Spices, Their Nature and Growth; The Vanilla Bean; A Talk on Tea

SPICES
THEIR NATURE AND GROWTH
THE VANILLA-BEAN
A TALK ON TEA

McCORMICK & CO.
Importers and Grinders of Spices
Manufacturing Chemists Importers of Tea
BALTIMORE, MARYLAND

Copyright, 1915, by
McCormick & Co., Baltimore, Md.

Dedicated to Domestic Science and to those who are devoting their energy, talent and time to the dissemination of that knowledge which makes for purer and better foods—to the Domestic Science Teachers of America.

In response to hundreds of requests from schools, colleges and individuals for information regarding the different varieties of Spices we have prepared this booklet, and have endeavored to give as concisely as possible the facts necessary to a thorough understanding of the subject.

As there has hitherto been no complete compilation along this line, it has been necessary to obtain from foreign sources much of the material, while some of the illustrations represent weeks of patient research by our art department.

To the U. S. Department of Agriculture we are indebted for much valuable information, and for this we wish to make due acknowledgment.

4

(Capsicums)

Chillie or Guinea Pepper
Japan
Bombay
Spanish
Paprika Pod
(Chillies) Mombassa Japan
(White) Muntok Singapore
Pod Pepper
Black Pepper
Tellicherry
Long Pepper
Aleppy
Lampong
½ Natural size
5
Pepper and Capsicums
Pepper is the dried berry of the pepper-plant (Piper nigrum), a climbing vine ten to twelve feet high, indigenous to the East Indies, but cultivated in many tropical countries.

A Group of Pepper Mills

The berries are harvested when they begin to turn red, and the process of drying out blackens and shrivels them. They are not picked separately, but in spikes or bunches, and are then placed on mats to dry. At night the berries are placed under cover.

The average yield per vine is eight to ten pounds each year.

The different varieties of Black Pepper derive their name from the localities in which they are grown or the ports whence they are shipped, as Singapore, Lampong, Sumatra, Tellicherry, Acheen, Malabar, Trang, etc.

White Pepper
This is obtained by decorticating or removing the skin from the fully ripened black peppercorns—accomplished by maceration.

White Whole Pepper grains are grayish white. They are more nearly spherical in shape than the Black Pepper berries, and have light-colored lines running from top to bottom. The more common varieties are known as Siam, Singapore and Penang.

Red Pepper
The U. S. Standards describe Red Pepper as the dried ripe fruit of any species of capsicum, a genus of the nightshade family indigenous to the American tropics. It is now cultivated in nearly all warm and temperate countries, both commercially and in the kitchen-garden. The leading commercial varieties are Zanzibar, Africa, Indias, and Japan.

Paprika
Paprika is botanically described as Capsicum annuum. The pods are large and brilliant to dark red. It grows in the temperate and torrid zones. It is cultivated principally in Spain (Pimiinton) and Hungary. The Spanish-grown product is sweet and mild, the Hungarian usually of a mildly pungent flavor. Paprika is used in cooking for its color as well as flavor. It is rapidly finding favor among American housewives.

6

(Cinnamon or Cassia)

Ceylon Cinnamon
Batavia Cinnamon
Chinese Cassia (Cinnamon)
Saigon Rolls
China Cassia Rolls
Cassia Buds
Buds Natural size, all others ½ Natural size
7
Cassia and Cinnamon
The terms Cassia and Cinnamon, although they represent two separate species of the genus Cinnamomum belonging to the Laurel family, in commerce are interchangeable.

A Corner of One of the Warerooms

Cinnamon
Is the thin, inner bark of the tree, of a pale yellowish brown color, and is found on the market in long, quill-like rolls, the smaller rolls being incased in the larger. The small dark spots on the outer surface correspond to points where the leaves were attached to the stem.

True Cinnamon is native to the Island of Ceylon, but is cultivated in tropical Asia, Sumatra and Java. The yield of Ceylon Cinnamon is relatively small. Its use in the United States is limited.

Cassia
The ordinary commercial Cassia is the bark of the Cinnamomum Cassia, which comes from China, Japan, Indo-China and India. It is usually darker in color than true Cinnamon, rougher, and about four times as thick.

Cinnamon and Cassia range in value according to type and quality, although much depends on actual flavoring strength. They are chiefly valued in the order named—Saigon, Batavia or Java and China.

Those desiring a pure Ceylon Cinnamon can secure it from McCormick & Company of Baltimore, Importers and Grinders of Spices. Choicest Cassia, in rolls or ground, is put up under their Bee Brand and Banquet Brand Trade Marks.

Bee Brand Select Stick Cinnamon
8

(Mace or Nutmeg)

Mace
Nutmeg Plant
Green Fruit
Macassar
Nutmeg
Cross section of Fruit
Ripe Fruit in act of bursting
Nutmeg, in shell
Shell partly removed
Cross section of Nutmeg
Penang Nutmegs
½ Natural size
9
Nutmegs and Mace
The Nutmeg-tree, genus Myristica (natural order Myristicaceæ), native of the Malay Archipelago, usually grows to a height of twenty to thirty feet. While the greater part of the world’s supply of both Nutmegs and Mace comes from the Banda Islands, the West Indies are by no means to be overlooked.

