43′ b
*Brick Red XIII 5′ k
Bright Chalcedony Yellow XVII 25′ —
Bright Green-Yellow V 27 —
Brownish Drab XLV 9′′′′ —
Brownish Olive XXX 19′′ m
[30] Brownish Vinaceous XXXIX 5′′′ b
Brussels Brown III 15 m
Buckthorn Brown XV 17′ i
*Buff-Pink XXVIII 11′′ d
*Buff-Yellow IV 19 d
Buffy Brown XL 17′′′ i
Buffy Citrine XVI 19′ k
Buffy Olive XXX 21′′ k
Burn Blue XXXIV 47′′ f
Burnt Lake XII 71 m
*Burnt Sienna II 9 k
*Burnt Umber XXVIII 9′′ m
Cacao Brown XXVIII 9′′ i
Cadet Blue XXI 49′ i
Cadet Gray XLII 45′′′ b
*Cadmium Orange III 13 —
*Cadmium Yellow III 17 —
Calamine Blue VIII 43 d
Calla Green V 25 m
Calliste Green VI 31 i
Cameo Brown XXVIII 7′′ k
Cameo Pink XXVI 71′ f
*Campanula Blue XXIV 55* b
Capri Blue XX 43′ i
Capucine Buff III 13 f
Capucine Orange III 13 d
Capucine Yellow III 15 b
*Carmine I 1 i
Carnelian Red XIV 7′ —
Carob Brown XIV 9′ m
Carrot Red XIV 7′ b
Cartridge Buff XXX 19′′ f
Castor Gray LII 35′′′′′ i
Cedar Green VI 31 m
Celandine Green XLVII 33′′′′ b
Cendre Blue VIII 43 b
Cendre Green VI 35 b
Cerro Green V 27 m
*Cerulean Blue VIII 45 —
Chaetura Black XLVI 17′′′′ m
Chaetura Drab XLVI 17′′′′ k
Chalcedony Yellow XVII 25′ b
Chamois XXX 19′′ b
Chapman’s Blue XXII 49* i
Chartreuse Yellow XXXI 25′′ d
Chatenay Pink XIII 3′ f
Chessylite Blue XX 45′ k
*Chestnut II 9 m
Chestnut-Brown XIV 11′ m
Chicory Blue XXIV 57* d
*China Blue XX 45′ i
Chinese Violet XXV 65′ b
*Chocolate XXVIII 7′′ m
*Chromium Green XXXII 31′′ i
Chrysolite Green XXXI 27′′ b
Chrysoprase Green VII 37 b
*Cinereous LII 49′′′′′ d
*Cinnamon XXIX 15′′ —
Cinnamon-Brown XV 15′ k
Cinnamon-Buff XXIX 17′′ b
Cinnamon-Drab XLVI 13′′′′ —
*Cinnamon-Rufous XIV 11′ i
Citrine IV 21 k
Citrine-Drab XL 21′′′ i
Citron Green XXXI 25′′ b
*Citron Yellow XVI 23′ b
Civette Green XVIII 31′ k
*Claret Brown I 5 m
*Clay Color XXIX 17′′ —
Clear Cadet Blue XXI 49′ —
Clear Dull Green Yellow XVII 27′ b
Clear Fluorite Green XXXII 33′′ b
Clear Green-Blue Gray XLVIII 45′′′′ d
Clear Payne’s Gray XLIX 49′′′′ b
Clear Windsor Blue XXXV 49′′ —
Clear Yellow-Green VI 31 b
*Clove Brown XL 17′′′ m
Cobalt Green XIX 37′ b
Colonial Buff XXX 21′′ d
Columbia Blue XXXIV 47′′ b
Commelina Blue XXI 51′ —
Congo Pink XXVIII 7′′ b
Coral Pink XIII 5′ d
*Coral Red XIII 5′ —
Corinthian Pink XXVII 3′′ d
Corinthian Purple XXXVIII 69′′ k
Corinthian Red XXVII 3′′ —
Cornflower Blue XXI 53′ —
Corydalis Green XLI 29′′′ d
Cossack Green VI 33 m
Cosse Green V 29 i
Cotinga Purple XI 63 k
Courge Green XVII 25′ i
Court Gray XLVII 29′′′′ f
*Cream Color XVI 19′ f
*Cream-Buff XXX 19′′ d
Cress Green XXXI 29′′ k
*Cyanine Blue IX 51 m
Dahlia Carmine XXVI 71′ k
*Dahlia Purple XII 67 k
[31] Danube Green XXXII 35′′ m
Daphne Pink XXXVIII 69′′ b
Daphne Red XXXVIII 69′′ —
Dark American Green XLI 33′′′ k
Dark Aniline Blue X 55 m
Dark Anthracene Violet XXV 61′ m
Dark Bluish Glaucous XLII 37′′′ b
Dark Bluish Gray-Green XLII 41′′′ k
Dark Bluish Violet X 57 m
Dark Cadet Blue XXI 49′ m
Dark Chessylite Blue XX 45′ m
Dark Cinnabar Green XIX 39′ k
Dark Citrine IV 21 m
Dark Corinthian Purple XXXVIII 69′′ m
Dark Cress Green XXXI 29′′ m
Dark Delft Blue XLII 45′′′ m
Dark Diva Blue XXI 51′ k
Dark Dull Bluish Violet (1) XXIV 57* k
Dark Dull Bluish Violet (2) XXXV 51′′ k
Dark Dull Bluish Violet (3) XXXVI 57′′ k
Dark Dull Violet-Blue XXIV 53* k
Dark Dull Violet-Blue XXXV 53′′ k
Dark Dull Yellow-Green XXXII 31′′ m
Dark Glaucous-Gray XLVIII 37′′′′ b
Dark Gobelin Blue XXXIV 43′′ k
Dark Grayish Blue-Green XLVIII 37′′′′ k
Dark Grayish Blue-Violet XXIV 55* k
Dark Grayish Brown XLV 5′′′′ k
Dark Grayish Lavender XLIII 57′′′ b