The Nutmeg fruit is about three inches long and about two inches in diameter. It includes, first, the outer or fleshy membranous part; second, the substance covering the outer shell of the Nutmeg, known as Mace, next the shell, and finally the kernel or commercial Nutmeg.

After harvesting, which in some places is done with long forked sticks or bamboo poles, the red colored network (Mace) is removed and the nuts are placed over a fire in mesh bottom receptacles, where they remain for perhaps a month, being kept about ten feet away from the flames. They are next exposed to the sun for two or three hours daily for several days, or until the kernels rattle within the shell. They are then removed from the shell and assorted into three general grades.

Among the many varieties of Nutmegs the Singapore, Penang, West Indian and Macassars are most esteemed, the price being regulated by the type, size and quality of the nut.

During the past few years ground Nutmeg has been placed on the market and is steadily finding favor with American housewives.

McCormick’s Bee Brand Pepper
Mace
Mace is carefully removed from the shell surrounding the kernel of the Nutmeg by hand, although a knife is sometimes employed. It is then placed on mats or trays to dry in the sunshine. Of late years, however, artificial drying has proven so successful that it is rapidly supplanting the old method in which the sunshine dissipated some of the virtues of the Mace. Several months are required to cure it. During this time it changes from a crimson to a blood red and later to the yellowish or golden brown color, in which state it is found on the market here.

The Penang or Banda Mace is probably the most desirable, with the Siauw and Batavia following in the order named.

Great care must be exercised in the grinding of Mace, as it is very rich in volatile oil. Bee Brand Ground Mace is prepared in mills especially designed for the purpose. Nutmegs and Mace imported by McCormick & Company are marketed as Bee and Banquet Brands.

10

(Ginger)

Ginger Plant, Flower and Root
African Ginger Root
Jamaica
Japan
⅔ Natural size
11
Ginger
Unlike the Spices treated in this series, Ginger is the root-stock of a plant known botanically as Zingiber officinale, an annual herb, three or four feet high. It is a native of India and China, but is grown extensively in tropical America, Africa and Australia.

The plant endures a wide range of climate. It may be grown at sea level or in mountainous regions, provided the rainfall be abundant or irrigation adopted.

It is found cultivated from the Himalaya Mountains, 5000 feet above sea level, to Cape Comarin.

The root is dug when the plant is a year old and after the stalk has withered.

Black Ginger, of which Calcutta and African are the common varieties, is produced by scalding the freshly dug roots. This prevents sprouting.

White Ginger is the decorticated product, the chief varieties being Jamaica, Cochin and Japan. Jamaica is the most esteemed. Jamaica Ginger is best known and most used here, although both Cochin and African Ginger are imported in a large way.

The different varieties of Ginger are imported by McCormick & Company, who distribute them under the Bee Brand and Banquet Brand guarantee. Green Ginger is the undried root. That received in the United States is the Jamaica variety.

McCormick’s Bee Brand Ground Ginger
Mrs. King’s Bee Brand Ginger Bread
1 cup brown sugar

1 cup Porto Rico molasses

1 cup sour milk

1 (rounded) teaspoon soda in 2 tablespoons boiling water

1 cup boiling water

2 teaspoons Bee Brand Powdered Ginger

2 eggs and 3 cups flour

1 teaspoon Bee Brand Powdered Cinnamon

½ teaspoon Bee Brand Nutmeg

2 tablespoons lard

2 tablespoons butter

⅛ teaspoon salt

1 teaspoon baking powder

1 tablespoon baking powder

Mix and sift dry ingredients. Beat eggs without separating, add sugar, molasses and milk, shortening, and gradually beat in dry ingredients, reserving soda, which is stirred in boiling water, and beaten in last. Pour in pan or muffin rings. Add a cup of currants if desired.—From Bee Brand Manual of Cookery.

The mixture should be the consistency of Muffin Batter, add a little more flour, if necessary.

12

(Pimento or Allspice)

Jamaica Fruit
Mexican
Flower
⅔ Natural size
13
Pimento, or Allspice
The Pimento (Pimenta officinalis), an evergreen tree belonging to the Myrtle family, is a native of the West Indies, but is found in Mexico, Costa Rica and Venezuela as well. The highest quality Pimento comes from the Island of Jamaica. The Mexican berry, while handsome in appearance, is inferior in flavoring quality.

Packeting Spices

The trees usually grow in groups of from five to twenty, but are sometimes found in forests. After the tree has attained a certain growth, the underbrush and other Pimentos are cut away, leaving the trees about twenty-five feet apart.

The Pimento flowers twice each year, but bears only one crop of berries.

The problem of harvesting is the most serious with which the planter has to contend. It is difficult to secure help among the indolent natives, and as the harvest season is short—because the berries must be picked just before they ripen—the loss from over-ripening is very great. After harvesting, the berries are exposed daily to the sun for a period of from seven to twelve days, being placed under cover each night.

Pimento, or Allspice, as it is generally known, is exported principally from Kingston, Jamaica, in 120 to 130 lb. bags, about one-third of the crop coming to the United States, while the remainder finds its way to England, whence it is exported to other countries.