Dark Grayish Olive XLVI 21′′′′ k
Dark Green XVIII 35′ m
Dark Green-Blue Gray XLVIII 45′′′′ —
Dark Green-Blue Slate XLVIII 45′′′′ k
Dark Greenish Glaucous XLI 33′′′ b
Dark Greenish Olive XXX 23′′ m
Dark Gull Gray LIII 75 (6)
Dark Heliotrope Gray L 65′′′′ —
Dark Heliotrope Slate L 65′′′′ k
Dark Hyssop Violet XXXVI 59′′ k
Dark Indian Red XXVII 3′′ m
Dark Ivy Green XLVII 25′′′′ k
Dark Lavender XLIV 61′′′ b
Dark Livid Brown XXXIX 1′′′ k
Dark Livid Purple XXXVII 63′′ m
Dark Madder Blue XLIII 53′′′ k
Dark Madder Violet XXV 63′ m
Dark Maroon Purple XXVI 71′ m
Dark Medici Blue XLVIII 41′′′′ i
Dark Mineral Red XXVII 1′′ m
Dark Mouse Gray LI 15′′′′′ k
Dark Naphthalene Violet XXXVII 61′′ m
Dark Neutral Gray LIII 73 k
Dark Nigrosin Violet XXV 65′ m
Dark Olive XL 21′′′ m
Dark Olive-Buff XL 21′′′ —
Dark Olive-Gray LI 23′′′′′ i
Dark Orient Blue XXXIV 45′′ k
Dark Payne’s Gray XLIX 49′′′′ k
Dark Perilla Purple XXXVII 65′′ m
Dark Plumbago Blue XLIII 53′′′ b
Dark Plumbago Gray L 61′′′′ —
Dark Plumbago Slate L 61′′′′ k
Dark Plumbeous LII 49′′′′′ i
Dark Porcelain Green XXXIII 39′′ k
Dark Purple-Drab XLV 1′′′′ i
Dark Purplish Gray LIII 67′′′′′ k
Dark Quaker Drab LI 1′′′′′ k
Dark Russian Green XLII 37′′′ k
Dark Slate-Purple XLIV 65′′′ k
Dark Slate-Violet (1) XLIII 57′′′ k
Dark Slate-Violet (2) XLIV 61′′′ k
Dark Soft Blue-Violet XXIII 55′ k
Dark Soft Bluish Violet XXIII 57′ k
Dark Sulphate Green XIX 39′ i
Dark Terre Verte XXXIII 41′′ k
Dark Tyrian Blue XXXIV 47′′ k
Dark Varley’s Gray XLIX 57′′′′ k
Dark Vinaceous XXVII 1′′ —
Dark Vinaceous-Brown XXXIX 5′′′ k
Dark Vinaceous-Drab XLV 5′′′′ i
Dark Vinaceous-Gray L 69′′′′ —
Dark Vinaceous-Purple XXXVIII 67′′ k
Dark Violet X 59 k
Dark Violet-Gray LII 59′′′′′ k
Dark Violet-Slate XLIX 53′′′′ k
Dark Viridian Green VII 37 k
Dark Yellowish Green XVIII 33′ m
Dark Yvette Violet XXXVI 55′′ m
Dark Zinc Green XIX 37′ k
Dauphin’s Violet XXIII 59′ i
Dawn Gray LII 35′′′′′ d
Deep Aniline Lilac XXXV 53′′ b
Deep Blue-Violet X 55 i
Deep Bluish Glaucous XLII 37′′′ d
Deep Bluish Gray-Green XLII 41′′′ i
Deep Brownish Drab XLV 9′′′′ i
Deep Brownish Vinaceous XXXIX 5′′′ —
Deep Cadet Blue XXI 49′ k
Deep Chicory Blue XXIV 57* b
[32]*Deep Chrome III 17 b
Deep Chrysolite Green XXXI 27′′ —
Deep Colonial Buff XXX 21′′ b
Deep Corinthian Red XXVII 3′′ i
Deep Delft Blue XLII 45′′′ k
Deep Dull Bluish Violet (1) XXIV 57* i
Deep Dull Bluish Violet (2) XXXV 51′′ i
Deep Dull Bluish Violet (3) XXXVI 57′′ i
Deep Dull Lavender XLIV 61′′′ d
Deep Dull Violaceous Blue XXII 51* k
Deep Dull Violet-Blue XXXV 53′′ i
Deep Dull Yellow-Green (1) XXXII 31′′ k
Deep Dull Yellow-Green (2) XXXII 33′′ k
Deep Dutch Blue XLIII 49′′′ —
Deep Glaucous-Gray XLVIII 37′′′′ d
Deep Glaucous-Green XXXIII 39′′ b
Deep Grape Green XLI 25′′′ i
Deep Grayish Blue-Green XLVIII 37′′′′ i
Deep Grayish Lavender XLIII 57′′′ d
Deep Grayish Olive XLVI 21′′′′ i
Deep Green-Blue Gray XLVIII 45′′′′ b
Deep Greenish Glaucous XLI 33′′′ d
Deep Gull Gray LIII 75 (7)
Deep Heliotrope Gray L 65′′′′ b
Deep Hellebore Red XXXVIII 71′′ i
Deep Hyssop Violet XXXVI 59′′ i
Deep Lavender XXXVI 59′′ d
Deep Lavender-Blue XXI 53′ b
Deep Lichen Green XXXIII 37′′ d
Deep Livid Brown XXXIX 1′′′ i
Deep Livid Purple XXXVII 63′′ k
Deep Madder Blue XLIII 53′′′ i
Deep Malachite Green XXXII 35′′ —
Deep Medici Blue XLVIII 41′′′′ —
Deep Mouse Gray LI 15′′′′′ i
Deep Neutral Gray LIII 73 i
Deep Olive XL 21′′′ k
Deep Olive-Buff XL 21′′′ b
Deep Olive-Gray LI 23′′′′′ —
Deep Orient Blue XXXIV 45′′ i
Deep Payne’s Gray XLIX 49′′′′ i
Deep Plumbago Blue XLIII 53′′′ d
Deep Plumbago Gray L 61′′′′ b
Deep Plumbeous LII 49′′′′′ —
Deep Purplish Gray LIII 67′′′′′ i
Deep Purplish Vinaceous XLIV 69′′′ —
Deep Quaker Drab LI 1′′′′′ i
Deep Rose-Pink XII 71 d
Deep Seafoam Green XXXI 27′′ d
Deep Slate-Blue XLIII 49′′′ k
Deep Slate-Green XLVII 33′′′′ k
Deep Slate-Olive XLVII 29′′′′ k
Deep Slate-Violet XLIV 61′′′ i
Deep Slaty Brown L 69′′′′ k
Deep Soft Blue-Violet XXIII 55′ i
Deep Soft Bluish Violet XXIII 57′ i
Deep Turtle Green XXXII 31′′ —
Deep Varley’s Gray XLIX 57′′′′ i
Deep Vinaceous XXVII 1′′ b
Deep Vinaceous-Gray L 69′′′′ b
Deep Vinaceous-Lavender XLIV 65′′′ d
Deep Violet-Gray LII 59′′′′′ i
Deep Violet-Plumbeous XLIX 53′′′′ —
Deep Wedgewood Blue XXI 51′ d
Delft Blue XLII 45′′′ i
Diamin-Azo Blue XXXV 51′′ m
Diamine Brown XIII 3′ m
Diamine Green VII 37 m
Diva Blue XXI 51′ i
*Drab XLVI 17′′′′ —
*Drab-Gray XLVI 17′′′′ d
*Dragon’s-blood Red XIII 5′ i
Dresden Brown XV 17′ k
Duck Green XIX 39′ m
Dull Blackish Green XLI 33′′′ m
Dull Blue-Green Black XLVIII 41′′′′ m
Dull Blue-Violet (1) XXIV 55* —
Dull Blue-Violet (2) XXXVI 55′′ i
Dull Bluish Violet (1) XXIV 57* —
Dull Bluish Violet (2) XXXV 51′′ —
Dull Bluish Violet (3) XXXVI 57′′ —
Dull Citrine XVI 21′ k
Dull Dark Purple XXVI 67′ k
Dull Dusky Purple XXVI 67′ m
Dull Green-Yellow XVII 27′ —
Dull Greenish Black (1) XLVII 29′′′′ m
Dull Greenish Black (2) XLVII 33′′′′ m
Dull Indian Purple XLIV 69′′′ i
Dull Lavender XLIV 61′′′ f
Dull Magenta Purple XXVI 67′ i
Dull Opaline Green XIX 37′ f
Dull Purplish Black L 65′′′′ m
Dull Violaceous Blue XXII 51* —
Dull Violet-Black (1) XLIV 61′′′ m
Dull Violet-Black (2) XLIX 53′′′′ m
Dull Violet-Black (3) L 61′′′′ m
Dull Violet-Blue XXIV 53* —
Dull Violet-Blue XXXV 53′′ —
Dusky Auricula Purple XXVI 69′ m
Dusky Blue XXII 49* m
[33] Dusky Blue-Green XXXIII 39′′ m
Dusky Blue-Violet (1) XXIII 57′ m
Dusky Blue-Violet (2) XXIV 55* m
Dusky Bluish Green XXXIII 41′′ m
Dusky Brown XLV 1′′′′ k
Dusky Drab XLV 9′′′′ k
Dusky Dull Bluish Green XLII 41′′′ m
Dusky Dull Green XLII 37′′′ m
Dusky Dull Violet (1) XXXVI 57′′ m
Dusky Dull Violet (2) XXXVI 59′′ m
Dusky Dull Violet-Blue XXXV 53′′ m
Dusky Green XXXIII 37′′ m
Dusky Green-Blue (1) XX 43′ m
Dusky Green-Blue (2) XXXIV 43′′ m
Dusky Green-Gray LII 35′′′′′ k
Dusky Greenish Blue XX 47′ m
Dusky Neutral Gray LIII 73 m
Dusky Olive-Green XLI 25′′′ m
Dusky Orient Blue XXXIV 45′′ m
Dusky Purplish Gray LIII 67′′′′′ m
Dusky Slate-Blue XLIII 49′′′ m
Dusky Slate-Violet XLIII 57′′′ m
Dusky Violet XXIII 59′ m
Dusky Violet-Blue (1) XXIII 55′ m
Dusky Violet-Blue (2) XLIII 53′′′ m
Dusky Yellowish Green XLI 29′′′ m
Dutch Blue XLIII 49′′′ b
*Ecru-Drab XLVI 13′′′′ d
Ecru-Olive XXX 21′′ i
Elm Green XVII 27′ m
*Emerald Green VI 35 —
Empire Green XXXII 33′′ m
Empire Yellow IV 21 b
Endive Blue XLIII 49′′′ d
English Red II 7 i
Eosine Pink I 1 d
Etain Blue XX 43′ f
Ethyl Green VII 41 i
Eton Blue XXII 49* k
Etruscan Red XXVII 5′′ —
Eugenia Red XIII 1′ —
Eupatorium Purple XXXVIII 67′′ —
*Fawn Color XL 13′′′ —
*Ferruginous XIV 9′ i
*Flame Scarlet II 9 —
*Flax-flower Blue XXI 51′ b
*Flesh Color XIV 7′ d
Flesh Ocher XIV 9′ b
Flesh Pink XIII 5′ f
Fluorite Green XXXII 33′′ —
Fluorite Violet XI 61 m
Forest Green XVII 29′ m
Forget-me-not Blue XXII 51* b
*French Gray LII 49′′′′′ f
*French Green XXXII 35′′ i
Fuscous XLVI 13′′′′ k
Fuscous-Black XLVI 13′′′′ m
Garnet Brown I 3 k
Gendarme Blue XXII 47* k
Gentian Blue XXI 53′ i
*Geranium Pink I 3 d
Glass Green XXXI 29′′ d
Glaucous XLI 29′′′ f
*Glaucous-Blue XXXIV 43′′ b
Glaucous-Gray XLVIII 37′′′′ f