As its common name implies, Allspice has a flavor which is suggestive of the combined flavors of many spices.

McCormick & Company import only the choicest Allspice grown and market it under their Bee Brand and Banquet Brand trade marks. It may be had either ground or whole.

Waldorf Salad
2 cups diced tart apples

2 cups diced celery

1 cup English walnuts, chopped

Mix and pour over all mayonnaise dressing. Serve cold on crisp lettuce leaves.—From Bee Brand Manual of Cookery.

14

(Cloves)

Penang
Zanzibar
Branch of Clove Tree
Ripe Fruit
Cloves—Natural size
Branch and Fruit—⅔ Natural size
15
Cloves
McCormick’s Bee Brand Ground Cloves
Cloves are the dry flower-buds of an evergreen (Caryophyllus, Aromaticus or Eugenia caryophyllata) belonging to the Myrtle family, averaging in height twenty to forty feet. The Clove-tree is cultivated in Ceylon, India, Mauritius, the West Indies and Zanzibar. The different varieties derive their names from the district of origin or the city of exportation. Cloves from Amboyna, Penang and Zanzibar are perhaps best known and are in greatest demand.

The flowers grow in clusters. The green buds change to a reddish hue, at which stage they are removed from the tree, spread in the sun and allowed to dry. When allowed to fully fruit, the bud develops into a hard seed an inch long, with a pulpy cover. This is called Mother of Cloves.

The tree yields only one crop a year, the yield under normal conditions being about 300 pounds to the acre. The average consumption is estimated at 11,000,000 pounds per year.

There are a number of varieties of Cloves resembling each other in appearance, but vastly different in pungency and flavoring value.

The slender stems bearing the closed buds have, to a limited degree, the aromatic clove flavor, and as they sell for a very small fraction of the cost of Cloves, are frequently powdered and used for reducing the cost of Powdered Cloves, at the expense of quality and of common honesty.

McCormick & Company do not import, buy or sell Clove stems. Their Bee and Banquet Brands Cloves, whole or ground, are carefully selected for superior quality.

PRATT INSTITUTE
BROOKLYN, N.Y.
SCHOOL OF HOUSEHOLD SCIENCE AND ARTS
Isabel Ely Lord, Director

May 22, 1913.

Mr. W. M. McCormick, McCormick & Co., Baltimore, Md.

Dear Mr. McCormick: I have just received the report of the instructors who had charge of testing your products, and I am glad to tell you that it is a very favorable one. The report is that no one of the flavorings and spices was found unsatisfactory, and that the Orange Tipped Pekoe Tea was especially praised. We shall be very glad to know if you put your products on sale in New York, as in that case we shall certainly use them.
Yours very truly,
Isabel Ely Lord.

16

(Herbs)

Marjoram
Sage
Caraway
Caraway Cross section Fruit
Tender Sage Leaves
Manioc or Cassava
Fruit
Yellow Mustard
Pearl Tapioca
Pod
English
Granulated Tapioca
German
Cross section Cardamon Seed
Brown Mustard
German
Bari
Pod
Cardamon
Seed
Plants—½ Natural size—fruit—Natural size
17
Seed, Herbs, Etc.
Caraway
The Seed of the Carum Carui is indigenous to Northern Europe and cultivated to some extent in the United States. The seed is used as a flavor in the preparation of many foods.

Bee Brand Rubbed Sage
Cardamom
Commonly spelled Cardamon. The Cardamoms of Java, Ceylon and Madagascar are much alike.

Tapioca
The product of the roots or tubers of the Manioc or Cassava is known as Tapioca. The plant is native to Brazil, but is cultivated in Jamaica and the Far East. There are two kinds of Tapioca—Pearl and Granulated. Both are made from the same rootstock under a slightly different process.

Marjoram
The leaf of a shrubby plant, a genus of the Mint family, native to the shores of the Mediterranean; usually called Sweet Marjoram.

Mustard
Mustard-Seed comes from Russia, Germany, England and Holland, and to some extent from California. There are two chief divisions, yellow and brown. The brown seed comes largely from Italy and is known as Bari. The term Trieste is frequently applied to all brown Mustard-Seeds.

Mustard-Seed contains two oils, known as Essential and Fatty. The Essential Oil is soluble in water. In flavor and odor it closely resembles horseradish. The Fatty Oil is mild and tasteless, insoluble in water, and is sometimes used in place of olive oil.

In manufacturing Mustard-Flour the seed is warmed, subjected to hydraulic pressure, which releases from fifteen to twenty-five per cent of the fatty oil. The residue is called Mustard-Cake. It is ground and bolted on fine sieves, separating the Mustard bran or hulls from the interior, making ground mustard or flour. Brown seed contains a larger percentage of the essential oil, and, therefore, makes a hotter or stronger flour than the yellow variety, and must be blended with flour from yellow seed.

Sage
A perennial shrub about two feet high, native to Southern Europe, but cultivated in this country as a garden plant. Bee Brand Rubbed Sage is the finest Sage imported. It is rubbed and ready for use.