*Glaucous-Green XXXIII 39′′ d
Gnaphalium Green XLVII 29′′′′ d
Gobelin Blue XXXIV 43′′ i
Grape Green XLI 25′′′ —
*Grass Green VI 33 k
Grayish Blue-Green XLVIII 37′′′′ —
Grayish Blue-Violet (1) XXIV 55* i
Grayish Blue-Violet (2) XXXV 51′′ b
Grayish Lavender XLIII 57′′′ f
Grayish Olive XLVI 21′′′′ —
Grayish Violaceous Blue XXII 51* i
Grayish Violet-Blue XXIV 53* i
Green-Blue Slate XLVIII 45′′′′ i
Green-Yellow V 27 b
Greenish Glaucous XLI 33′′′ f
Greenish Glaucous-Blue XLII 41′′′ b
Greenish Slate-Black XLVIII 37′′′′ m
Greenish Yellow V 25 —
Grenadine II 7 b
Grenadine Pink II 7 d
Grenadine Red II 7 —
Guinea Green VII 39 i
Gull Gray LIII 75 (8)
Haematite Red XXVII 5′′ m
Haematoxylin Violet XXV 61′ i
*Hair Brown XLVI 17′′′′ i
Hathi Gray LII 35′′′′′ b
Hay’s Blue IX 53 k
Hay’s Brown XXXIX 9′′′ k
Hay’s Green XVIII 33′ k
Hay’s Lilac XXXVII 63′′ d
Hay’s Maroon XIII 1′ m
Hay’s Russet XIV 7′ k
*Hazel XIV 11′ k
Heliotrope-Gray L 65′′′′ d
[34] Heliotrope-Slate L 65′′′′ i
Hellebore Green XVII 25′ m
Hellebore Red XXXVIII 71′′ —
Helvetia Blue IX 51 k
Hermosa Pink I 1 f
Hessian Brown XIII 5′ m
Honey Yellow XXX 19′′ —
Hortense Blue XXII 47* m
Hortense Violet XI 61 b
*Hyacinth Blue X 55 k
Hyacinth Violet XI 61 i
Hydrangea Pink XXVII 5′′ f
Hydrangea Red XXVII 1′′ i
Hyssop Violet XXXVI 59′′ —
Indian Lake XXVI 71′ i
*Indian Purple XXXVIII 67′′ m
Indian Red XXVII 3′′ k
*Indigo Blue XXXIV 47′′ m
Indulin Blue XXII 51* m
Invisible Green XIX 41′ m
Iron Gray LI 23′′′′′ k
*Isabella Color XXX 19′′ i
Italian Blue VIII 43 —
Ivory Yellow XXX 21′′ f
Ivy Green XXXI 25′′ m
Jade Green XXXI 27′′ k
Japan Rose XXVIII 9′′ b
Jasper Green XXXIII 37′′ i
Jasper Pink XIII 3′ d
Jasper Red XIII 3′ —
Javel Green V 27 i
Jay Blue XXII 47* i
Jouvence Blue XX 43′ k
Kaiser Brown XIV 9′ k
Kildare Green XXXI 29′′ b
Killarney Green XVIII 35′ i
King’s Blue XXII 47* b
Kronberg’s Green XXXI 25′′ k
La France Pink I 3 f
Laelia Pink XXXVIII 67′′ d
*Lavender XXXVI 59′′ f
Lavender-Blue XXI 53′ d
*Lavender-Gray XLIII 49′′′ f
Lavender-Violet XXV 61′ b
Leaf Green XLI 29′′′ k
Leitch’s Blue VIII 47 i
Lemon Chrome IV 21 —
*Lemon Yellow IV 23 —
Lettuce Green V 29 k
Lichen Green XXXIII 37′′ f
Light Alice Blue XXXIV 45′′ d
Light Amparo Blue IX 51 d
Light Amparo Purple XI 63 d
Light Bice Green XVII 29′ i
Light Blue-Green VII 39 d
Light Blue-Violet X 55 b
Light Bluish Violet X 57 b
Light Brownish Drab XLV 9′′′′ b
Light Brownish Olive XXX 19′′ k
Light Brownish Vinaceous XXXIX 5′′′ d
Light Buff XV 17′ f
Light Cadet Blue XXI 49′ b
Light Cadmium IV 19 —
Light Campanula Blue XXIV 55* d
Light Celandine Green XLVII 33′′′′ d
Light Cendre Green VI 35 d
Light Cerulean Blue VIII 45 b
Light Chalcedony Yellow XVII 25′ d
Light Chicory Blue XXIV 57* f
Light Cinnamon-Drab XLVI 13′′′′ b
Light Columbia Blue XXXIV 47′′ d
Light Congo Pink XXVIII 7′′ d
Light Coral Red XIII 5′ b
Light Corinthian Red XXVII 3′′ b
Light Cress Green XXXI 29′′ i
Light Danube Green XXXII 35′′ k
Light Drab XLVI 17′′′′ b
Light Dull Bluish Violet XXXVI 57′′ b
Light Dull Glaucous-Blue XLII 41′′′ d
Light Dull Green-Yellow XVII 27′ d
Light Elm Green XVII 27′ k
Light Fluorite Green XXXII 33′′ d
Light Forget-me-not Blue XXII 51* d
Light Glaucous-Blue XXXIV 43′′ d
Light Grape Green XLI 25′′′ b
Light Grayish Blue-Violet XXXV 51′′ d
Light Grayish Olive XLVI 21′′′′ b
Light Grayish Vinaceous XXXIX 9′′′ d
Light Grayish Violet-Blue XXIV 53* b
Light Green-Yellow V 27 d
Light Greenish Yellow V 25 b
Light Gull Gray LIII 75 (9)
Light Heliotrope-Gray L 65′′′′ f
Light Hellebore Green XVII 25′ k
Light Hortense Violet XI 61 d
Light Hyssop Violet XXXVI 59′′ b
Light Jasper Red XIII 3′ b
Light King’s Blue XXII 47* d
Light Lavender-Blue XXI 53′ f
Light Lavender-Violet XXV 61′ d
[35] Light Lobelia Violet XXXVII 61′′ d
Light Lumiere Green XVII 29′ d
Light Mallow Purple XII 67 d
Light Mauve XXV 63′ d
Light Medici Blue XLVIII 41′′′′ d
Light Methyl Blue VIII 47 b
Light Mineral Gray XLVII 25′′′′ f
Light Mouse Gray LI 15′′′′′ b
Light Neropalin Blue XXII 49* d
Light Neutral Gray LIII 73 b
Light Niagara Green XXXIII 41′′ d
Light Ochraceous-Buff XV 15′ d
Light Ochraceous-Salmon XV 13′ d
Light Olive-Gray LI 23′′′′′ d
Light Orange-Yellow III 17 d
Light Oriental Green XVIII 33′ b
Light Paris Green XVIII 35′ d
Light Payne’s Gray XLIX 49′′′′ d
Light Perilla Purple XXXVII 65′′ i
Light Phlox Purple XI 65 d
Light Pinkish Cinnamon XXIX 15′′ d
Light Pinkish Lilac XXXVII 65′′ f
Light Plumbago Gray L 61′′′′ f
Light Porcelain Green XXXIII 39′′ —
Light Purple-Drab XLV 1′′′′ b
Light Purplish Gray LIII 67′′′′′ b
Light Purplish Vinaceous XXXIX 1′′′ d
Light Quaker Drab LI 1′′′′′ b
Light Rosolane Purple XXVI 69′ b
Light Russet-Vinaceous XXXIX 9′′′ b
Light Salmon-Orange II 11 d
Light Seal Brown XXXIX 9′′′ m
Light Sky Blue XX 47′ f
Light Soft Blue-Violet XXIII 55′ b
Light Squill Blue XX 45′ d
Light Sulphate Green XIX 39′ b
Light Terre Verte XXXIII 41′′ —
Light Turtle Green XXXII 31′′ d
Light Tyrian Blue XXXIV 47′′ —
Light Varley’s Gray XLIX 57′′′′ b
Light Vinaceous-Cinnamon XXIX 13′′ d
Light Vinaceous-Drab XLV 5′′′′ b
Light Vinaceous-Fawn XL 13′′′ d
Light Vinaceous-Gray L 69′′′′ f
Light Vinaceous-Lilac XLIV 69′′′ d
Light Vinaceous-Purple XLIV 65′′′ b
Light Violet X 59 b
Light Violet-Blue IX 53 b
Light Violet-Gray LII 59′′′′′ b
Light Violet-Plumbeous XLIX 53′′′′ d
Light Viridine Green VI 33 f
Light Viridine Yellow V 29 d
Light Windsor Blue XXXV 49′′ b
Light Wistaria Blue XXIII 57′ d
Light Wistaria Violet XXIII 59′ d
Light Yellow-Green VI 31 d
Light Yellowish Olive XXX 23′′ i
*Lilac XXV 65′ d
*Lilac-Gray LII 59′′′′′ f
Lily Green XLVII 33′′′′ i
Lime Green XXXI 25′′ —
Lincoln Green XLI 25′′′ k
Liseran Purple XXVI 67′ b
Litho Purple XXV 63′ i
*Liver Brown XIV 7′ m
Livid Brown XXXIX 1′′′ —
Livid Pink XXVII 3′′ f
Livid Purple XXXVII 63′′ i
Livid Violet XXXVII 61′′ i
Lobelia Violet XXXVII 61′′ b
Lumiere Blue XX 43′ d
Lumiere Green XVII 29′ b
Lyons Blue IX 51 i
Madder Blue XLIII 53′′′ —
*Madder Brown XIII 3′ k
Madder Violet XXV 63′ k
*Magenta XXVI 67′ —
Mahogany Red II 7 k
*Maize Yellow IV 19 f
*Malachite Green XXXII 35′′ b
Mallow Pink XII 67 f
Mallow Purple XII 67 b
Manganese Violet XXV 63′ —
Marguerite Yellow XXX 23′′ f
*Marine Blue VIII 45 m
*Maroon I 3 m
*Mars Brown XV 13′ m
Mars Orange II 9 i
Mars Violet XXXVIII 71′′ m
Mars Yellow III 15 i
Martius Yellow IV 23 f
Massicot Yellow XVI 21′ f
Mathews’ Blue XX 45′ —
Mathews’ Purple XXV 65′ —
*Mauve XXV 63′ b
Mauvette XXV 65′ f
Mazarine Blue IX 49 d
Meadow Green VI 35 k
Medal Bronze IV 19 m
Medici Blue XLVIII 41′′′′ b
[36] Methyl Blue VIII 47 —
Methyl Green XIX 41′ —
Microcline Green XIX 39′ f
Mignonette Green XXXI 25′′ i
Mikado Brown XXIX 13′′ i
Mikado Orange III 13 b
Mineral Gray XLVII 25′′′′ d
Mineral Green XVIII 31′ —
Mineral Red XXVII 1′′ k
Montpellier Green XXXIII 37′′ —
Morocco Red I 5 k
Motmot Blue XX 43′ —
Motmot Green XVIII 35′ —
*Mouse Gray LI 15′′′′′ —
Mulberry Purple XI 61 k
*Mummy Brown XV 17′ m
Mustard Yellow XVI 19′ b
*Myrtle Green VII 41 m
Mytho Green XLI 29′′′ b
Naphthalene Violet XXXVII 61′′ k
Naphthalene Yellow XVI 23′ f
*Naples Yellow XVI 19′ d