18

(Vanilla)

Aerial Root of Vanilla
Vanilla Bean
Green Bean
⅔ Natural size
19
Vanilla-Bean
The Vanilla-Bean is the fruit of the Vanilla planifolia or flat-leaved Vanilla vine and is the source from which pure or true Vanilla Extract is made. This climbing perennial belongs to the Orchid family and is indigenous to Central and South America, but reaches its perfection of flavor in Mexico. The Mexican bean sometimes attains a length of ten inches.

One of the Extract Stills

When gathered, the beans are yellowish green, fleshy and without odor. Their color and odor is developed by a process of fermentation or sweating, which differs in various countries. The best method consists of sun-drying for about a month, the beans being pressed alternately between the folds of blankets and exposed to the air. After curing they are tied in bundles. Vanilla-Beans when cured exude and become covered with fine frostlike crystals of vanillin, the important active flavoring principle.

Next in value to the Mexican bean comes the Bourbon, which term is applied to all the Vanilla-Beans grown in the islands of the Indian Ocean, off the east coast of Africa, of which Madagascar, Réunion, the Comores, Mauritius and the Seychelles are most important. These beans are shorter than the Mexican, decidedly inferior in flavoring quality, and, therefore, less expensive. They more nearly resemble the Tonka bean in odor. The cheapest beans are the Tahitis and so-called vanillons or beans of the wild Vanilla (Vanilla pompona). They are little used in extract making, and properly so, as they have neither strength nor flavor.

The Tonka bean is here mentioned simply because it is so largely used in the manufacture of imitation Vanilla Extracts. It is the seed of the Dipterix odorata, native to Guiana. The pod is almond shaped and contains a single seed shaped like a kidney-bean. This bean is dark in color, having a thin, shiny, brittle skin, containing a two-lobed oily kernel. A hundred years ago these beans were found in the snuffbox of every gentleman and in the handkerchief case of every lady.

Further information regarding the Vanilla-Bean may be found under Flavoring Extracts on page 22.

20

(Tea)

Chinese Tea Plant and Flowers
Chinese Tea Leaf
Japanese Tea Leaf
Ceylon Tea Leaf
India Tea Leaf
Seeds
Natural size
21
Tea
Commercial tea is the prepared leaf or leaf-bud of an evergreen, indigenous to Asia, which in its wild state attains the general proportions of the American peach-tree. Botanically, it is known as Camellis Thea or Thea Chinensis. Under cultivation, it is kept pruned to within three to five feet high. The constant pruning encourages the growth of new branches and new leaves. The value of the Tea is in the young tender leaf.

Testing Tea

Teas are divided into two groups, which differ chiefly in the method of curing. A tea-plant may produce a leaf which commercially may be either black or green, depending on the treatment.

Green tea is prepared by steaming the fresh green leaf and then drying it. In this way the bright color is preserved.

Black Tea is the result of oxidization or fermentation, caused by exposing the leaves to the sun, which turns them black.

The best Teas are made from the young leaves, the different varieties being graded according to their age and position on the shoot.

Tea is produced in large quantities in China, Japan, India and the islands of Ceylon, Java and Formosa.

There are about 200 varieties of Teas, and, perhaps, ten times as many flavors. Tea ranges in value from a few cents per pound for stems up to $10.00 for the very finest leaf.

The Government inspects all teas entering the United States, and those below a certain standard are not allowed to enter the country.

Tea drinking in the United States is increasing, but the consumption is still far behind that of many other countries.

Banquet Extra Fancy Blended Tea
The average American housewife has not given to the brewing of tea the same careful consideration she gives to the preparation of other beverages. 22Good Tea brewed right is a delicious beverage, but certain rules must be observed.

Complete directions for the perfect brewing of Tea appear on each package of Banquet Brand. Under this brand all the desirable varieties are packed as well as a remarkable blend.

Our publication, “Tea, Its Early History, and the Three Colonial American Tea Parties,” will be mailed free upon request.

Flavoring Extracts
The United States Agricultural Department, Circular No. 19, contains the standards for foods. Among these are standards for Flavoring Extracts. By this regulation Extract of Lemon must contain at least 6.4 ounces of Oil of Lemon to 1 gallon of finished product, or, as the circular puts it, 5 per cent Oil of Lemon by volume, and Vanilla Extract the extractive matter from at least 13.35 ounces of the bean to the gallon of finished product. The flavor is extracted from the bean by a mixture of alcohol and water, as the resins in the Vanilla-Bean will not impart their flavor to alcohol alone or to water alone, but to a mixture containing from 40 to 60 per cent of alcohol, according to character of bean. Long experience is required to accomplish the results desired.

The Vanilla-Beans brought into this country range in price about as follows:

Mexican, $3.50 to $6.00 per pound.

Bourbon, $3.00 to $5.50 per pound.

Guadalupe, $3.00 to $5.50 per pound.

Seychelles, $3.25 to $4.50 per pound.

Tahiti, $1.75 to $2.50 per pound.

And a large variety, such as Java, South American and others, ranging in price from $2.75 to $5.00 per pound.

These prices represent wholesale prices and vary from time to time.