Natal Brown XL 13′′′ k
Navy Blue XXI 53′ m
Neropalin Blue XXII 49* b
Neutral Gray LIII 73 —
Neutral Red XXXVIII 71′′ k
Neuvider Green VII 37 d
Neva Green V 29 —
Niagara Green XXXIII 41′′ b
Nickel Green XXXIII 37′′ k
Night Green VI 33 —
Nigrosin Blue XXXV 49′′ m
Nigrosin Violet XXV 65′ k
*Nile Blue XIX 41′ d
Nopal Red I 3 i
Ocher Red XXVII 5′′ i
*Ochraceous-Buff XV 15′ b
Ochraceous-Orange XV 15′ —
Ochraceous-Salmon XV 13′ b
Ochraceous-Tawny XV 15′ i
*Oil Green V 27 k
Oil Yellow V 25 i
Old Gold XVI 19′ i
Old Rose XIII 1′ b
Olivaceous Black (1) XLVI 21′′′′ m
Olivaceous Black (2) XLVII 25′′′′ m
Olivaceous Black (3) LI 23′′′′′ m
*Olive XXX 21′′ m
Olive Lake XVI 21′ i
Olive-Brown XL 17′′′ k
*Olive-Buff XL 21′′′ d
Olive-Citrine XVI 21′ m
*Olive-Gray LI 23′′′′′ b
*Olive-Green IV 23 m
Olive-Ocher XXX 21′′ —
*Olive-Yellow XXX 23′′ —
Olivine XXXII 35′′ d
Olympic Blue XX 47′ —
Onion-skin Pink XXVIII 11′′ b
Ontario Violet XXXVI 55′′ b
Opaline Green VII 37 f
*Orange III 15 —
*Orange Chrome II 11 —
*Orange-Buff III 15 d
Orange-Cinnamon XXIX 13′′ —
Orange-Citrine IV 19 k
Orange-Pink II 11 f
*Orange-Rufous II 11 i
Orange-Vinaceous XXVII 5′′ b
Orient Blue XXXIV 45′′ —
Orient Pink II 9 f
Oriental Green XVIII 33′ —
Oural Green XVIII 35′ f
Ox-blood Red I 1 k
Oxide Blue VIII 45 i
Pale Amaranth Pink XII 69 f
Pale Amparo Blue IX 51 f
Pale Amparo Purple XI 63 f
Pale Aniline Lilac XXXV 53′′ f
*Pale Blue (Ethyl Blue) VIII 45 f
Pale Blue-Green VII 39 f
Pale Blue-Violet X 55 d
Pale Bluish Lavender XXXVI 57′′ f
Pale Bluish Violet X 57 d
Pale Brownish Drab XLV 9′′′′ d
Pale Brownish Vinaceous XXXIX 5′′′ f
Pale Cadet Blue XXI 49′ d
Pale Campanula Blue XXIV 55* f
Pale Cendre Green VI 35 f
Pale Cerulean Blue VIII 45 d
Pale Chalcedony Yellow XVII 25′ f
Pale Cinnamon-Pink XXIX 13′′ f
Pale Congo Pink XXVIII 7′′ f
Pale Drab-Gray XLVI 17′′′′ f
Pale Dull Glaucous-Blue XLII 41′′′ f
Pale Dull Green-Yellow XVII 27′ f
Pale Ecru-Drab XLVI 13′′′′ f
Pale Flesh Color XIV 7′ f
Pale Fluorite Green XXXII 33′′ f
[37] Pale Forget-me-not Blue XXII 51* f
Pale Glass Green XXXI 29′′ f
Pale Glaucous-Blue XXXIV 43′′ f
Pale Glaucous-Green XXXIII 39′′ f
Pale Grayish Blue XXI 49′ f
Pale Grayish Blue-Violet XXXV 51′′ f
Pale Grayish Vinaceous XXXIX 9′′′ f
Pale Grayish Violet-Blue XXIV 53* d
Pale Green-Blue Gray XLVIII 45′′′′ f
Pale Green-Yellow V 27 f
Pale Greenish Yellow V 25 d
Pale Gull Gray LIII 75 (10)
Pale Hortense Violet XI 61 f
Pale King’s Blue XXII 47* f
Pale Laelia Pink XXXVIII 67′′ f
Pale Lavender-Violet XXV 61′ f
Pale Lemon Yellow IV 23 b
Pale Lilac XXXVII 63′′ f
Pale Lobelia Violet XXXVII 61′′ f
Pale Lumiere Green XVII 29′ f
Pale Mauve XXV 63′ f
Pale Mazarine Blue IX 49 f
Pale Medici Blue XLVIII 41′′′′ f
Pale Methyl Blue VIII 47 d
Pale Mouse Gray LI 15′′′′′ d
Pale Neropalin Blue XXII 49* f
Pale Neutral Gray LIII 73 d
Pale Niagara Green XXXIII 41′′ f
Pale Nile Blue XIX 41′ f
Pale Ochraceous-Buff XV 15′ f
Pale Ochraceous-Salmon XV 13′ f
Pale Olive-Buff XL 21′′′ f
Pale Olive-Gray LI 23′′′′′ f
Pale Olivine XXXII 35′′ f
Pale Orange-Yellow III 17 f
Pale Payne’s Gray XLIX 49′′′′ f
Pale Persian Lilac XXXVIII 69′′ f
Pale Pinkish Buff XXIX 17′′ f
Pale Pinkish Cinnamon XXIX 15′′ f
Pale Purple-Drab XLV 1′′′′ d
Pale Purplish Gray LIII 67′′′′′ d
Pale Purplish Vinaceous XXXIX 1′′′ f
Pale Quaker Drab LI 1′′′′′ d
Pale Rhodonite Pink XXXVIII 71′′ f
Pale Rose-Purple XXVI 67′ f
Pale Rosolane Purple XXVI 69′ d
Pale Russian Blue XLII 45′′′ f
Pale Salmon Color XIV 9′ f
Pale Smoke Gray XLVI 21′′′′ f
Pale Soft Blue-Violet XXIII 55′ d
Pale Sulphate Green XIX 39′ d
Pale Tiber Green XVIII 33′ f
Pale Turquoise Green VII 41 f
Pale Turtle Green XXXII 31′′ f
Pale Varley’s Gray XLIX 57′′′′ d
Pale Verbena Violet XXXVI 55′′ f
Pale Veronese Green XVIII 31′ f
Pale Vinaceous XXVII 1′′ f
Pale Vinaceous-Drab XLV 5′′′′ d
Pale Vinaceous-Fawn XL 13′′′ f
Pale Vinaceous-Lilac XLIV 69′′′ f
Pale Vinaceous-Pink XXVIII 9′′ f
Pale Violet X 59 d
Pale Violet-Blue IX 53 d
Pale Violet-Gray LII 59′′′′′ d
Pale Violet-Plumbeous XLIX 53′′′′ f
Pale Viridine Yellow V 29 f
Pale Windsor Blue XXXV 49′′ d
Pale Wistaria Blue XXIII 57′ f
Pale Wistaria Violet XXIII 59′ f
Pale Yellow-Green VI 31 f
Pale Yellow-Orange III 15 f
Pallid Blue-Violet X 55 f
Pallid Bluish Violet X 57 f
Pallid Brownish Drab XLV 9′′′′ f
Pallid Grayish Violet-Blue XXIV 53* f
Pallid Methyl Blue VIII 47 f
Pallid Mouse Gray LI 15′′′′′ f
Pallid Neutral Gray LIII 73 f
Pallid Purple-Drab XLV 1′′′′ f
Pallid Purplish Gray LIII 67′′′′′ f
Pallid Quaker Drab LI 1′′′′′ f
Pallid Soft Blue-Violet XXIII 55′ f
Pallid Vinaceous-Drab XLV 5′′′′ f
Pallid Violet X 59 f
Pallid Violet-Blue IX 53 f
*Pansy Purple XII 69 k
Pansy Violet XI 63 i
*Paris Blue VIII 47 k
*Paris Green XVIII 35′ b
*Parrot Green VI 31 k
Parula Blue XLII 45′′′ —
Patent Blue VIII 43 k
Payne’s Gray XLIX 49′′′′ —
*Pea Green XLVII 29′′′′ b
Peach Red I 5 b
Peacock Blue VIII 43 i
Peacock Green VI 35 i
*Pearl Blue XXXV 49′′ f
*Pearl Gray LII 35′′′′′ f
[38] Pecan Brown XXVIII 11′′ i
Perilla Purple XXXVII 65′′ k
Persian Blue XX 45′ f
Persian Lilac XXXVIII 69′′ d
Petunia Violet XXV 65′ i
Phenyl Blue IX 53 —
Phlox Pink XI 65 f
*Phlox Purple XI 65 b
Picnic Yellow IV 23 d
Pinard Yellow IV 21 d
*Pinkish Buff XXIX 17′′ d
Pinkish Cinnamon XXIX 15′′ b
*Pinkish Vinaceous XXVII 5′′ d
Pistachio Green XLI 33′′′ —
Pleroma Violet XXV 61′ —
*Plum Purple XXIV 57* m
Plumbago Blue XLIII 53′′′ f
Plumbago Gray L 61′′′′ d
Plumbago Slate L 61′′′′ i
*Plumbeous LII 49′′′′′ b
Plumbeous-Black LII 49′′′′′ m
Pois Green XLI 29′′′ i
*Pomegranate Purple XII 71 i
Pompeian Red XIII 3′ i
Porcelain Blue XXXIV 43′′ —
Porcelain Green XXXIII 39′′ i
*Primrose Yellow XXX 23′′ d
Primuline Yellow XVI 19′ —
*Prout’s Brown XV 15′ m
*Prune Purple XI 63 m
Prussian Blue IX 49 m
Prussian Green XIX 41′ k
Prussian Red XXVII 5′′ k
Puritan Gray XLVII 33′′′′ f
Purple (true) XI 65 —
Purple-Drab XLV 1′′′′ —
Purplish Gray LIII 67′′′′′ —
Purplish Lilac XXXVII 65′′ d
Purplish Vinaceous XXXIX 1′′′ b
Pyrite Yellow IV 23 i
Quaker Drab LI 1′′′′′ —
Rainette Green XXXI 27′′ i
Raisin Black XLIV 65′′′ m
Raisin Purple XI 65 k
Ramier Blue XLIII 57′′′ —
*Raw Sienna III 17 i
*Raw Umber III 17 m
Reed Yellow XXX 23′′ b
Rejane Green XXXIII 37′′ b
Rhodamine Purple XII 67 —
Rhodonite Pink XXXVIII 71′′ d
Rinnemann’s Green XVIII 31′ i
Rivage Green XVIII 31′ b
Rocellin Purple XXXVIII 71′′ b
Roman Green XVI 23′ m
Rood’s Blue IX 49 k
Rood’s Brown XXVIII 11′′ k
Rood’s Lavender XLIX 57′′′′ f
Rood’s Violet XI 65 i
Rose Color XII 71 b
Rose Doree I 3 b
*Rose Pink XII 71 f
*Rose Red XII 71 —
*Rose-Purple XXVI 67′ d
Roslyn Blue X 57 k
Rosolane Pink XXVI 69′ f
Rosolane Purple XXVI 69′ —
*Royal Purple X 59 i
*Rufous XIV 9′ —
*Russet XV 13′ k
Russet-Vinaceous XXXIX 9′′′ —
Russian Blue XLII 45′′′ d
Russian Green XLII 37′′′ i
Saccardo’s Olive XVI 19′ m
Saccardo’s Slate XLVIII 41′′′′ k
Saccardo’s Umber XXIX 17′′ k
Saccardo’s Violet XXXVII 61′′ —
Safrano Pink II 7 f
*Sage Green XLVII 29′′′′ —
Sailor Blue XXI 53′ k
*Salmon Color XIV 9′ d
*Salmon-Buff XIV 11′ d
Salmon-Orange II 11 b
Salvia Blue IX 49 b
Sanford’s Brown II 11 k