The use of Tahiti Beans, coming from the Islands of Tahiti, has grown very largely in the last few years. They are much used by manufacturers making the cheaper extracts.

The Vanilla-Bean dries out very quickly, but if properly cared for and protected does not lose its strength. In fact, the flavor greatly improves with age.

The same beans can be treated for extract by different persons and an entirely different quality of goods produced, just as two cooks can take the same kind of flour and one will produce a delightful loaf of bread while the bread of the other will not be fit to eat.

We age our Bee Brand Extracts for two years in white oak casks before placing them on the market. Thus they become mellow and have a rich, dainty bouquet, which cannot be obtained by any other process. The minimum cost of carrying large vats of Vanilla is about 12 to 15 per cent per year. A fine, properly aged Extract 23of Vanilla, such as Bee Brand, made from the best beans, would cost from $8.00 to $9.00 a gallon to manufacture, and yet “Strictly Pure U. S. Standard Extracts” can be made to cost not over $3.50 per gallon.

Frequently you will find that a cheap pure Extract of Vanilla is almost as strong as the fine, or high priced, Bee Brand goods, but its flavor is rank and it has not the same bouquet and delicacy of flavor, the comparison between the two being the same as that between cheap cigars (three for 5 cents), which may be just as strong as a fine Havana, or stronger, which costs 25 cents, but the latter has a flavor and quality which the former do not approach.

The average consumer thinks if an Extract is pure it must be good, and is satisfied with that statement. This belief on the part of the consumer is largely due to the fact that many jobbers and large retailers want their goods under their own names, requesting the manufacturer to put up the cheapest Extract that will comply with the law, regardless of the kind of beans or other materials used in its manufacture. They simply ask for goods that comply with State and National laws, but you can readily see what the word “pure” means under this condition.

These jobbers and retailers think when they have complied with the law they have done all that is necessary. We refuse positively to sell our Bee Brand goods, or any other Flavoring Extracts, under any other name than our own.

The consumer must realize that purity is one thing, strength another, but quality, the cardinal feature by which to judge, can be obtained only by buying goods under the name of a reputable manufacturer.

At one time the use of the ground or pulverized Vanilla-Bean directly in the article to be flavored was considered by bakers and ice-cream manufacturers a strong card to feature in their advertising.

Since the introduction of Domestic Science into so many of our educational institutions, with the subsequent general interest which the movement has aroused, the American housewife has come to learn that by the use of the ground bean only one of the several flavoring principles is obtained, i. e., vanillin.

The other active agents may be obtained only by intensive processing, and thus a full-toned extract is secured.

There is a great deal of “Vanilla Compound,” or “Imitation Vanilla,” sold. This is made always from manufactured Vanillin or Coumarin, or both. The natural Vanillin comes from Vanilla-Beans themselves. Put a fresh Vanilla-Bean where it is very cold and crystals will form on the outside. These crystals are pure Vanillin. For a long time this was thought to be the only flavoring principle of the Vanilla-Bean, but it has been proven to be only one of a number.

The Vanillin in general use is manufactured by artificial means. It is a white powdery substance with a strong Vanilla-like flavor, but it 24lacks that softness which only Vanilla-Beans produce. In the process of making cheap Extracts, Vanillin is frequently toned up in strength and pungency with Coumarin.

Coumarin occurs naturally in Tonka Beans and Deer Tongue. The Tonka Bean is a short, stumpy bean about 1½ to 2 inches long by ½ inch wide, and is used for flavoring tobacco. Coumarin is made commercially from the leaves of Virginia Deer Tongue and is manufactured in very large quantities, as it is cheaper than that made from Tonka Beans.

It may be of interest to know that Bee Brand Flavoring Extracts were awarded the only Gold Medal at the Jamestown Exposition, and that we now have the only Gold Medal awarded Flavoring Extracts since the National Pure Food laws have been in existence.

The Committee on Awards had no connection with the Exposition Company, as it was appointed personally by Ex-President Roosevelt, who named Dr. Harvey T. Wiley as chairman.

The Bee Brand Manual of Cookery
This book is the result of many years of conscientious effort to produce a work which would be worthy of the title—The Blue Book of the Culinary Art.

The old Colonial homes of Maryland and Virginia, long famous for their “Southern Cooking,” have yielded most of the recipes. Graduates of leading Schools of Domestic Science have thoroughly tested and in some instances revised the recipes, so that in the new edition we offer the Perfect Cook Book. The following pages are selected at random:

Fish Salad
Some cold cooked fish

1 lettuce

3 tablespoons olive oil

1 tablespoon vinegar

1 hard boiled egg

½ lemon

3 pickled gherkins

1 slice of cooked beet

Bee Brand pepper and salt

Few grains of Bee Brand ground red pepper

Free the fish from bones; separate the pieces into small flakes; mix with the lettuce, which must be well washed, wiped, and divided into shreds, season with salt, pepper and red pepper. Mix the oil and vinegar so that both are well incorporated; then pour over the fish and lettuce; mix carefully, and dish up in a pile on a china dish or salad bowl.

Garnish with slices of lemon, sliced gherkins, or other green pickles, slices of beet, slices of hard cooked eggs, and some chopped parsley.

25
Chiffonale Salad
1 cup diced celery

1 cup pulp of grapefruit

5 sliced and peeled tomatoes

4 chicory leaves

French dressing

McCormick’s Mayonnaise dressing

Chopped olives

Chopped parsley

Green peppers cut in thin strips

Break the chicory leaves into pieces for serving. Marinate all the different vegetables and grapefruit with French dressing. Arrange in separate mounds on a serving dish. Garnish each with the olives, parsley and green peppers. Pass mayonnaise dressing.

Nuremburg Salad
1 lettuce

1 stalk of celery

4 cooked beets

1 peeled cucumber

Cold cooked chicken or game

4 fillets of anchovy

12 olives

Salt

Few grains of Bee Brand ground red pepper

1 chopped onion

1 gherkin

1 hard cooked egg

Pick the lettuce into little pieces, wash and dry it in a clean cloth.

Cut in strips the celery, cooked beets, cucumber, olives, fillets of anchovy, the cooked chicken or game; place all these on a dish or in a salad bowl, season with salt, red pepper, chopped onion and pour over them mayonnaise sauce, and mix all up together, then sprinkle over the gherkin finely chopped and hard cooked egg that has been rubbed through a sieve.

Endive, Banana and Pimento Salad
4 bananas (cut in rather thick slices)

1 canned pimento (cut in strips)

1 head endive or escarolle

Mix fruit and Pimento, pour over French dressing, and serve on the Escarolle or Endive.

American Beauty Salad
1 cup orange (skinned and cut in small pieces)

1 cup tart apples (peeled and cut in small pieces)

1 pineapple (fresh or canned, cut in small pieces)

1 cup heart celery (cut in small pieces)

Mix thoroughly and place in small moulds or after-dinner coffee cups. Pour over each mould lemon jelly (cooled but not stiffened), colored with a few drops of McCormick’s Bee Brand Red color. When well set and firm, turn out on lettuce leaves, and serve with McCormick’s Mayonnaise.

For an added garnish, half of an English walnut may be placed carefully in the bottom of each cup before it is filled with the mixture, or may be fastened to finish mould by means of a few drops of the liquid jelly and allowed to harden before sending to table.

26
Cream of Potato Soup
1 cup mashed potatoes

1 pint hot milk

1 extra cup milk

2 tablespoons butter

2 tablespoons flour

½ teaspoon Bee Brand white pepper

¼ teaspoon Bee Brand celery salt

½ teaspoon Bee Brand onion extract

Make a white sauce of the flour, butter and extra cup of milk as in above recipes and add seasoning. Mix the mashed potatoes with the hot milk, combine with white sauce and serve at once.

Cream of Green Pepper Soup
1 quart clarified soup stock

2 onions

2 large or 4 small green peppers

Yolk of one egg

1 teaspoon salt

½ teaspoon Bee Brand celery salt

½ teaspoon Bee Brand white pepper

Chop onion fine, cut green peppers in strips about ¼ inch long. Put stock and condiments together. Simmer slowly from 30 minutes to an hour. Just before serving beat the egg yolk and pour the hot soup over this. Serve in bouillon cups if desired.

Delicious Quick Soup
1 cup carrot cubes

1 cup potato cubes

1 large onion, sliced

1 cup celery, sliced

½ cup of fat from chicken or beef stock

1 quart water

4 tablespoons meat extract

1 bay leaf

1 teaspoon salt

¼ teaspoon Bee Brand white pepper

⅛ teaspoon Bee Brand paprika

Melt the fat, and in it cook the carrot, celery and onion. Stir constantly; cook about 15 minutes. Cook the potatoes in boiling water, drain, rinse in cold water and drain again. Add to other vegetables with the broth and seasoning. Cook at least one hour. Remove bay leaf and serve.

Mince Pie
1 cup cooked and chopped lean beef

1½ cups chopped apple

1 teaspoon salt

1 teaspoon Bee Brand cinnamon

1 teaspoon Bee Brand cloves

1 teaspoon Bee Brand allspice

1 teaspoon Bee Brand nutmeg

1 cup brown sugar

½ cup raisins

½ cup currants

½ cup citron

Moisten with one cup sweet cider.

Bake in two crusts. Just before serving pour through the slits in the crust one tablespoon of fine brandy. Serve mince pie warm.

This is particularly good served with plain vanilla ice cream.

27
Date Pudding
½ lb. dates

3 tablespoons butter

½ cup molasses

½ cup milk

1⅔ cups flour

½ teaspoon baking soda

¼ teaspoon each of Bee Brand Cloves, Allspice, and Nutmeg

Stone dates and cut into small pieces. Melt the butter, add molasses and milk. Mix the dry ingredients and sift to blend them thoroughly. Add these to the butter mixture and lastly add the dates.

Pour into a buttered mold, cover with buttered paper and steam for one and one-half hours.

Salmon Loaf
1 can salmon

1 cup stale bread crumbs

2 well beaten eggs

½ cup milk

1 tablespoon finely chopped parsley

2 tablespoons melted butter

Seasoning and salt—Bee Brand black pepper and Bee Brand paprika

Pick one salmon, discard bones and pieces of skin. Shred meat with silver fork, mix all ingredients, and put into a well-glazed mould and bake in a pan of water for thirty minutes. Turn from mould and serve with Hollandaise sauce, or allow to get cold and slice, and serve on a dish garnished with rings of lemon and sprays of parsley.