Sayal Brown XXIX 15′′ i
*Scarlet I 5 —
Scarlet-Red I 3 —
Scheele’s Green VI 33 i
Schoenfeld’s Purple XXVI 69′ i
*Sea Green XIX 41′ i
Seafoam Green XXXI 27′′ f
Seafoam Yellow XXXI 25′′ f
*Seal Brown XXXIX 5′′′ m
Seashell Pink XIV 11′ f
*Sepia XXIX 17′′ m
Serpentine Green XVI 23′ k
Shamrock Green XXXII 33′′ i
Shell Pink XXVIII 11′′ f
Shrimp Pink I 5 f
[39] Skobeloff Green VII 39 —
Sky Blue XX 47′ d
Sky Gray XXXIV 45′′ f
*Slate Color LIII 75 (4)
*Slate-Black LIII 75 (2)
Slate-Blue XLIII 49′′′ i
*Slate-Gray LIII 75 (5)
Slate-Olive XLVII 29′′′′ i
Slate-Purple XLIV 65′′′ i
Slate-Violet (1) XLIII 57′′′ i
Slate-Violet (2) XLIV 61′′′ —
*Smalt Blue IX 53 i
*Smoke Gray XLVI 21′′′′ d
Snuff Brown XXIX 15′′ k
Soft Blue-Violet XXIII 55′ —
Soft Bluish Violet XXIII 57′ —
Sooty Black LI 1′′′′′ m
Sorghum Brown XXXIX 9′′′ i
Sorrento Green VII 41 k
Spectrum Blue IX 49 —
Spectrum Red I 1 —
Spectrum Violet X 59 —
Spinach Green V 29 m
Spinel Pink XXVI 71′ b
Spinel Red XXVI 71′ —
Squill Blue XX 45′ b
Stone Green XLII 37′′′ —
Storm Gray LII 35′′′′′ —
*Straw Yellow XVI 21′ d
Strawberry Pink I 5 d
Strontian Yellow XVI 23′ —
Sudan Brown III 15 k
Sulphate Green XIX 39′ —
Sulphine Yellow IV 21 i
*Sulphur Yellow V 25 f
Taupe Brown XLIV 69′′′ m
*Tawny XV 13′ i
*Tawny-Olive XXIX 17′′ i
Tea Green XLVII 25′′′′ b
Terra Cotta XXVIII 7′′ —
*Terre Verte XXXIII 41′′ i
Testaceous XXVIII 9′′ —
Thulite Pink XXVI 71′ d
Tiber Green XVIII 33′ d
Tilleul Buff XL 17′′′ f
Tourmaline Pink XXXVIII 67′′ b
Turquoise Green VII 41 d
Turtle Green XXXII 31′′ b
Tyrian Blue XXXIV 47′′ i
Tyrian Pink XII 69 b
Tyrian Rose XII 69 —
Tyrolite Green VII 39 b
Ultramarine Ash XXII 49* —
*Ultramarine Blue IX 49 i
Urania Blue XXIV 53* m
Vanderpoel’s Blue XX 47′ i
Vanderpoel’s Green VI 33 b
Vanderpoel’s Violet XXXVI 55′′ —
*Vandyke Brown XXVIII 11′′ m
Vandyke Red XIII 1′ k
Variscite Green XIX 37′ d
Varley’s Gray XLIX 57′′′′ —
Varley’s Green XVIII 31′ m
Venetian Blue XXII 47* —
Venetian Pink XIII 1′ f
Venice Green VII 41 b
Verbena Violet XXXVI 55′′ d
*Verdigris Green XIX 37′ —
Vernonia Purple XXXVIII 69′′ i
Verona Brown XXIX 13′′ k
Veronese Green XVIII 31′ d
Vetiver Green XLVII 25′′′′ —
Victoria Lake I 1 m
*Vinaceous XXVII 1′′ d
Vinaceous-Brown XXXIX 5′′′ i
*Vinaceous-Buff XL 17′′′ d
*Vinaceous-Cinnamon XXIX 13′′ b
Vinaceous-Drab XLV 5′′′′ —
Vinaceous-Fawn XL 13′′′ b
Vinaceous-Gray L 69′′′′ d
Vinaceous-Lavender XLIV 65′′′ f
Vinaceous-Lilac XLIV 69′′′ b
*Vinaceous-Pink XXVIII 9′′ d
Vinaceous-Purple (1) XXXVIII 67′′ i
Vinaceous-Purple (2) XLIV 65′′′ —
*Vinaceous-Rufous XIV 7′ i
Vinaceous-Russet XXVIII 7′′ i
Vinaceous-Slate L 69′′′′ i
Vinaceous-Tawny XXVIII 11′′ —
Violet Carmine XII 69 m
Violet Ultramarine X 57 i
Violet-Gray LII 59′′′′′ —
Violet-Plumbeous XLIX 53′′′′ b
Violet-Purple XI 63 —
Violet-Slate XLIX 53′′′′ i
*Viridian Green VII 37 i
Viridine Green VI 33 d
Viridine Yellow V 29 b
Vivid Green VII 37 —
Wall Green VII 39 k
[40]*Walnut Brown XXVIII 9′′ k
Warbler Green IV 23 k
Warm Blackish Brown XXXIX 1′′′ m
Warm Buff XV 17′ d
Warm Sepia XXIX 13′′ m
Water Green XLI 25′′′ d
*Wax Yellow XVI 21′ —
Wedgewood Blue XXI 51′ f
White LIII 73 (10)
Windsor Blue XXXV 49′′ i
Winter Green XVIII 33′ i
Wistaria Blue XXIII 57′ b
Wistaria Violet XXIII 59′ b
*Wood Brown XL 17′′′ —
Xanthine Orange III 13 i
Yale Blue XX 47′ b
Yellow Ocher XV 17′ —
Yellow-Green VI 31 —
Yellowish Citrine XVI 23′ i
Yellowish Glaucous XLI 25′′′ f
Yellowish Oil Green V 25 k
Yellowish Olive XXX 23′′ k
Yew Green XXXI 27′′ m
Yvette Violet XXXVI 55′′ k
Zinc Green XIX 37′ i
Zinc Orange XV 13′