Mackerel Souffle
¼ cup butter

⅓ cup flour, sifted and measured

1 pint milk

1 teaspoon salt

¼ teaspoon Bee Brand white pepper

⅛ teaspoon Bee Brand paprika

2 teaspoons parsley, chopped fine

3 egg yolks

3 egg whites

1½ cups canned mackerel

Melt butter, add flour and stir until well blended, in saucepan over fire, then pour on the milk, stirring constantly. Cook to a smooth, thick cream, add seasonings, then the fish, picked over and shredded with a silver fork; then egg yolks beaten until thick, then fold in whites beaten stiff and dry. Turn into a buttered baking dish, and bake until firm and delicately colored—it will require about 45 minutes.

28
Quality vs. Purity
The enactment of the National Pure Food Law in 1906 did much toward awakening an interest in the purity of Foods and Drugs, and while it has been beneficial in a general way, it has had its disadvantages because it is not complete.

The people have been taught by the laws and the Pure Food propagandists to believe that the word “Pure” upon a package ensures that its contents are all right. Nothing can be further from the truth.

An article may be Pure and yet be of very Poor Quality; Purity means little. Quality means much. For instance, a Keifer pear is a Pure pear, yet in Quality it cannot be compared to the Bartlett pear. Consider the difference in the quality of butter. Take a number of samples of butter and you will find that some of them will be unfit to eat, and others a delight to use, yet they are all Pure butter, and the difference is in the Quality. The tobacco in a “five-for-a-nickel” stogie may be a Pure tobacco, but it cannot be placed in a class with that of an imported Havana cigar selling at twenty-five cents.

A Spice may be Pure, and yet come from a country known to produce inferior Spices. It may be Pure and yet inert. Consider the difference in Quality between Acheen Pepper and Tellicherry. They are both Pure peppers.

A Vanilla Flavoring Extract made from rank Tahiti Beans costing $1.50 a pound is a pure Extract of Vanilla, but how does its quality compare with that made from high-grade Mexican beans, costing $6.00 a pound? So it goes all down the line.

McCormick’s Bee Brand Celery and Salt
The time is coming when consumers will realize that the important thing to look for in the purchasing of foodstuffs is not the word “Pure”—but the name of the reputable manufacturer whose dealings are beyond reproach.

THE COLANNADE
1332-1339 MT. ROYAL AVENUE

Baltimore, Md., Dec. 1, 1914.

Messrs. McCormick & Co.
Baltimore, Md.

Gentlemen: For twenty years past I’ve been using Bee Brand Extracts and Spices, and ever since you’ve added Teas to your products, I’ve used Banquet Blend.

It’s the finest tea I know of and it pleases all our guests.

If you care to use this letter, you have my permission.
Yours very truly,
The Colannade,
M. E. McConn.

29
Banquet Brand Tea
In this big drum all the dust and foreign matter is removed from Banquet Tea.

It’s a vacuum process, and it acts in such a way as to thoroughly mix and blend the Teas when two or more are worked together.

Vacuum Tea Cleaner

There are few Tea houses similarly equipped. Among the 2000 flavors in Tea, the problem of selection and combining is big. It takes expert knowledge to produce a Tea like Banquet Blend. Four successive generations of Tea experts produced the man who weened Banquet Blend from among the many flavors.

Teas from the highlands of Ceylon, from the interior of China and from the hillsides of Japan—all blended in one masterful creation—the triumph of the tea-blender’s art.

In Banquet Blend there is a delicacy of flavor, a richness of bouquet, a certain subtle softness, and none of that rankness which is found in so many brands of tea.

Bee Brand Extracts
There are few houses engaged in the manufacture of Flavoring extracts which have at their disposal a laboratory such as this.

Early in their business career McCormick & Company realized that eternal vigilance in extract making would be the keynote of success.

A Corner of the Laboratory

The services of expert chemists were engaged, a modern laboratory equipped and the work of producing the world’s finest flavors begun. The task was not easy, nor has the expense been light, but 30today, and for a number of years past, these pioneers in the field of purer foodstuffs have been reaping the harvest of seed sown years ago.

During the two years which are required to “process” most Bee Brand Flavoring Extracts the goods are sealed in big white oak casks, where much of their characteristic mellowness is acquired.

Percolating Vanilla

The making of Flavoring Extracts has long since been reduced to a science, or, if you prefer, elevated to the station of an art. For twenty-five years the manufacturers of Bee Brand Flavoring Extracts have been the first to experiment with whatever innovations which have offered for the betterment of the trade. In spite of many experiments, the changes have not been drastic—the process remains much the same.

Bee Brand Spices
The rows of spice-mills, illustrated on page 5, are always of interest to the guest. Long before one comes to the spice department the fragrant, pungent aroma drifts out in friendly greeting. Big electrically-driven mills pound away hour after hour, day after day, turning out savory Bee Brand Spices to tempt the fickle appetite of a busy work-a-day world.

In this building one finds the products of the four corners of the globe. It is, indeed, easy to understand Sheba’s tribute to Solomon when she selected spices from among all the good things the world affords and sent them to his court.

Here is the atmosphere of the Old World mingled with the commercialism of the New.

A cordial invitation is extended you to visit the Bee Brand Plant when you are in Baltimore. Courteous guides are at your disposal from 10 A. M. to 4 P. M. each day. Every nook and corner of this great institution is open for your inspection—there is nothing under cover, nothing to conceal.

The management wants you personally to see the sanitary manner in which the plant is run—the smiling faces of contented employees, who find their pleasure in their work. No note of discord here! Occasionally a “kicker” drifts in, but not for long. He has no place in “the spirit of the hive.”

31
Telephone Connections.

THE INTERNATIONAL MUTUAL
COOKS AND PASTRY COOKS ASSOCIATION
OF NEW YORK
154 WEST 44TH STREET

Societe Culinaire Philanthropique

Cooks and Pastry Cooks Association

Culinary Alimentary Association

Culinary Club

International Cooks Association

New York. June 11, 1914.

Mess. McCormick and Co. Baltimore, Maryland. Gentlemen:—

To obtain the best results, we use and recommend for use “BEE BRAND EXTRACT OF VANILLA.” We find it an excellent Vanilla of a superior quality.

THE INTERNATIONAL MUTUAL COOKS AND PASTRY COOKS ASSOCIATION OF N.Y. INC. • 1914
THE INTERNATIONAL MUTUAL
COOKS AND PASTRY COOKS ASSOCIATION
per Adolphus Meyer
Secretary

That’s What 6000 Chefs and Stewards Say!

These chefs and stewards are members of the International Mutual Cooks and Pastry Cooks Association, and they have unreservedly endorsed Bee Brand Flavoring Extracts as the highest in quality.

They don’t guess at it—they know! They have tried and tested them in comparison with all other brands of extracts worthy of any consideration at all. There was only one possible verdict! Bee Brand was found superior in mellowness of flavor, in quality of ingredients; in fact, in every way.

In the kitchen, Bee Brand Extracts were found to cook out less readily than any other extract and to impart a finer fruit flavor than could be secured in any other way.

This is as it should be. Bee Brand Extracts are the perfected result of twenty-five years’ experience in scientific Extract Making. The highest quality raw materials are used exclusively and after intensive processing, Bee Brand Extracts are aged in white oak casks to bring out their distinctive mellowness of flavor.

Bee Brand Extracts were awarded the only Gold Medal at the Jamestown Exposition and have been endorsed by “Good Housekeeping Magazine,” Westfield Board of Health and the highest authorities in Domestic Science.

32
McCORMICK and COMPANY
IMPORTERS of SPICES
A Partial List of Bee Brand Products
Spices, Etc.
Bee Brand Powdered Cinnamon

Bee Brand Saigon Cinnamon

Bee Brand Ground Nutmegs

Bee Brand Ground Ginger

Bee Brand Ground Allspice

Bee Brand Pickling Spice

Bee Brand Whole Cloves

Bee Brand Ground Cloves

Bee Brand Ground Mace

Bee Brand Turmeric

Bee Brand Whole White Pepper

Bee Brand Ground White Pepper

Bee Brand Ground Black Pepper

Bee Brand Ground Red Pepper

Bee Brand Ground Mustard

Bee Brand Celery Seed

Bee Brand Celery Salt

Bee Brand Onion Salt

Bee Brand Curry Powder

Bee Brand Rubbed Sage

Bee Brand Thyme

Bee Brand Marjoram

Bee Brand Tapioca, Granulated

Bee Brand Paprika

Bee Brand Tapioca, Pearl

Green Seal Salad Dressing

Green Seal Table Relish

Bee Brand Gelatine

McCormick’s Mayonnaise Dressing

Flavoring Extracts
Bee Brand Almond

Bee Brand Banana

Bee Brand Cinnamon

Bee Brand Cloves

Bee Brand Jamaica Ginger

Bee Brand Lemon

Bee Brand Nutmeg

Bee Brand Orange

Bee Brand Peppermint

Bee Brand Peach

Bee Brand Pineapple

Bee Brand Raspberry

Bee Brand Strawberry

Bee Brand Rose

Bee Brand Vanilla

Bee Brand Wintergreen

Confectioner’s Colors
Bee Brand Green

Bee Brand Blue

Bee Brand Yellow

Bee Brand Strawberry Red

Bee Brand Pink

Bee Brand Violet

Bee Brand Brown

Banquet Brand Tea
All the leading varieties are packed under this brand.

Bee Brand Gelatine
Acidulated or Plain
This is the Gelatine which Dr. Vulté selected from among twenty samples submitted as being the very finest possible to procure.

The Dietetic Department of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, uses Bee Brand exclusively.

McCormick’s Bee Brand Gelatine
Transcriber’s Notes
Silently corrected a few typos.
Retained publication information from the printed edition: this eBook is public-domain in the country of publication.
In the text versions only, text in italics is delimited by _underscores_.